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PubUslied Montlily, at SO**? Broad-way, ioi* ^l.OO per IToai*. 

" Entered at tlie Post Office of Neto York, N. T., aa second-class matter." 



VOL. IV. NO. 1. 



Counitpl given aH Kxpert on llnndwrltliig. 





TUOMIS M\Y PEinOE, M. A.. Prhielpsl. 
.IVRoiith Teiitb Street. PlilUdetpbU. 

:>tl.HtiltCIAI. CObLBIiJ 

I'lUOlTE, Pbinoipal. 

Nl»!4 POUAM," iDuludc* full lualruoUau ini 
Tcactiing Pc&mitnaUlp. W. H. tJUEP\UD, 




(Twenly yo.ri at 295 ttUloa Btrw 



The Writine: Cla«. 

Wa com© now to two of the most benutiful 
letters in the alphabet. The graceful poise 

ami windiug curves of .*J aod L strike the eyi 
Atouce. 'CUildrea, what Italic Icttere an 
thp»e like?" 1 proi'^ed to writ* the Italic 
over the script foriU'i, and bring out a quick 
chorus of " .''' ftud L " from the class. "Now 
you 8oe that the Capital Stem in these letters 
sUuds for the main line of thu Italics. Both 
written and printed 5 is always kuown by 
this beautiful double-curv*. Let us look 

carefully at the Stems of S and L. One is 
fioirihed with the base oval ; aud the other in 
a narrow base-loop. But the body of the 
Stem is the same in both. It does not lean 
BO far forward as in the other Capital Stem 
letters, and the curves are more intense, or 
fuller. It looks very easy to make, but it is 
easy to make wtouk- Kemember that the 
Capital Stem in S and L has full height, 
little slant, and full cnrres. To shade the 
Stem nicely, you gradually increase the pres 
sure upon the peu to the fullest part of the 
curve, then gradually lighten the pressure to 
base. Do not let the pen scratch the paper, 
but make a smooth line. The beauty of .S" 
and L is in the nice balaoce or poise of the 
Capital Stem. If either the slant or curva- 
ture of the Stem is wrong, it will destroy the 
beauty of the letters. So you must take 
great pains. 

"You begin S and L with the long right 
curve. Give the curve full slant to half the 
height of letter ; then carry it up on main 
slant, adding a short turn at top ; from this 
point make the Capital Stem, and let it cross 
first curve at half the height of letter. Thi^ 
forms an upper loop, which shoulii be about 
half OS wide as small u. To please the eye. 
shorten the base-oval a little iu S; that is. 
make it more nearly round. Make the base- 
loop of L nearly horizontal. The upper 
curve of bise-loop combines with fiual right 
curve, which touches base a little to r'ght of 
crossing-point of loop, and then rises to 
height of short letters, ouo space to right of 
Stem." Let the pupils point out and analyze 
the lines of beauty in S and L. 

Note. — To illustrate the decreased slant of 
Capital Stem in S and A. draw a line on main 
slant through centre of loop, aud the diver- 
gence of the Stem from main slant will be 

P, B aud R are a trio of graceful capitals. 


Their great similarity of formation in the fiill 
oval finish of the Capital Stem gives them a 
certain harmony of style. It will be observed 
that there are only two essential points of dif 
ference iu the three letters— the final oval in 
B, aud final port of It. The letter P is 
the key to the group. "Name these letters, 
children." Writing Ihoir Italic couoterparts 
under each, I next have the class compare 
the script with the printed forms. ''Now let 
us look at the written letters. The Stems all 
slant and curve aUke, and are of the same 
height. Each Stem is now finished with the 
curve of a full oval, which rises on main slan* 
clear to top. This oval is complete on the 
left, but incomplete on the right of Stem. It 
is hard to make an easy-looking full curve. 
Bo sure to get no straight hues into it. They 
do not belong there, aud will spoil alt the 
beauty of the oval. The Stems are on main 
slaut, but each droops a little at top. The 
symmetry of those letters depends upon the 
poi^eof the Stem and its finishing oval. Be- 
gin the Stem at height of two and a half 
spaces, giving full curve to the left ; just as 
eoou as the pen touches base. make a full turn 
to left, and let the oval curve begin to rise. 
Aim for three spaces in height, and not for 
top of Stem, Tbe Stem-oval has full turns, 
aud is half aguiu us widu as small u. If too 

wide, it looks clumsy. Make the long curve 
light and airy. 

" All three letters are alike until the curve 
crosses Stem at half tbe height of each ; theu 
in P the curve finishes with a short turn. — 
while in B aud R the curve winds arouud the 
Stem, and forms a tiny loop, which com 
with the last part. In tbe printed letters you 
will see a sort of half-circle, or lobe, on the 
right of P, B and R, at top ; B has two lobes 
on the above tbe other ; and H has a 
double-curve below the upper lobe. Now the 
script letters must have Hues to mean just the 
same, So make a second right-curve for J}, 
aud to give more ease aud grace to the script 
form, add a full turn aud upward curve to 
complete a fiual oval half the height of letter. 
From crossiug-poiut of loop in R make a 
double-curve, almost upright, or vertical, and 
duish the same as iu the small letter. Last 
part of R is like last part of — what other 
letter, children y" Answers of " Small r." 
■' Yes : but I want a capital likeness." " Cap- 
ital if." "Right. Master Bright-eyes. The 
tiny loops point upward, and are at right 
angles to main slaut," illustrating how this is 
ou the board. The lobes are a half-space iu 
width; the final oval of B & space and a half 

/and /are simple, but difficultfor little 

Education that Fays 

fing&rs. The introductory curves begin with 
a movement quite foreign, the lines startiug 
out at right augles to main slant. This is 
owing to the increased curvature. Such curve.-j 
are more easily executed with off-hand move- 
ment, which, of course, we canuot expect 
from young pupils. " Be patient, children, 
and by-and by, with practice, your pens will 
glide easily over the long curves of / aud J. 
The first line is a full left curve. It sweeps 
round to tbe left, at the start, and then rises 
on main slant to top. At this point, for /, 
make a short turn on downward movement, 
to combine with a full right-curve ; bring this 
curve to base, crossing first curve, and finish 
with base-oval. This full right-curve is the 
Capital Stem. / is not so to write as it 
looks, is it, children ? Well, keep on trying 
until you cau write gracefid curves, and theu 
you will have a beautiful letter. 

"You begin the introductory curve of_ J& 
little below base-line. From the upper turn 
eoutinue the main Hue. or Stem, two spaces 
below base, and finish in a lower loop, as iu 
small/ The Capital Stem in J is like o long 
bow, only you must not bend it too much. 
Keep tbe Stem quite straight at centre. 
Shade tbe Stem below base. The curves of 
J intersect or cross at base. Let the pen 
gUde lightly on all the upward curves." 

A'utf. — The best way to help your pupils is 
to study their difficulties. Write the copy as 
they are trying to. Fmd out what obstacles 
they have to meet. This will enable you to 
lift many a stumbliug-block from their path, 
which otherwise you would not even see to 
remedy. ^Vhen you can win these little pu- 
pils to take real interest, they will often as- 
tonish you with their sharp-sigh teduess. 
Their perceptions are all keen, and ouly need 
the right touch to be called into action. 
When they once gain an idea of the letters, 
it gives a zest to their practice, and writing 
becomes a pleaamre rather than a task. — 
I'li'imri/ Ttachii: 

Our Business Colleges have given, are 
giving, and will we trust continue to give 
to the people education that pays far better 
than most of the so-called educational systems 
which are mostly noted for a great deal that 
is impracticable, and consequently of little 
use iu this day and age when knowledge is a 
power indeed. Never iu the history of the 
world has there been such an urgent and 
pressing demand for practical knowledge as 
to-day. Since the great revival of busioess it 
is safe to say that not one half of the reliable 
practical honest men that are needed can be 
had. Professor Packard has well said " that 
upon every such man he knew of there was 
a mortgage." and, as far as my ovra obser- 
vation goes it is true. What he meant we 
presume Wiis this, that every young man who 
has a good practical education, is honest, up- 
right, energetic and trustworthy, never will 
lack for a good position. "See then a man 
that is diligent iu bis business he shall stand 
before kings, he shall not stand before mean 
men," were the words of Solomon. What 
was true then is true now, but if he has a 
practical education of course his efforts will 
be far mort successful. Education that pays 
the best is that which is used the most. Pen- 
manship as one branch is of everyday use, 
and always pays every youug man to learn 
for he always will need it more or less. 
Never was there a more imperative demand 
for young men who have a practical educa- 
tion. He that has not this will find himself 
far behind the many young men that are se- 
curing these advantages and are making a 
diligent use of their time. Undoubtedly no 
institutions af learning are doing more to 
give to youug men that education which 
will pay than are our Business Colleges, and 
the more conclusive proof that comes to us 
from all points, the increased patronage of 
these institutions, is ample evidence that such 
education is being duly appreciated. 

The Relation of Drawing to.Writing. 

The general method of teaching a child 
to write when entering our average public 
school is generally at variance with the de- 
sign of nature, and one not based on intelli- 
geut principles. Poor writers are necessarily 
the result, and the discouraged teacher ex- 
claims, "that ouly those who are bom to 
write will ever acquire a good legible or 
beautiful handwriting." This idea the un- 
successfid teacher makes his hobby, and 
rides down all opposition, yet this is known 
to the intelligent teacher to be false, but 
rather owing to the bad way pupils are taught 
to write. A good style of writing may be 
as well given to our scholars as a general 
knowledge of history, grammar, or any other 
common branch to be found upon our school 
curricidum. It is true that some have an 
artistic appreciation of the beautiful in form 
more than others, just as some scholars ex- 
cel in mathematics, history, ic, hence these 
make more progress iu such branches as 
drawing or writing. But I maintain that we 
all bom with an appreciation of what is 
beantiful to the eye ; and iu youug children 
8 more lively than in older ones. It ia 
because the lesthetic sense is not cultivated, 
but rather BUppreased, at school, that arisLS 

the indifference many BclioliUfi show toward 

Give a child of four or five years a pencil 
and 11 Blat«, and wliat a great source of eojoy- 
ment he derives from drawing strokes and 
marks id various and sometimes complirnted 
vays, and ccdcavoriDg to imitAlc some ob- 
ject pcrliapa ; and, as the child advances in 
years, we see the rude figures of houses, 
trees or horses, Ac. • At school if the young 
artist is caught engaging in such mischief be 
IB sternly rebuked by the well-meaning teach- 
er. But the child is only pursuing the die 
tates of nature and derives as much en- 
joyment from its work as in playing or 
otherwise fulfilling the laws of nature. Here is 
where the intelligent tt^ncher should step in 
and guide the first appearance of that »ense 
of the beautiful into the proper channel. 
Urawiiigand writing are inseparably related 
one to the other, and as soon as we lose sight 
of the one in endeavoring to teach the other, 
we commit a great error. We begin with 
objects J I hold up a thin straight ruler be- 
fore the pupils and require them to reproduce 
upon their slates the impression the rulei 
given; the result ia a straight line. Here is 
a beginning. Let bim draw straight lines 
in different positions when the ruler is 
changed before his eyes. Suppose now I 
draw a short vertical line— I can see I have 
the primitive form of the letter I. Draw 
two such linos, joining them in the middle, 
and I have the letter H. And in like manner 
the pupil is led almost unconsciously to make 
the primitive form of 'all the letters, and by 
combining these straight lines in various 
■ways we can produce such common objects as 
/io?-sc, chair, Utblc, &c. These in the hands of 
a skilful teacher, dra^^-n upon the board, will 
ftMttkeuagreat interest in the pupil and he 
will take delight in practising these exercises 
at his leisure when he is not under the teach- 
er's guidance. 

Thus pupils will be led to see that even 
Btraight lines when arranged ingeniously will 
make a picture of the mind. He may also be 
led to see that the old Komnu type is found- 
ed mainly upon straight lines, but when 
making them frequently in our rapidity we 
make more curves — as curved Hues are more 
easily made— and we have the print script as 
the next step. This again becoming more 
modified when frequently made, we join the 
letters, and what few straight lines we use 
are inclined at an angle to the right, and we 
have our common wi-iting hand or script 

For iufitauce, in the Koman B we have an 
upright line and two lobes to the right. In 
the print script we have lobiis as usual, 
Btmight line inclined to the right. In our 
common writing baud we have the two lobes 
as before, but instead of these being joined 
to a atrnight line they are connected to a 
graceful stem, consisting of two gentle curves 
Thus we can trace our script alphal)et to the 
Roman through the Itabe or print script. 
These principles should be borne iu mind 
when teaching young children. While the 
child has been employed in these three stages 
he has been undergoing a course iu drawing, 
drawing straight lines, curved, bisected aud 
divided in various parts and united together 
iu a multitude of ways. He al-io has been 
learning ideas of proportion, cultivatiug the 
sonso of taste, and the hand, that organ of 
execution, is being subjected to the discipline 
of the will, He will also look upon writing 
from an artistic and also intelligent stand- 
point, as the straight and curved lines united 
in a certain determined order and giving ue a 
variety of beautiful forms. 

When once their interest is awakened and 
the seholara are led to admire these eombi 
nations the intelligent teacher knows that 
iu bis bands are Ibe mindsof tlie pupils to be 
directed whithersoever be desires, and if he is 
acquaiuted with the writing and how to teach 
it minutely, a compamtively easy task lies 
before him of making every pupil a compe 
tent and perhaps skilful writei^-one who will 
go from school with the ability of executing 
a graceful and legible style of handwriting— 
not one whose name signed at the bottom of 
a mamisoript more resembles Egyptian hiero- 
glyphics than a well written signature. 

Now is the time to subscribe for the 
JouHNAL, and begin with the new vol- 

Brtakt's BrsiNEPS College, > 
St. Joseph, Mo. ) 
Editor P(nman'» Art Journal : 

As it pleases you to number me among 
your contributors, and we are entering upon 
a new year's business, that will unfold much 
that is now unanticipated of successes aud 
failures, of joys and sorrows, aud of wisdom 
and ignorance, I would earnestly wish good 
will to all, and peace to all kindreds of men, 
instead of joining in the strifes to which 
some of your contributors seem too much 
inclined As teachers we are upon the watch- 
towers for nobler purposes than the injury 
of others for the sake of reputation, and if 
we would duly perform our duties to the 
many thousands of young men and women 
who are looking to us for instruction, we can 
find ample use for every hour in learning 
what to teach and how to teach with the 
greatest certainty and facility. A dim com- 
prehension of disconnected facts and readiness 
of expression will not answer the purpose. 
Reason and experience teach that if one 
would reasonably expect success at the bar, 
he should have at least a reasonable aplitude 
for the acquirement and retention of legal 
and historic facts, and a fair abibty to reason 
and to express bis thoughts so as to reach 
others as intended. 

He must commence at the foundation and 

man that makes lind honors his calling, and 

not the calling that honors its votary regard- 
I less of his ability and care to fill it, to his 

own honor and for the welfare of others : 
; and far too few have the patience and energy 

to obtain either eminence, competence or 
^ honor in many of life's callings. Many are 

rushing into trade and the professions with 

the supposition that they will discover some 

royal road which will require neither skill 
I nor effort in traveling and can never need 

repairs or improvements, not knowing that 
, the same laws that apply to the physician in 

case of malpractice hold good in every calling 

(excepting pobtics and theology). 
j Thos. J. Bbyant. 

I Need of a System of Keoeipts Showing 
I that. Letters Have Been Mailed. 
I "How can I be sure that my letters have 
been posted?" isaquestion which not once or 
twice, but many times each year, afflicts the 
minds of persons who are obliged to entrust 
their posting to the hands of others. Inva- 
lids.ladies and others who must trust servants 
or acquaintances ; busy people in offices, who 
must send letters by porters or errand boys; 
people in the country, who must accept the 
service of anybody passing by the nearest 
post-ofQce— how glad would all these be to 

receipt of the answer occurs, and our com- 
plaints are met by a declaration that our 
letter had not been received or was late, how 
pleased should we be to be able to bring for 
ward an official and not-to-be-denied docu- 
ment which would show that, whether re- 
ceived or not, at least the order bad been sent. 
There are also many things about which we 
do not care to go to the trouble and expense 
of rpgistratiou, but yet which we should 
be glad to know had been sent all safely. 
For example, manuscript, carefully corrected 
proofs (involving often much labor), letters 
containing small inclosures, such as gloves, 
bits of lace, aud the thousand and one small 
things (not coin or jewelry) which can now 
be forworded through the post. If such 
letters can be shown to have been posted, aud 
yet get lost, suspicion is removed from at least 
the messenger who put the letter iu the post- 
office, and the field of inquiry is narrowed 
and simplified. However much comfort could 
be obtained in private affairs by the gain of 
the certainty that letters bad beeu posted, 
such comfort would be many-fold increased 
in the transactions of large houses of busi- 
ness, aud in places where there is much des- 
patch of letters. Further, all temptations 
to detain letters for the sake of " seeing 
what was in them " would be removed, and 
many a messenger whose first tendencies to 

ndi'fjjy jflf croerinuc/i/lefh 

'oO.^C' 77/C' iJOCrd,- OJJlhiOlh oh 

kydmfc coiiUinpbSo envy . 
ilianUo\rcb cij) niircfliorb^wiuTi: 


The above cut is photo-engraved from and represents a page of a work upon Ornamental PeuraauBbip, published by John 
Seddon, in Loudon in Ui9t. This is a rare old work, and was kindly loaned to us by Pfof. Hiram Dixon ; it consists of 34 quarlo 
pages and is replete throughout with a multitude of ingenious and skilfully executed designs of flourished birds, animals, fishes, 
dragons, cupids, and gi-otesque figures, combined into letters, borders, Ac. Upon the whole it is one of the most interesting and 


We shall probably give other pages of this work i 

s of the future numbers 

thoroughly study the principles upon which 
all true legal knowledge is based, and he needs 
to be careful that each and every stone iu 
his educational edifice is duly placed and 
cemented. If this is neglected all of his 
professional life will be-uacertain if not vfcinly 

As the mercantile is more closely connected 
with the law than almost any other of the 
callings of life, it is by parity reasonable to 
suppose that the careful merchant requires 
similar qualifications, in many respects, even 
should he not need so thorough a preparation 
iu facts and sciences, as tlie lawyer. Every 
business man should certainly have such 
natural abilities and such general cultivation 
as will enable him to judge quickly and cor- 
rectly of cause and eifect, as well as of the 
legal consequences; he should be certain 
that he understands tlie customs aud general 
details of his business at least, if not generally 
aoquiunted with facts that pertain to 
others with whom he has transactions, and be 
must be careful that )iis habits coi-respond 
tberuto, He must ever remember that prac- 
tice without principles is like surgery with- 
out anatomy, and that knowledge without 
practice is like faith without works. 

Few are prepared to believe that it is the 

have a means of determining certainly that 
at least their letters had been posted. We all 
know that, when a letter has been posted, 
the high probability is that it will be deliv- 
ered ; and, in fact, in courts of justice, proof 
of the posting of letters about which there 
have beeu disputes has been held to be equiv- 
alent to proof of their delivery. But how 
gladly would we be sure that the posting has 
taken place I We all know the kind of qualm 
with which we entrust a letter of some import- 
ance to be posted by other hands than our own 
— the charges we give to the bearer to carry 
it in his own band, not to put it in that breast 
pocket which has been the gulf of so many 
other letters ; the delcy in the arrival of the ex- 
pected answer; the inquiry as to when our 
own letter was posted; the secret conviction, 
on our own part, that it was not posted at the 
time our messenger stated. Again, we know 
the shght uneasiness with which we post a 
letter containing a check or a post-office or- 
der, or one to our dressmaker, or one expres- 
sing a desire that our landlord will at once see 
to the putting to rights of some leaky place 
in the roof. We are in a slight fidget till the 
acknowledgment of the money or the execu- 
tion of the order shows that the letter went 
safely. When an unexpected delay in he 

theft have been encouraged by the facility 
with which postage stamps can be disposed 
of, would fiud that, if he had to bring back 
a voucher that he had posted the letters at a 
given hour, the want of time to steal would 
have taken away much of the desire for 
pilfering. — London Queen. 

Shall I Renew my Subscription ? 

Is ihe question with iniiny us their sub- 

scription expires 

Well, yes, of ( 

friend or two to j 

) the Jo 

: you will, and t 

you for a club. If you 
have any doubt about it, just read our proa- 
pectus-the names of promised contributors, 
consider the premiums to be sent with the 
first number of theJouuNAT., — alone worth 
your money— and the twelve numbers of the 
Journal, each to contain two or more/rtc- 
ifimile specimens from the pens of our best 
pen artists, and its columns filled with a 
constant fund of informntioD invaluable to 
you as a teacher, pupil, or lover of skillful 
penmanship — consider alt these and say if 
you can afford yourself not to renew, or 
fail to invite your friends to subscribe. We 
shall anticipate your renewal, and hope for 
the club. 

f-born grow «n 


Hmjr conio with hm ti 
T'> *bapo our tbouffli 
In BMUtr'M tottm U 

>f healing gncA 
BMiilr'a cbann 

mory'B bAlis of llRht. 

ir itraon of clft to ahipo, 

Our Ihou0bt' 

Tliat hmiRi 

For De«u))r'M 

r Iboiigbt 

Kity'a fumo, 

r streugtb to dai 
wore propbecy 

Writing in Public Schools— How Much 
Cau be Accomplished There. 

Wbi'tber Pope bnd poets, prose-writero, 
or prntiirn in h\n miud's eye wheu he penned 
tlie ftbovo, IB immaterial, it applU-n very aptly 
to pi>umou at aoy rnt« ;— he may have been 
lui line a peumau as he was poet— whotlier 
ho was or wao not, he seeiuH to have " sunned 
the precise thing" about " writing " in 
either cose. " 'IVue ease in writing comes 
from art — iu other words, from practice, 
repented effort, close applicAtion, &c. No 
Speucerian, WiUiamsonian, Pnysonian, Dun- 
toiiiau or Rootoniau penman could have ex- 
prei^ed it bettor ! According to this glorious 
old poot, to move easily and gr(U)ffully in 
dancing, one must leavn to do it — and learu 
by pmetioe and close application. It is just 
OS true of pcumauship! One must lettru to 
do it by praeUee, long continued, even by 
those who have the greatest aptitude for it. 
This being the cose, how foolish and pre- 
posterous it is to expect chiUirtn from ten to 
fifteen yeftrs of age to be perfect masters of 
thi; pen or to show a great amount of "true 
ease " while they ore Uarning but have not 
yet trKinirtf to (write) ! Welt, " who has pre- 
tended that children ought to write with true 
easel'" some one might iuiiuin?. 1 answer, 
that 1 often had occasion to argue this point 
with persons who thought that their children 

didn't write easily and rapidly enough, know- 
ing at the aame time tliat all the practice they 
got was one fumr per it«k. Other penmen 
have told me similar experiences. As well 
might KO stupid a soul go to the principal of 
the school his boy attends and say. '*Mr. 
Principal, my boy has learned mnufJiing about 
mathematics, but he can't solve problems 
readily in culpcroot nor master GrrenUnf* 
Algrirru;" or of grammar, "My boy knows 
the part* of speoch perfectly, can conjugate 
verbs, compare adjectives. Ac, but he can't 
parse 'Young's Night Thoughts.' nor ' Mil- 
ton's Paradise Lost,' worth a cent." These 
would appear to be very nearly parallel cases 
of inxanity, or evidence of a very great ab- 
sence of common sense, and yet I once knew 
a penmnn in Hartford to growl because a 
schoolboy who happened to become a clerk 
under him in an office couldn't sling " the 
quill " so freely as he conld. I (aid, "About 
how long a time would it take you to make 
a penman out of an ordinary boy of fifteen." 
" Oh," said he " a couple of years, with two 
hours' daily practice." "Let's figure a little." 
said I, "two years, 300 writing days each, 
say, 600 days, two hours per day, l,;iOO hours. 
Well," said I, "I should rather tJit'nk you 
might." " At school we write (on au average) 
one hour per week, forty school weeks in a 
year, Iwo years, eighty hours devoted to 
penmanship, four years, 1I!0 hours, Ac, 
and in four yenrs time irf }iToAaoe /lujidrrtls 

ordinary- peopW can expect, must he be taught 
to ramble about over loose shps of paper 
with a m«aningUfLM movement, that is, a move- 
ment just for the tafcr of movement, or must 
he be taught correctness of form, mathemati- 
cal correctness, altogether'/ I say neither. 

Mr. Cady set forth the true method in the 
lost issue of the .lornNAi,, and I think the 
majority of penmen agree with him. Teach 
enough analysis of the letter to give a clear 
idea of its constituent parts and then practice 
it. If a gmall letter, let it be pmticed. at 
first, on loose paper, making the letters thrff 
iiiclifs apart, in order to give full scope to 
the arm-movement, increasing the speed 
gTidually (by the metronome) until a good 
di'gree of freedom (true ease) is obtained. 
If the plan of allowing letters to be made 
f,li}»e togfthrr at first is adhered to. very 
; little movement will be possible. Very few 
I copy-books are so arranged as to give much 
chance fjr 'movement," hence the teacher 
who desires his pupils to write with any 
degree of freedom must use waste-paper 

After the pupils have practiced the small 
letters some length of time at long distances 
apart, have them gradually shorten the con- 
necting lines, thereby bringing the letters 
closer and closer together, until they can 
space them as closely as in their copy-books 
and hUU maintain the swing of the arm from 
the elbow joint as the pivot. It is natural 
for youngsters to move from the wrist joint, 
and some such practice as above mentioned 
must be kept up to break up this habit. Of 
course this instruction applies to the lower 
rather than to upper grades. At a future time 
I will give my ideas as to how older pupils 
should proceed, what movements they should 
be taught, Ac. 

BO constructed as to leave no doubt as to 
their meaning. It is evident that he does not 
agree v,ith me upon this vital and nude< 

Why? I prvsume for the purpose of having 
a chance to extricate himself from the bot- 
tomless pit of pen-ersion into which he is 
so likely to fall through his fallacious and 
vacillating arguments. In another place he 
says that I insist that he must let stock 
represent his investment. My challenge con- 
tains no such argument. I claim that he 
must let St-"-!.- r. pr- s.-i.t his <n™ name while 
sole propriclnr, otli.-r\visL. his solution will 
not harmoui/r^ with \h ■ jii.a conveyed in his 

sof > 

If Li' 

:* rather 



hv haii a perfect right to do 
BO, but he should word his example to con- 
form to the method used. Ho further soys 
that I will not permit him to keep his 
own books. This assertion proves that his 
knowledge of the science of 
and his power of comprehension ii 
limited, otherwise ha would not have miscon- 
strued so simpln an illustration as the one 
given iu my challenge. In the statement 
and explanation of this question, I claimed 
that where the business is conducted in the 
name of a pt-rson of the term stock, the day- 
book should be worded so as to construct- 
ively represent the owner as the first person 
where the re il name of the owner is used in 
place of stock, the day-book should con- 
structively represent the proprietor as the 
second person. In both cases au employed 
book-keeper may or may not be actually 
represented. The same rule holds good iu 
partnership— the day-book should construct- 
ively represeut Messrs. Jones A Smith as 
th>' siToiiil iiiul third persons respectively — it nut whether the proprie- 
lors ko'i) their own books or employ 
ft biioli. keeper. 

The above illustration represents 
tfirff peritoiia constructively, but there 
may be but two persons actually rep- 


Tf lb, r.- w. r. 11 


lioo. in 

iliss nil Ihi; cu 

■ \..^ 


, .ul iea 

b of the 

I want the gentleman from the 
(Irasshopper country to understand 
that the different methods used for 
opening and closing books are noth- 
ing new to me. We have taught 
them in our institution long before 
he actually knew what the science 
of accounts really embraced or con- 
sisted of. 

The very idea that bo simple an 
example as the one under consider- 
ation should create so much ado, is 
really ridiculous. The problem 
seems to have agitated the mind of 
my opponent ever since it was sub- 
mitted to him for solution, and, in 
my opinion, has confounded his ideas 
80 mush that it is impossible for 
him to distinguish right from wrong. 
For example — he began by submit- 
ting his problem and offered a re- 
ward for its solution, when he 
should have offered it to the one who 
solved it quickest — since persons 
reBiding in Nev/ York city would have 
from one to ten days to solve it in be- 
fore parties Uving outside of the 
i the problem. Next, 

he rendered 
entirely opposed 


the ideas t 

mple, and at the 

scoffed at and ridiculed 
all who did not agree with him. 
Lastly, he capped the climax by de- 


(Copyrgbtod ) 
Photo-engraved from our own pen-and-ink copy, ond are presented 
ug and drawing; the tints are ruled with our patent spacing T square. In < 

) other denominations ("i.^ and .^0 cents). These cuts are designed for -jj.'"! 

landing that 

-roneons solution, or in lieu thereof 

3 branded us lunatics. 

Fie upon such a pretender of 
ho ignores established 
laws, and sets at naught the teach- 
ings of eminent and practical edu- 

priutiug fractional currency to be used iu the practical departments of bnsiness colleges, 
prepared to either furnish the currency or duplicate cuts. The cuts are regular electrotypes, and can 
be used upon any common printing press, and would be found convenient and valuable to use in 

catalogues, college papers. Arc, iilustniting the practical departments. Proofs of all four of theire ^^^ i,„.„iD u. lu « uuvui, i^ 
with prices, will be sent on appHcatiou ; also estimates given for any similar work to be executed refu"o a'single "iota'"of"my"cliargi^ 

— and hia admittance that my claims 
be gainsaid leaves my challenge 

The failure of my opponent to 

who write beautifully, and have twelve or 
fourteen hundred to instruct, while you have 
buton<?." I think he had better stick to his 
clerkship : he certainly couldn't get a position 
aa a penman in public schools, for if he hinted 
at having " two hours per day " to any prin- 
cipal that / ever knew, he would want to 
take out a pohcy on his Hfo at the eariiest 
practicable moment. What, then ts reason- 
able to expect from school-children in writing, 
both as to " movement." or " true ease." and 
knowledge of "form:'' Is not such work 
as shown on page i; of this No. of the Joubn.^i, 
about as much as can be expected from school- 
boys from twelve to sixteen who practice 
peomanahip only an hour per week? This 
work can he done by the oiajority of pupils 
who remain to the time they must graduate 
to the High School. What must be done to 
attain to even thi» stage of proficiency? 
This is not yet up to the " (i.« <<wc" point, 
thou gh the pupil is convalescent, and as well sa 

The Challenge. 

still open for acceptance and further 
argument, I would bo pleased to have 
practical educators take the matter i 

the discussion in a friendly manner — whether 
in favor of or opposed to my convictions, I 
will guarantee to return the compliment as 
civilly. I am pleased to note that my worthy 
colleague of Iowa fuUy concurs with 

My challenge, published in the October 

imber of the Penman's Ajit Joubsal, again 
demnnds my attention. 

The gent from the unknown West says, 
that he will accept my challenge, and choose 
for his weapons the Fen. Keoson and Com- 
mon Sense, I will concede to him the former; 

but as regards the others, I very much doubt | my solution of the problem under discussion, 
that he has either of them. He has, in my I and thit he deemed it his duty to make his 
opinion, given ample evidence to sustain my i decision manifest by an open declurution 
assertion, by the wavering and sophisticating I against the absurd claims and specious argu- 
arguments he has produced in conducting ! ments of my opponent. 

this controversy. He has for the mere soke ■ Having fully substantiated my claims, 
of further argument knowingly misrepre- | proved my opponent's solution erroneous, 
sented my statements. Then in bombastic ' controverted his charges and refuted his ar> 
language declares that he will plead guilty to guments. I now confidently submit my an- 

the charge, on the theory that the 
the dog, or that the example should conform 
to the answer. In this he simply falsifies. 
I have made no statement implying or con- 
veying any such idea, and I defy him for 
proof. In my challenge I stated in plain 

the public 

Being coutident that I have carried the 
fort and routed the enemy, I will calmly await 
further developments. 

I am very respectfully, 

H. M. WiLMOT, Pres., 
N. W. Business College, Maiison, Wis. 



3iD«I« copl« of Jorax*!. Mn( on receipt of 

otM. B\>«e\mea eopl« fumlrted to Agenl* fr« 


Stniile lOMrtlon » conti pf r Ine nonp-rell. 

TBDoe ; for «lx months ftod one ye 

HcadlDK milter. 30 cent* per lino. 


Hipouileula au(] ugeulB, 

Bonding Ibetr otru 
r«, InoloslDg |3. ve wll 

ill fornard the large 
ihee, retallB for $3. 
II forward a copy of 
ll» for $3.00. 

e JounMAt. will t 


following rit 
jouBMAL, one 
■' CompeudU 

year, post-paid.. 

OrnamoDtal Penma 
by book post 

ind which would be possessed by those who 
i»<l iicquired Iheir skill by more laborious 

The genius would fail, froDi impatience, 
with pupils less briPinnt and capable of long 
and rapid strides than himself. The real writ- 
ing geniuses, as welt as most other geniuses, 
couspicious only in their first and youth- 
ful flight ; they falter in the race with plod- 
ding merit ; occasionally a sudden dash and 
charge may scale and carry the works of an 
my, but it is by mining aud slow ap- 
proaches that the otherwise impregnable 
works are carried : so in all the aiTnirs of life, 
genius may soar, but it loiters, while the pa- 
l and industrious toiler wins the prize. 
Toil is the price of exeellencc." 


A Happy New Year 

To all the readern of the Jouunal we 
heartily wish a Happy New Year ; but we 
arc mindful that happiness is not to be had 
or bestowed by wishing, but must come as a 
reward to meritorious effort. It is there- 
fore periiaps proper that we accompany our 
wish with n few hints for securing it. 

To be happy one must bo prosperous in 
his undertakings, aud as a rule the degree 
of qualitiaition is the measure of success io 
any pursuit. Persons well qualified are 
sttuffhi to fill honorable and profiinble posi- 
tiou.s, while those illy qualified are obliged 
to setk earnestly after even ignoble and ill- 
paid positions. This difference of qualifi- 
cation very often, and wo believe most fre- 
quently, results more from a proper and in- 
dustrious use of one's time while at school. 
and subsequently, than from natural endow- 
ments; especially is this true of pupils and 
teachers of writing; diligent study and prac- 
tice are indispensable to great progress and 
success. The somewhat prevalent idea tha 
good writing Is a " gift " is simon pure hvmi- 
bug. and lliis is especially true of our most 
noted and successful teachers; their close, 
persevering application has been quite as 
marked as is their present distinction, and 
success. A real genius at writing or any- 
thing else would be a failure in teaching or 
practice, for lack of patience and the fertil- 



In conducting a paper with several thou- 
iiid subscribers, something more than hu- 
lan accuracy would be necessary to entirely 
avoid mistakes. It has been our earnest 
endeavor to have every subscriber receive 
the Journal surely and promptly, yet nu- 
is complaints of delay or failure to re- 
it come to us monthly. The causes of 
such irregularity are numerous -some we 
know result from mistakes in our office, oth- 
Ihrough the posl-oftlces, and some on the 
part of subscribers tliemselvcs ; in several 
instances notices have been received from 
postmasters stating that the Journal 
remained dead in the office, not being 
called for, when the party to whom it was 
addressed would complain to us that he had 
received his paper; in other cases sub- 
scribers give the name of the town in which 
they reside, when their post-office is differ- 
ently named. We believe that, at most, a 
moderate share only of the fault has been 
with us, but we shall take great care that 
that share be less in the future than in the 

Publishing a paper was a new and no 
small undertaking at the outset. Ourselves 
as well as assistants were inexperienced, 
and the whole routine lacked tfie systfea, 
dispatch and accuracy wliicli comes from 
greater experience. To add to our incon- 
venience we have recently been under tht 
necessity of changing subscription clerks. 
Tlie new one, being less familiar with the 
writing and routine, was of course mor 
ble at first to mistakes. With the new vol- 
ume we open an entirely new set of books, 
much better adapted than those previously 
used for a systematic and accurate reoord of 
subscriptions ; these arc in the hands of a 
careful and reliable clerk, which we are con- 
fident will, so far as care on our part can do, 
insure to our subscribers a sure and prompt 
delivery of their Journal, 

In all instances where the Journal is not 
received before the l.'ithof the month, some 
mistake must have occurred, and notice 
should be at once given. We simply ask 
the indulgence of readers where mistakes of 
any kind have occurred, aud their patient 
co-operation for their correction. 

ibuul L-qual in pize, aud uuly a trifliui; dit- 
ance away, but the astronomer has demon- 
itrtited that these appearances are very de- 
■eptive. that the moon is really 24O,00Omiles 
distant, 3,000 miles in diameter and 1-R 4 part 
large as the earth, while the sun is O.'i.- 
04)0,000 of miles away, over 888,000 miles in 
diameter, and upward of 1.400.000 limes as 
large as our earth, and over 112,000,000 times 
larger than the moon. To assist in under- 
standing these figures, let us suppose the 
earth Io be represented by an average-sized 
pea, and the sun to be an empty receptacle 
into which such peas were to be poured 
until full, about nine bunfieU would be re- 
quired to fill it ; and of moons similarly re- 
presented, "ix hundred and Utenty-tcren bunh- 
ould be required. Again, should the 
earth commence to rapidly grow and go on 
expanding its dimensions until it reached 
out to the moon, filling its entire orbit, it 
would be then about one-half the diameter 
and one-eigbth the size of the sun ; it would 
have to continue its growth out and nearly 
as far beyond the moon as that is from the 
earth before it would attain to the hiagni- 
tude of the sun. Should moons be placed 
one after another.likc 
of 240.000 miles, the 
the earth and the mc 
to the sun. 400 mooi 
Were earths strung i 
beads upr>u a string, 
sary to reach to the 

■ intervals 
ic as that between 
)on, until they reached 
as would be requi.ed. 
one after another, like 
12,500 would be ncces- 
a string 

reach around the 
have to be used. Could we set out for a 
journey to the moon, sun, and other heaven- 
ly bodies, riding upon a steam car moving 
at the rate of twenty-five miles per hour, 
riding night and day. in four hundred days 
we could shake hands with the " old man in 
the moon," but we should have to ride on 
for four hundred and fifty years before we 
could pay a like compliment to dwellers 
in the sun. And should we continue our 
visit to the planet Neptune, 7,()50 years 
move would pass before our car would ar- 
rive, — should we continue our journey to 
the nearest fixed star beyond, we should ride 
on and on for 00,000,000 of years before we 
would reach our journey's end, and then 
there would be no less slai-s and space be- 

A cannon-ball moving twenty miles per 
minute would reach the moon in a little over 
eight days, the sun in about ten years. Nep- 
tune in one hundred and seventy years, the 
nearest fixed star in 2,000,000. 

The surface of the earth at the equator, 
in its daily rotation, passes through 1,000 
miles of space every hour; in its annual 
journey around the sun it moves about 600,- 
000 miles per day, 25,000 miles per hour and 
400 miles every minute. 

Habit and Circnmstance in Writing. 

From large exercise in writing the hand 
becomes a mere machine, doing its work, as 
it were, automatically, the mind giving no 
conscious aid, nor taking special cognizance 
of the form or stj-le of the writing being ex- 
ecuted, its whole might and ctrength being 
absorbed in the thoughts or composition be- 
ing transcribed. This is of course true only 
of adults who have established by long prac- 
Uce a ceriain habit in writing. With pupils 
learning to write it is exactly the reverse. 
In their case the whole thought is, or should 
be, devoted to the mcchanicol construction 
and execution of their writing. 

In well graded and taught classes, prac- 
ticing from the same copy and instructed by 
the same teacher, there is often no very 
marked difference between the writing of a 
large number of a class. The circumstances 
and their habit of practice being much the 
same, the result is not widely different; but 
let the several members of the class, whose 
writing now appears to be so nearly the 
same, leave the classroom and enter upon 
various avocations of life, and observe how 
almost instantly and rapidly will be the di- 
vergence in their style, and each will under, 
go modification according to the whole mul- 
titude of varied circumstances under which 
they will practice their writing. Should 
one be a gentleman of leisure, practicing 
very little, his hand will change slowly, and 
his school-boy style will be long retained. 
Suppose another to become an entry clerk, 
where he is required to write rapidly and 
constantly for many hours daily, a very few 
days will suffice to remove every vestige of 
his former writing— it will change from thf 
slow, m<'asured, hesitating and lliinking 
style of the school-room to the swift, grace- 
ful, unconscious style of business, which 
the hand will execute from the sheer force 
of habit, entirely unburdening: the mind 

from thought or 
chanical part of 

Amazing Astronomical Facts, 

ewed alone, or compared with terrestrial 
2ts, our earth appears stupendous. Its 
idless oceans, vast continents, lofty 
Ighty rivers, sweeping tempest 
and crushing thunder-bolt are certainly ob- 
jects of might and grandeur worthy the awe 
and admiration of every beholder. But 
when we turn from the earth and survey the 
solar system, and the boundless starry uni- 
verse around and beyond, and contemplate 
the number and magnitude of these heaven- 
ly bodies, the earth becomes really insignifi- 
cant, and we are utterly lost in wonder and 
amazement. Yet, unaided by comparison, 
the human mind utterly fails to comprehend 
the bewildering vastness of what the eye 
beholds, to say nothing of the infinity, be- 
yond the reach of its vision, even when 
aided by the most powerful telescope. 

To assist some of our younger readers to 
form some conception of this vastness, wo 
have instituted a few simple comparisons 
aud facts relative to the size, distance and 
velocity of some of the heavenly bodies, 
taking first our earth, moon and sun. To 
our eyes the sun and moon appear to be 

CareleBS Practice. 
Of all the hindrances in the way of be- 
coming good writers, none is more common 
or destnictive of success than careleas prac- 
tice. Good writing can only be acquired by 
careful aud studious practice. After a line 
has been written under the copy it should 
be carefully looked over and studied to find 
the faults, and ascertain just wherein it 
fails Io equal the copy. Observing the faults 
and giving a thought as to howthey maybe 
corrected or avoided iu the next line of prac- 
tice opens the way for continual improve- 
ment. While if line after line is written down 
to the er.d of a page without stopping to dis- 
cern and correct faults, the pupil has not 
only made no improvement, but has become 
more habituated to his faults, and will find 
them proportionately more difficult to avoid 
thereafter ; hence, careless practice con- 
firms errors and bad habits, setting one back- 
ward rather than helping him onward. 

This is a hint for teachers as well as pu- 



lo the unusual pres! 

time by holiday busii 
able to complete the digest announced for 
this issue in the Dec. No , of rules and de- 
cisions of courts regarding the use and ad- 
mission of expert testimony, but shall un- 
doubtedly have the same in readiness for 
the February No. 

irding the me- 
ting. Let auolhei" of 
our class engage as an accountant, where 
special importance is attached to the neat- 
nessand legibility of bis writing rather than 
its speed of execution; he will practice con- 
tinually to develop in his writing these 
special qualities, aud will to a greater or less 
degree succeed in doing so. How widely 
different will be his ultimate style than that 
of another of our class who enters upon a 
calling in which the circumstances are re- 
versed, and where rapidity of execution is 
the desideratum, without regard lo style or 

In either of the above cases the writers 
will very soon have an established style or 
habit in their writing peculiar to and char- 
acteristic of themselves and in which there 

ill be scarcely a trace of their former or 
school-room style ; each will have taken 
hape according to their several tempera- 
uents and tastes, influenced by the varied 
circumstances under which they have 
formed their habits. Had all engaged in 
the same occupation, under similar circum- 
stances, they would undoubtedly have main- 
tained to a much greater degree the original 
equality of their writing, yet when their 
hands had become established by long habit, 
each would have possessed iieculiar and 
striking characteristics by which they would 
be as readily distinguished as would the 
physiognomy of their writers. 

Bapid Writing'. 

Many persons, and even teachers, believe 
that to become rapid writers pupils must 
practice rapidly while learning to write. 
Nothing could be more erroneous or absurd. 
The child first creeps, then walks, and finally 
runs ; why not reverse the order, and insist 
that the child first runY In all human ac- 
complishments, progress must be at first stu- 
dious and slow; facility, in all things, re- 
sults from long and special training. The 
pupil, while learning to write, must prac- 
tice with deliberation, studying his copy 
that he may more successfully imitate it, 
and studying his own writing that he may 
correct or avoid the repetition of faults; hav- 
ing thus acquired u correct conception of 
writing, and the ability to execute it with a 
tolerable degree of accuracy, he may then 
safely turn his attention to rapidily, in which 
he will succeed according lo hisown natural 
celerity of movement and the necessity of 
his occupation for rapid writing. 


The Present Voltmie of the Journal. 

With this issue the JornitAi. cotcre upon 
itx fourth volume, full of |>runii»c lo its 
Tvadern of Iwing far more able, inlc-resliDg. 
and aMraclivc than cither of it« prcccdtog 
volumes. lu list of promised cooirihutors 
lo its columoa is more tlian <loublc that 
of last year, while the largely iucreutwd suh- 
8criptioD8 aDd higher rotes for julvertiaing 
will enable ita publixber to be much more 
litiernl by way of i I tuitl rations than hitherto. 
acvenil full-page illustration§ of elaborate 
masterpieces of pen art will be inserted dur- 
ing the year, sufficient alone to be worth 
many times the price cf the Hubscription to 

any teacher, pupil or admii 

Certuinly no penman can 
for a really happy new yeai 
renew his own Nubscriplio 
friends to subscribe for the Jouit 

r of the 1 

isonnbly hope 
who docs not 
and get his 

Commanications to the Journal. 

Tor several itwues past much more matter 
lias been received and intended for the col- 
unuiH of the Journal than they could con- 
tain. This in owing chiefly to the unneccs- 
(lary length of many nf tbecoramunicaiious. 
Writers for the press, and especially those 
young and inexperienced, should consider 
their articles carefully lest the grain be hid 
and loHl In a mountain of cbalT. 

And wc wish all our readers to bear in 
mind, that at best the correspondence of 
Rueli n publication office as the Joithnal is 
burdensome, and that large one sided and 
trashy commimications arc especially annoy- 
ing. If information is sought, mistalies arc 
to be corrected, spare us the time and trouble 
of rojuling a page or two by way of pre- 
amble, instruction or apology: state at once, 
and briefly, your case, giving all ncccssiry 
information, with your name and Idres^ 
distinctly, and wo shall endeavor (<j ^ v y i 
prompt iiltnilion. 

Delay in Mailiner Journal 

We tan fully appreciate the inii ilin ci. 
wiih which those who have sent f rwari 
(heir subscription lo the Jouhnai, watt 11 c 
arrivn! of tlie first number and pr mium 
and we lu all cases forward bolb as prompt 
ly as is practical. A delay of a day oi ivt 
in mailing papers often occurs from (1 l 
fact that postage is paid by the poui 1 ai d 
about fifteen copies of the Jouhnat* aic re 
quired to make one pound. To avoi I lo 
great a detail in our mail accounts stveial 
poimds should bo mailed at a time to ir 
cumulate which often requires throe or 
four days, which, we trust, will sjUisfnc- 
lorily explain the short delay that some- 

CatilogueB and College Papers 

have bi'cn nciived from the Miami Com- 
mercial College, Dayton, O. ; Nelson's Busi- 
ness College, Cincinnati, O. ; Davenport 
(Iowa) Business College; H. C Kendairs 
Writing Academy, Boston, Mass. ; Normal 
College and Business Institute, Valparaiso, 
Ind. ; tiem City Business College Journal, 
Qiiincy, III. ; Orchanl City Business College 
.Touriial, Burlington, III.; Business College 
.loiiriial. Joliet. 111., and the B.. S. & Clark's 
liusiut^s College. Newark. N. J. 

Our London Agency. 

For the convenieure of the great number 
of applicants for the JoriiNAi. and our pub- 
lications in Great Britain, we have estab- 
lished an agency wilh the well known In- 
ternational News Company, 11 Bouverie St. 
(Fleet street), London, through whom the 
JuuKNAL or any of our publicalious may be 
safely and conveniently ordered; we hope 
thereby to largely increase our already num- 
erous list of subscribers among our British 
cousins. Those who desire can continue to 
remit directly to us. 

I f you know a good thing or have a happy 
thought regarding penmanship or teaching 
it the columns of the JoriisAL is the phu-e 
where it bestows most of good to the pro- 
fession and fame upon you as its author. 

To write ^rt'iVy requires only good mate- 
rial and freedom of movement, and surely no 
one need exiierience any difflcidty in acfiuir- 
ing these, but Sheridan once said "£asy 
writing is • • • • • * hard reading." 

To write aeeurafelff one must have correct 
conceptions of the forms he is to produce, 
and this, experience will teach, is not the 
work of R few lessons, but demands years of 
careful stady and laborious effort for devel- 

The veteran teacher, when he looks upon 
some of his work which, in years gone by 
was his pride, and which he believed almost 
perfection, is surprised that he ever should 
have entertained such exalted opinions of 
work so imperfect; and that which to him, 
today, seems faultless, he will doubtless 
condemn in the light of future development. 

The pupil will understand that to acquire 
a gotd business hand and to acquire an ac- 
curate hand are not identical, but that the 
latter includes the former, and that as great 
a degree of accuracy should be attained for 
business as is consistent with its demands 
or the limited time at one's disposal, and. in 
order lo acquire such accuracy, a careful 
analysis and study of proportions of letters, 
numerals, or other characters is essential, 

ascending wilh right curve to a point one- 
half the height of letter and threv-fourths 
space to right of loop; here unite angularly 
to capital stem oval, crossing first curve one 
space from point of beginuingand terminat- 
ins midway between loop and capital stem. 
Capital P begins two and one- 
half spaces above base line to 
which a left and right curve de- 
scends and by oval turn utiles to left curve 
ascending three spaces on main slant, then 
by oval turn unites to descending right 
curve, crossiig first curve one-half space 
from beginning, and recrossing it at half the 

stem and one-fifth space below base li 
then by oval turn unite with ascending left 
curve passing through middle of oval and 
terminating one-third space to left of stem. 
Length of small loop, one-third space; width 
of letter to right and left of capital stem 
same as in capital P. 

r >^ V" Form capital li like capital B 
Y jf^ to and including smali loop, 
v yiy . then by sliglit right and left 
curve descend to base line, one and one-half 
spaces to right of stem and by short turn 
unite to right curve terminating at head 
line, one space to right of preceding line. 

This letter is a union of the letter B to 
and including small loop, and the last two 

liail , making oval at top too narrow; 
mobiog the part or parts on the right of steni 
too far removed from it ; making loop of U 
and R at wrong slant. 

Book Keeping Tepartiiient 

The purpose, as stated in the last Journal, 
for which this department has been intro- 
daced, is that of facilitating the dissemina- 
tion of information touchiug practical ques- 
tions arising in the couutiog-room. In this 
way it is hoped to bring about an haimouious 
interchange of ideas between conimc-rcini in- 
structors, experienced accountants and stu- 
height of letter, terminating one-fourth space dents upon topics connected with their pro- 
to left of stem. Width of oval from capital i fessions and employments. 
sleni to th e left one and one-half spaces. The ciuestions for discussion may involve 

I y^ >- Capital B is formed like capital | points in commercial law, the theory and 
V.^yf ^ '** second crossing of capital ' proctice of aicounts and auditing, commercial 

*J^^ stem where a narrow loop is made, | calculations and portnership settlements. Ap- 

crossing the capital stem at right angles to ' propriate and ueeful criticisms upon these sub- 
main slant, and by right curve descending , jects and their exponents will also be wel- 
■balf space to right of ' corned. 

Personal controversy through the press is 
always detrimental to some one, and as it is 
our desire to treat all with due respect and 
cultivate a feeling of harmony, we ask corre- 
spondents and contributors to studiously avoid 
everything which may have even the coloring 
of personal allusions liable to give offense. 

We courteously invite correspondence, criti- 
cisms, problems, and information which may 
be of interest to the readers of this depart- 
ment, reserving the privilege to insert only 
such as we mny consider appropriate. 

A word to those sending problems for this 
dfpartment: We think it advisable to require 
that eayh example be so plainly presented as 
to admit of no misconstruction. The solution 
of ambiguous statements can be made only 
upon some hypothe- 
sis which is usually 
unsatisfactory, and 

would thus prove 
partially abortive. No 
diiliculty wiU be ex- 
perienced in compre- 
hending those giveu 

The above c 


s photo-engraved from an original design prepared especially for the JocnNAi-. 

for. otherwise we write aimlessly. It is for 
this reason that we have devoted so much 
space to description of letters rather than to 
movement required in their execution, as the 
hunlsman usually delays firing until he sees 
his game ; but as the hunter connot fire 
without loading, so we cannot write without 
!i niovcnu-nt. yet it is not difficult to learn to 
load, tin- muiu thing to be considered being 

In this lesson we conclude the analysis 

»i<d fh'«cription of the capiUil stem letlers. 

^ Capita! 8 begins at base line 

f~^ *■'''» right curve ascending 
x^ __ three spaces, aod by short turn 
unites with full left curve extendiug down- 
ward one and ore-half spaces, forming loop 
and joining a capital stem oval, which com- 
pletes the letter. Width of loop, measured 
liorizonially, one-half space. The base oval 
crosses first curve three-fourths space from 
point of beginning and is divided by tirst 
curve nearly equally, the lower being some- 
what the smaller portion. 

•?■ Capital L is formed like S to 
V the point of second crossing of 
rT<>--^ first left curve, then continue lo 
left one fourth space, turn short and by hor- 
izontal right curve fonn loop one space in 
length and one-fourth in width ; continue 
to base line one-half space to right of cross- 
in? of small loop and terminate at head line 
one space from stem. 
I -^- Capital Q begins wilh curve 

^.--^O similar to first curve of R or L, 
iJc^.y 7 ""fl '^y short turn uuilcs to de- 
scending left curve which crosses first curve 
one space from base line, forming loop and 

In learning to form the capital stem let- 
ters the following are 


Shadiug the capital stem too high, too 
nearly vertically, or too abruptly, making 
left curve too long or too short; inclining 
base oval downward, or making it in hori- 
zontal position; terminating oval with short 
downward turn. 

Beginning at oval in ji, curving upper 
part of stem too much ; making right curve 
for second part ; making angle too obtuse at 
top; crossing too high and extending too 
far to the left ; forming loop at bottom of 
second part. 

The faults of A, excepting those relating 
to the crossing, may be seen in iV; to these 
may be added, extending last curve too 
high or not high enough ; making it loo 
nearly straight. Faults of M, same as in N; 
additional points at top of unequal height ; 
unequal spaces between lines at half the 
height of letter. 

Making capital stem in T and F. first ; 
making distance between loop of cap and 
capital stem too great ; between cap and 
capital stem at top too little. 

Curving first part of stem in // and K; 
making it too high ; making loop of A' at 
wrong angle. 

Too little curvature in capital stem of ,s' 
and L ; crossing large loop too near the top. 

Commencing right cur^'c in Q too high ; 
making loop too short ; makiui; base oval 
too large or too small. 

Making capital stem in i*. .B a 
long, too nearly straight and too i 

id B 

to questions and so- 
lutions to problems, 
and will publish the 
first correct result of 
each received. The 
names of all who 

wers, in time, will 
be given in the first 
succeeding number of 


We chp the following from among the nuts 
to crack in the (Jhristmm Item: 

" O, P and Q are partners, each to receive 
interest on his average investment. At the 
close of the year it is ascertained that O is 
entitled io ^bG.%\ interest; P to $(17.40; Q 
to $lG.i>0. Required the proper journal en- 
try for adjusting this through the interest ac- 
count ; also the proper entry for adjusting it 
between the partners without the intervention 
of the interest account. 

•• M and N are partners, equal in investment 
and gains. M proposes to draw out 38 per 
cent, of his share of the gains, allowing the 
balance to remain as an additional investment. 
N proposes to draw out 2r> per cent, of his 
share of the gain, k-nviug the balance as an 
investmeDt. The total gain, which is $1,7.^0 
is equal to 40 per cent, of the total investment. 
What is each partner's net investment, after 
the gains have been adjusted according to the 
above propositioo '{" 

Perplexities of Practical AccountantB and 
Bosiness Men. 

EdiOjr Pmrmin^ Art J.->trnnl. 

I am of the opinion that one of the most 
useful departments that you can have in jour 
valuable paper is a department suggested by 
the above title, embracing originol questions 
of partnership settlemeutM, joiimahzing, com- 
mercial arithmetic, commercial law, &c., em- 
anating from the coimting-house. Every 
teacher of commercial science has more or 
less of this kind of work to do. Let each 
teacher contribute his "mite" through the 
columns of the Jocbmal, and in the course of 

XLLii j\2i 

;=^j^^^^^^^^| 4^^ 


a year the fnnd of information that will come 
through Huch a departmeot, well conducted, 
will be very valuable to all commercial teach- 
ers aod commercial schools, It will be the 
means of brtDgiog the practical difGculties of 
the counting house into the school-room, bo 
to speak, and will help to give th« school- 
room A practical tone, and ezcito a more gfo- 
eral interest on the part of both teacher uud 
pupil in the work before them. 

in a very ambiguous shape, aod the business 
man eipects tbo commercial expert to be able 
to interpret bis meaning, as well as to help 
Lim out of his difficulty. The communica- 
tion or statement should be presented as it 
comes to the teacher. The exercise will in 
this way be all the more profitable. 

To set the "Perplexity Ball " in motion , I 
send you the inclosed, and ask your readers 
to help these two young business men out of 
their present difficulty, with the hope that be- 
fore embarking in another business enter- 
prise, they will have attended come good 
Business College. 


Principal Commercial Department, Pitts- 
burgh Central High School, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Problem 1. 


I come to you for iin cxplnniitian of a 
seltle.muut in a business of four months, Imp- 
ing you will favor two dissatisfled partners 
with your idea of which is correct. My 
partner invested $230 with the undcrstmid- 
ingthnt we were to share equally in profits 
or losses. At the expiration of four months 
we concluded to dispose of our investment 
ut a sncrifice of ?:4«, the purchasers assum- 
ing a liability of $28 for us. so that we re- 
ceived in cash $144. I presented njy partner 
a statement showing our receipts to have 
been $1,.')71.01, our expenditures $1,<')41.1>') 
including the original investment of $320. 
I claim the following to represent a correct 
solution of our partnership settlement : — 

Receipts $1,.')?1.61+$144=$1, 715.01 

Expend .... $1,541. 15— $48 (P&L) $1 .4!»3. ir) 

Making the total gain $232.4(1 

Oreachishore 111-38 

My partner claims that in deducting $48 
loss, I receive more than my interest. I 
hold that by dividing the $323.4(1, I divide 
with my partner half the loss, and that my 
actual share is tlie remainder on $111 23. 

By answering, you will oblige two die- 
satisHed partners. 

Note.— It ia understood that the only in- 
vestment made was the $220 referred to. 


Wm. Clark, a shoe merchant, pays J. 
Williams, his cobbler, 00 per cent, of the 
amount of cobbling done by him for the 
store. In settlement it is shown tlnit tlic 
work done amounts to $3:1 4.j. Williams 
has had goods from Clark's store to the 
amount of $31.64. Me has also had from 
Wm. Coles. Clark's customer, wood to the 
amount of $7, which Clark is to place to 
Cole's account. Clark has assumed for Wil 
Hams' accommodation to pay Smith and 
Green $4.27. and H. G. Osborn $10.00. The 
work done by Williams is considered by 
Clark as merchandise. It isdesired to settle 
the matter in a manner that Will not require 
the opening of an account with Williams on 
Clark's hooks, the difference being paid in 
cash at the time. 

Required the full journal entry as it sliould 
be made in the books of Clark. 

New Tobk. December 2Uh, lS7fl. 
Editor Pfnmatt'x Art Journal: 

Dear Siit — I have road with attention and 
interest Mr. Hopkins' woi'k on Exhibit Book- 
keeping. For all the merit belonging to his 
presentation of principles I am desirous of 
giving him full credit (or rather, as debit and 
oredit have been superseded, acknowledging 
"increased coutracted liability"); hull am 
not yet convinced that he has. as claimed, 
"rendered jourualiziug unnecessary." It 
would seem to me that he bos faoilitat«d, elu- 
cidated, simplified the process of joumaUzing 
rather than abolished it. 

^Vllat is joomsliziug ? Is not the following 
a fair definition of the term as used in book- 
keeping ? "To journalize is to analyze a traus- 
ai-tioo so as to ascertain what accounts are af- 
fected thereby and on which side ; the result 
of the journalization is an entrj- in a book 
called A journal, or some other book fulfilHug 
the same purpose, in convenient form for 
transferring to the ledger." 

The following quotations from Mr. Hop- 
kins* "Analysis of Events " will show, I think, 
that he teaches precisely the process de- 
scribed above: "The first fact to be con- 
sidered is to determine what class of accounts 
were affected by the operation." "The 
second matter for considenition is to deter- 
mine the titles by which the elements [ac- 
counts] affected are kuowu."' "The third 
fact to be determined is. what the afi'ect of 
the transtiction is upon each independent 
factor or account. It has already been sho 
that there are only two ways in which an i 
count can be affected; that is, either by be- 
ing increased or by being diminished." "1 
must DOW decide upon definite form for ilti 
trating the infiucnces of business transactions 
on our habilities. In choosing, or rather de. 
vising, an arrangement of this character con- 
cerning resources, we decided to have the 
additions placed upon the Ifft and the sub- 
tractions upon the ri/}hl of the form." "Our 
formula arrangement must provide for liabili- 
ties being increased upon the right and dim- 
ioiehed upon the left of the form." "The 
following diagram illustrates the effect of the 
transaction, and places it in convenient form 
to be transferred to the ledger." 

Now is not this "journalizing" in exact 
accordance with the definition given ? Is 
there any other definition of journalizing 
which does not cover it ? 

To call the journal a "book of exhibit" 
does not alter its nature; an "exhibit" is 
only a balance sheet ; a "purchase-register" 

I C. W. Rice, who is teaching writing at 
BryaTit's (Chicago) Business College, send)? a 
specimen of elegant practical writing, also 
several fine card specimens. 


A. A. Southworth, principal cf the pei 
manship and art department in the Northei 
Indiana Normal School, "Valparaiso, Ind 
favors US with a large club of subBcribers 
from among the students of that institution. 
C. L. Bryant, who with his father, Dr. J, 
C. Bryant, conducts the Buffalo (N. Y.) Busi 
ness College, favored us with a call during 
his hohday vacation. He reports that busi- 
ness is "booming" in Buffalo. 

A W. Smith, Principal of the Meadville 
(Pa.) Busii-ess College, has recently com- 
pleted with pen and ink a very attractive and 
appropriat'; Masonic certificate, which he has 
published and now offers for sale through 
agents. Members of the fraternity seeking 
an attractive cerlificnte of membtrship will 
do well to secure a copy. 

G. W. Michael, Valparaiso, Ind., informs 
us that he is having increased success, there 
being now in his institute fifty pupils for 
pj-actical and ornamental penmanship. He is 
about to add a commercial department, and 
desires a good teacher of book keeping. 

H. C. Plickinger, who has assisted J. E. 
Soule in the special penmanship department 
of Soule's B. and S. Business College, Phila- 
delphia. Pa., during the past year, engaged 
as special teacher of writing in Peirce's 
Union Business College of that citv. on Janu- 
ary 1. We understand that Mr. Flickinger is 
to devote his entire time to teaching, his 
health not admitting of the close application 
necessary to the execution of fine artistic pen 
work. In a beautifully writien letter recently 
iceived from Mr. F., he says: "I entertain 
the highest regard for Mr. Soule and his 
teachers, my relations with the school have 
been of the most pleasant character, and I 
very much regret the necessity of a change." 

Spencer, and is a popular and successfid in- 

H Russell, Principal of the Johet (HI.) 
Business CoUege, favors us with a handsome 
club of subscribers, and reports a larger at- 
tendance at his college than ever before. 

Prof, and Sirs. W, H. Sadler gave, at their 
rosideuce Irvington, Md.. their customary 
Christmas reception to the students of the 
B., S. and Sadler Business CoUege of BalU- 
more, Md. We return our thanks for a kind 
invitation to be present, and regrets for not 
being able to share the well-known hospit- 
ality of these occasions. 

The Newark (N- J. ) Register gives a lengthy 
and flattering account of the closing exercises 
for the hohday vacation of the B., S. and 
Clark's Business College of that city. The 
teachers were recipients of valuable tokens of 
confidence aud esteem on the part of the 
pupils. Mr. Schofield, the teacher of writing, 
was presented with the following teslimouiiU, 
signed by 100 students : 
'Prof. FifUUng SchopM : 

"Dear Sin : — We, the undersigned students 
of the Bryant &■ Stratton Business College 
desire hereby to express our appreciation of 
your wonderful skill as a teacher of peuman- 
shi[). and also to thank you for the warm 
personal interest you have taken in your 
efforts to advance us in a knowledge of your 
beautiful art," 

On the evening of December 2a, Packard's 
(New York) Business College celebrated their 
twenty-first anniversary — or. as Mr. Packard 
said, its "coming of age." The large hall of 
the college was filled to overflowing, and the 
exercises throughout were not only highly in- 
teresting but well calculated to presen: to the 
public, the eminently practical and useful 
course of mental training therein practiced. 

The fall term of the New Jersey Business 
College, Newark. N. J., closed Deci-mber 
^4th with very interesting exercifics, consist- 
Dg of several cornet solos by \V. M, Bt-dford, 
u address by Prof. C. T. Miller, a recitation 
by Miss Agnes !M. Baird, a declamation by A. 
F. Conery, and and an essay by Miss Emily 
Williams. Miss Baird's recitation was heartily 
This institution has been very suc- 
cessful, having registered over 200 pupils 
September 1. — Netoark Daily Adver- 


^^d'^'Z^ C>>^^''z?'^ -^Z^S'7'2'^ ' 

The above specimen of writing is a fac-simile copy and about average with several other specimens written by hoys of twelve years of 
age, underthe tuition of L. D. Smith, special teacher of writing in the public schools of Hartford, Conn. A very interesting aud sensible 
article contributed to the Journal by Prof. Smith mil be found on page 3 of this issue. This specimen was selected from among others 
from the fact of its being written with blacker ink, and hence better suited for reproduction, not for its superior excellence. 

is an invoice hook ; "operating Uabihties " 
do not differ under that name from profit and 
loss. The new names may be a great deal 
better than the old, but change of name is 
not change of nature. EnoAnps. 

F. B. Davis, who has been practicing writ- 
ing under the tuition of Professors Soule and 
Flickinger at Philadelphia during most of the 
year past, has taken charge of the penman 
ship department of Bryan's Business Collcgi, 
Columubus, 0. Mr. Davis is not only an ac- 
complished writer but a reliable geuth 
aud will undoubtedly win favor in hit 

Charles D. Biqelow, who \^ tfacbini:; writ- 
ing in Bryant's Buffalo (N. Y.) Business Col- 
lege, sends some beautifully written visiting 

Jackson Cagle, of Atlanta, Qa , recently 
favored us with sevei-al specimens of writing 
and flourishing, done up in his usually ex- 
cellent style. 

One of the most beautiful specimens of 
epistolary writing received this month is 
from Joseph Foeller, Jr.. Ashland, Pa. His 
skill as a penman is highly commended by 

the press and prominent 


3 of Ashland 

W. P. Macklin, St. Louis, Mo,, sends a 

creditable specimen of lettering. 

J. C. Malone, Smithtown. W. Va., encloses 
package of well-executed business and copy 

writing ; also a complicated and skillfully 

executed specimen of flourishing, drawing 

and lettering. 

A. H. Steadman, Ohio, sends creditable 
specimens of flourishing and writing. 

e JoDRNAL hu be- 

A. W. Madison reports unexpected success 
in his commercial and classical school re- 
cently opened at Bingbamton, N. Y. 

The Weekly GasetW, Burlington, Iowa, 
gives a very complimentary review of the 
Business College opened in that city last fall 
by Messrs. ElUot & Powers. From that re- 
port end information from other sources, an 
well as our acquaintance with Mr. Elliot 
(who is now sole proprietor) we are favorably 
impressed with the merits and success of 
this college. 

The Louun^ilU (Ky.) Courier of Nov. !)th 
contains a flattering report of the Business 
College in that city conducted by Itenj. C. 
Weaver, and especially of the skill of H. S. 
Dc Sollar as a writer and teacher. 

The students of the Spencerion Business 
College, Washington, D.C.. gave an interest- 
ing Uterary entertainment on the evening of 
Dec. 2G. The CoUege is conducted by H. C. 

H. A. B., Albany, N. Y.-No numbers of 
the .Toi'HNAL can be furnished previous to 
Seiitcmb.T, 1.S77; all since and inclusive of 
that iiuiul.t'r, (,r(,Uy.wren. in all, to January, 
l^^Ml, can hti mailed with either of the three 
prLuiiiims named in our prospectus, for 

Geo. J. Amidon. teacher of writing at 
Coster's Business College, Pitt*field, Mass. 
sends a package of very well written copy 
slips, and reports a full attendance at the 
College, and favors the Jodb.vai, with a hand- 
some club of subscribers. 

D. A. C, Worcester, Mass.— How long 
should classes practice while learning to 
write ? That will depend considerably upon 

-•'#' jat2illa5: 

til" ubiUtf of tLe U-achf^r U> interest sDfl tbc 
H^f* of Uie pDpilH, and will rary from ooe half 
t" an hour. PupiU iibould not be reqaired 
Uj Iirartic« m long u to we«ry tbem into 
carelcH practice, elso tbey may Iom mon 
tUma tboy will gain by tbe le»oo. 

J. C. 8.. Philadelphia. — IBL Do bolh 
Dtba of the pen come mjuarely od the paper 
in all practical writing. 2d. Will the "Key 
to Sptmcerino PenmauMhip" be a sufficient 
gnide for practical buxinem hand. '.id. Do 
you think that I could get all the bock num 
Don of Ibf! .locRKAL by adrertitiing in the 
JouBKAr,— that 18. Nod. 1. 2, 3, 4. .l. Am. 
Int, In order to produce the mont smooth and 
perfect lino practical both uibx of tbo pen 
ahoald mat aquarely upon tbe paper and 
move under the name dngree of pres-nure. To 
do tbia requlrea the bnnd to be turned toward 
the body, aomewbat beyond it« natural posi- 
tion, which with many writtTR in difficult to 
do; hence tbo una of oblique penn or holders 
to obviate the difficulty of forcing the hand 
beyond its natnral and easy poHition while 
writing. 2d. Yea. 3d. It is probable you 

What is laid of the Joarnal. 

J. 0. Brown. Itnudolph, N. Y. : "Itisa 
most excetl'mt publication." 

W. A. OhcM, Brownsville, Mich. : " II gote 
better and bt'tter. What next ? " 

O. K. RftthlMin, Omftlm. Neb.: "Tour 
paper in appreciated wherever it ia read." 

E. L. HoggB, Oharloston, W. Va. : "I would 
not do without it for ten tituea lis cost." 

J. H. Urowu, Columbia. 111. : "No penuinn 
who knows iiH value will be without it." 

Mr. E. IJIackiuan, Worcester, Mass. : "If 

it coHt double the money I would subscribe.'" 

J. T. Knausa: " It is undoubtedly the best 

paptir of its class published in this country." 

H. 0. Wright: "It is getting better and 

bettor with every isaue," 

A. N. Talbott: "It is a publication that 
should and a place in every household in thfi 
Rev. N. R. Luce : " Its columns are rich." 
Thos. J. Bryant: "It should be in the 
hand-t of every teacher in our comuiou 

J. Q. Overman, PtePee, Ohio: "It is 
worth more to me than any other pajjer I 

C. Baylies. Principul Commorcinl CoUego. 
Dubuque, Inwn : •■ I mn (1. Ii-l,i, ,1 with your 
JoonNAL. Loii).' I.I * : i , ,..,|ier." 

J. 0. MoDol.^;..ll u M ! , ,., i; , "lean 
wifely say that it i- ir,. i. ^ , q., , of iu class 
over published iu llu- IniU'il .Mutes." 

O. P. DoLnud, i^ou-duLac. Wis.; "The 
Pbnman'b Art Joprkai, is the best of any- 
thing iu it« lino yet published. " 

J. 0. Brown, Fletcher. Ohio: "It is just 
what poniuon want. I would not do without 
it for three tiroes its price." 

J. French, Effingham, 111. : " I must say 
I am delighted \vith the Jodbnai,. No teach- 
er of writing can afford to be without it." 

H. C. Kendall, Boston, Mass. : "The mat- 
ter, the style and general appearance through- 
out is certainly of a higherorderof excellence 
than any of il« predecessors." 

0. L. Iliokette. Umcher of writing, Malta, 
O. : " Penmen, if you wish to meet with suc- 
cess, subscribe for tbo Journal." 

A. J. Taylor, Principal of Buainess dllcge. 
llochoster. N. Y. ; " It is net only of great 
ftssistanoe to those learning to write, but real- 
ly a necttssity with teachers and adepts." 

H. W. Pliekinger, Uuion BusiuesB College 
Philadelphia, Pa.: "Your paper is far in ad' 
vftuce of auy periodical which has yut been 
published on the subject of penmanship." 

M. E. Bennett teacher of penmanship 
Sehoneotndy, N. Y. : " We have seen no pub- 
lioation pertaining to pen art that has suited 
us HO well as the Jouunal It is admirable, '• 



An Improved Uetbod lor Keeplog aod Auditing 

,r.>n,.Ii t T? ^"'"'^^'^f''''^' '^°°.'''''*^.'* ^y llie press, professional penmen, and artists 
generali>, t^ be the mosi comprehensive, practical, and artistic guide to oruam-nUU peu 
"' ■'.'*' 7" P"V''f''^f ®'^."*' postpaid, to auy address on receipt of $4 50. or ai a 
prcniium for a club of twelve subscribers to the Journal. 

iJie above cut represents the title page of the work, which is 11 x 14 in size. 

G. T. Oplinger, SlatingtoD, Pa.: "The 
JornNAL is very interesting. Just what we 
have long needed." 

S. M. Corson, (,'iirroltou, III.: "As an iu- 
etnictor to the profession of penmanship it 
has no equal." 

J. C. Whitlow, Jamesport, Mo. : "I am 
impatient for its arrival. Every number is 
filled with ur;w and valuable infor.nation." 

_. _. Pease, Blue Earth, Minn.: "It 
helps me greatly. I woiUd not do without it 

A. J. M. llosom, of tbf Ohio Valley Busi- 
ness College. Parkerebiirg. W. Va. : -'We 
were so much delighted with the Jocrsal 
that we sliut down business and read everv 
line of it." ^ 

A. C. Blaeknmn, Green Bay (Wis.) Busi- 
ness College: "I have learned more from 
tbo few numbers of the Johrnai, received 
than from all the penman's popeis ever pub- 

Zerah C. Whipple, Principal of Home 
Schools for Deaf MuU>s, Myotic HivtT Conn ■ 
"I am delighted with it- Every tertc'ber and 
all othcps who are mterested in good penmau- 
ship should come for\Tard to iU sapport." 

0. U. Ruuuelhi. Chicago. HI. : "The Pes 
man's Am JorRNAi. is such a publication as 
the art which it advocates demand* It is 
able and beautiful, and should be in th« hands 
of every teacher as weU as admirer of the art." 

J. C. Miller. leksburg. Pa. : * Of all publi- 
cations on the subject of penmanship I find 
tbe JoPHSAL most luminous and interesting." 

P. J. McOee. Principal. Toledo (O.) Busi- 
iiess CoUege: "It is now acknowledged by 
nil penmen to be the best penman's paper 
^ver published. It is the penman's best 


H.Russell. Joliet Business College; "lam 
more than pleased with its fine appearance, 
and It certainly seems that since we have at 
last got the right men at the helm, we shall 
have whot has long beL-n needed, a good pen- 
man's journal." 

J. W. Swank, United States Treasury De- 
partment, Washington. D. C. : "Yoiu" Jodb- 
NAL, is a 'jewel.' Ii is the best dressed, the 
most ably edited, and contains more real 
'hard pan' information in its col'imus than 
any paper of its class that has ever been pub- 
lished in this country." i 

Hon. Ira Mayhew : " I have no doubt that 

you could much better afford to dispense with 

auy profatjs that may come to you from the I 

publication of the Jodhnal, than the parties 

whose interest it is published could afford 

dispense with its monthly visit." 

S. S. Packard, New York: "You have 

own the disposition as well as the ability 

id taste to give us a first-class paper for one 

dollar a year, which in point of artistic ap- 

pearsnce and general adaptation to its work 

is uot excelled by any publication iu the 

J C. Bryant. President of the Buffalo Busi- 
ness College ; " The JouRNAl>is so beautifully 
gotten up, and and so weU filled with sensible 
and spicy matter, that I feel it almost a duty 
to double my subscription. I need uot ex- 
press a hope that it will be a permanent suc- 
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up the present standard. " 

O. A. Gaskell: "The variety of excellent 
fac Hiinile« of your pen-work yon are giving, 
as well as its choice reading matter, makes it[ 
m my opinion, superior to any of its prede- 
cessoi-8. No penmen, old or young, veterans 
or beginners, in the profession, can read the 
JoDBNAL without deriiiug great benedt." 

W. P. Cooper, Kingsville. O. : "I mn 
imagine rothing more elegant or better. 

editing of bis paper he displays rare ability. 
We feel sure that Mr. Amis will be willing 
In send a sample copy of his paper /;w to 
any jicrsou wriliug him from here. After 
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advantage of us, for we had rallier leave 

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SpecUl Fe«tar«a of tbe Plui: 
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FroFlJes ■ Uaiforin Meihadof pnctlce. 
Introduces »n improvement for determlDlng « 

current rondilion of Accounia. 
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Pri-nenti correct Dally Exbibii«, abowlDg tl 


reat« npoii the aubjeet of book-koepino in all it« d 
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Common School Edit on Slnule and D.uble 
„«(.;?;:. liui;'"*""" foriuB complete. Plain, practical, 
unique and comprehensive. AdnpUid by tlio beat 
Scuools and Colle^eB. ; r28 pages. Price 7S cent*. 

Elementary E<lltlou. Double Butrj: prtnulplea 
r!^0c8?"fr "ly "'"""**"'■ '" ^^^ colors; plain and 
luil price", nleul^ * '"' *"*'"'*'• *^ P'*'*"'- ^^ 

Commercial Edition, Double and Slugle Ed- 
luul and HiKli ScLooIh, uud Buatiicaa Collogei. ISO 


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a by the bot 

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Retail. $a.u 
Not a Revision, but an Entirely 


1 publkti- 

aud uryftut'B Priuting a 

Forged, DisguiMd dk Anonymous Writing 

ri Agtnl, 

|t of Itopld Busluesa Capli 

: of 

abounds ia choice articles tliat , 

iitnit'trm aud lout frUniU, and is rich iu 
wholesome iustruction, whUe its embellish- 
me Its are superb bits of art, not only redo- 
lent of progress, but warmed by the ever 
creative brain and cunning hand of genius 
aod trained skill." 

Henry C. Spencer, Spencerian Business 
College, Wasbiogtou, D. C. : '■ The JotiaNAL 
- the medium of fresh news, useful infonna- 
JU, best ideas of genial, clear-headed teach- 
s and penmen in regard to their profession 
id a repository of beautiful and attractive' 
dluslrations of pen art from your own port- 
folio and others. Without thought of flat- 
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requisite for the management of the .JooE 

• "ill be ™ lu- 

them to subscribe for the Joun- 
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at, or small, let Ibcm cornel We repent 
It, let them come ! 


VISITINQ c IRD8 wnlleu and acM by mall at lbe 
rollowiug rate- per doz, : Plaiu Spencerian, 25 
"p^ta- '^ '''^*'''^°"'^'*'8»a. lacslmlleaorpeu work.iO 



.H.SADLEH PreildcnlortB 
BllVANT, STllArroN 



rVi mI'."""* ''""""°''- *" 

tpciBt puldo 


[ ComplimenUry to the Journal. 

«c copy Ihe following from Ihe Cl,ni,(- 
mt, lUm.n spicy anil very creditable little 
paper published by the students of Gaakells 
Business College, Manchester, X. H. :— 

„i'i^'i'f JT^"'""''* *"'' Jooi^AL, publish- 
ed by D. T. Ames.205 Broadway, New Vork 
IS a paper that has a peculiar interest to 
business college students and lovers of fliic 
writing. Mr. Ames is himself one of Ihe 
most ciuiueot of living penmen, aud iu tbe 

tol. cut 

andtumed duwa 'ZtiiLn!l\ 







or cnt 

corner, W.OO per 1.000: fSW) 

■ 75c 


loo at 

lorted. Postpaid. Paten led E 



ailvor bo««. 8a-i,e price aa 






ctnrera- price.. Sold by the 1 

Wat I 

OOO r 


ca.d8, c 

Bpeclally Qdaptrd for prnman 

fl „«. 

Qd lln 



nr address on a poeUl for our 


t dp 


Itat, or 

i&c. for a set of umplea. It 


ce, D 



Address, S. E. CAKD CO., Wo 


et. R 


"V'OXICE.-To pnpil« in tie Pub 
J.1 BcLool, or any olbeta wiahing t 




t up fnU Mts of Spencorian-wr 


rect <M W. P. CUUPtR, KiuKS 

.lie, ABLM. 


List of Penmen's Suppliea Mailed for 
24ct8. m Postage Stamps: 

Obltquu Penbolders-invalunble toMiudent* 
«.*:"r';.^l'"J"''« •""■ FloiirlaUliiB Pens. lOO 
rillos '•urface, lnTtfe aixe. 

ilonay Jei 

UADAIlAiJZ, Willi Prof. 

Cards, and trailed to jou li.r lUc. E. u, BOSffOaTH 

What Everybody WantB- 

r pabliabed. 

rhe Marrla^^Q CerUBcate .."."."'li 

rhe i'amliy liecord ii 

I Specimen 8beeU of EogToa«iDgeach 1 
00 Beanti/iU Scroll Carda, 18 dealgna . 

* " -lan and Pnbllabfc,, 

aU6 Broadwar, M. Y. 

Arltst P«aman and PobUabar, 



Prof, Fllcklpgrr entered on hU work u twicli 
peDiDiD-blp Kt Pelrce'i Coltege, 30 Sooth Tenth bI 
PblUdelphi», P« . Monday, Jaoniry 6th. IB80. 

deiilrioK to prepare tl.fmi.eWei' for iMchlnH plsli 
ornxnonUI penm«nibtp or euiiroMltig csn niAke 

Let tie Eagle Screai. 


raphio plntei. 

eumtusd Kud allowed. Very r 

To lAw Tvuhrrt, Sclu>ol Oifiei 

NIaiplllVins *ad Adnptin 

Do .hii 10 Iho iiMdo of HcLool 

fHum »n<l Pro Hono Puhluo 






Leltefing Tablet! 


tier iB formed completei and no more 

The Analytical Alphabet 

snllrcly original niid the moat complete and perfe 

As a Self-Instructor, 

J Tablet ib absolutely perfect, not only teaching f 

ottering Tablet i 

y iugenloui 
t by learnc 

[an cheater. 

and utility cauuoi 

|:- "'■" '^i H M Out V -^" -t ■ ^ 

Every Variety of Pen Work Promptly Executed in the Most Perfect Manner. 
Also, Counsel given as Expert on Hand- Writing and Acconnta. 


We have several ajipropriutc ami altraolivo LUte ilcBlgiicd aiiJ fugruvi^d especially for dlBpl»ylng 
andbllle, Circulars or Catalogiiee iiBUed by Teocbfif of Writing. SthooU, ColkRCB, &c. By \iBlng thete 
utN. Handbills will be more aitractjve, hence more likely to be read and preserved. 

uplirnlFB in l{|vcirot> pe Plalrs will be sent by maU to any addreas. at low prices. Inclose atainp 

jorc likely to be rea« 

1 suporl< 

lllplomoM nnd 8i>ccl- 

^ ><^ ^^\.^ W.t^'^ 

/( U--IH:1:i:M.I!4g ). 

r\ Series of 

bCHnnk PEN5 

lNlW^^^C^^\iy>\ W i . ^tv^\.W<^N^SV Tfo ^QW\5^N^&^W^ 


by retnrn of mail, or by eiprt-sa ue atiited, any ai 

By ordering from ub, patrons can rely not 
upon receiving a superior article, but upon doin 
Ames' Compendium of Ornamental Poumanahlp, 

Aniea' Copy-Sllpa for instruction and practice in 

Useful Instruments 


■"vfn.';.""- f(. ^vifsst & fflo.iS 

It* j^ O K: A K 13 ' 8 



Accounts, with Arithmetical Problems. 



t price «un 



luut with 

ilar0lng a 


ductng de 




Jolnte, A;l 




Stimpson's U. S. Treasury Gold Pens. 




Huio V_'r{,^G Wax, >7 
Best Known. Established. 1324. 

icr simple or compound, for heaUiuRS. fee, in Bet^^ 
wo. Nob. 1, % 3 and i are for letters 1, %, ki. '. 
in height teapeclively. Price per set. . . 10 cts, 

. Muple Slraigbt Edge, one edge beveled, 25 In, 

Ornamental Engrossing 
Special Offer. 

BriBtol Board, 
French B. B., 

Blauk Bristol Board Cards, per 100. . , 

Fancy cards, birds and bcfoIIb, 18 c 
BigDB, very popular, per pack of 'JG 

Windsor & Neirton's supersup. ind._ 

I doz. oz' bottles fancy colored : 




Eu.bracing S.ngie and Doubh Entry, and "dapted ^to 
academies. By 8. S. Pac^ai"^ «^d H.^^g^^j"^^*';:^- 
This popular work, which for the last ttfteen yeara 

. for drawing, ] 

Congdon'a normal 
Both FlouriahiDga 
Key to Bpencerian 1 

r Oalculations, &c.. address TEACHER. IJox 

Fjuneltsburg. Pa. __^^ ^ '1 

A hsbed 1855. lamdies. S<.-Lo...s. C.Mo«es 

euted for suiUble positions. Circulars, with blRhe«l 

IvLBon, filakeman, Taylor & Co., 


1 138 and 140 1<rnnil St.. Nvw Vo 







itualion lo teach 

book-keeping aud 


. . .'intlii^ncepatrriuai 

!; J. ''o. 


for 25 ctii. atam 

Onondaga Co., W 

colors, (1 

) mailed 


lie Cedar Itapid 


pldH, lowo 




ao Kemble Street, 


The American Centennial. 

n, jom. II. BAiii.ow. 

>UDUug. Addref 


OfitupM-ioF BNGLTSB t\ 

nait on receipt of S5 Cmla. 
T9Uon. m.4k*man, Taylor « < 
t38 undliO arand A(..JV.l 


Published Sfonthl^^, at aoc Bi-oadway, for 8 1 .OO per Year. 

■■ EnUred attht Pott OSfkt of New Tork. N. T., aa aea/nd-ctax mnlUr." 

, KAUnr and Pn 


VOL. ly. NO. 2. 


il Aii«ot Sponc«rItD Copy X 

lew York. 

Tounsol given as Expert on Handwriting. 

II. APPl,nT»N •& CO., 

(PiiWIwborii ofthe'-Modol Hflrloa of Oopy-lioo 


THOMlit MAY PEinOE, M. A., Prluclpsl. 
3ft South ToDtb tJtroot, PhllidelphU. 


KiNoaroN, Pa. 
L. L. 8PRAOUE, ParaoiPAL. 




Addw Albuo, Principal. 


IBW •■ 




W, LL, D., PaEsiDRNT, 

letter O easily and distinctly; that is juet 
bow I want you to write it. The big Italic 
O, or oval, fitands at the head of this new 
group, becaiiae it ie the framework of the four 
script letters which follow it. Let ua sail 
round this oval and look at its curves. Let 
U8 start at the left, at top. right where the 
oval touches th" head-Hue ; now we glide 
down this long left curve, but when we get 
nearly to base where must we go?" "Oh, 
you turn to the right I" "That is bo. for 
jufit here we mutrt, round the lower turn oi 
base of the oval. When do we get round tht 
turn, children ? •' "When you come to th( 
base-line." "Right: you can always know that 
because just aasoou as yon pass the turn, tht 
curve begins to rise. Now, how far up shal 
we go?" "To the head-line." "Well, now, 
let us glide ujiward.— why you are all laugh 
Oh. you must turn to the 


' Is that 8 

: going 1 





Copy Book KiiKr^ver, Bird nod Peu FlourUblng, 


30* A son Kultou St., Brooklyn. 
<rwomy yuar* at 3116 t'ulton Street). 



!MU Droadway, Now York. 


just as soon as I got clear up 

You must turn sooner, — before you get 
clear up." "All right; now we round the 
upper turn, stiU rising until we reach the 
top. Shall we go down on the left side for 
this upper turn ? " "Oh?" "Why 
not, children?" "You have gone clear 
around the turn, already." "Ob! I strike 
the landing when I strike the head-line ; 
that is where I began,— with the left-curve, 
and not with the turn. Now 
sail around the oval we must 
when we come to the turns, i 
our letters." 

In Direct Ovals the left-eu 
on downward movement. In 
upper turn falls a little belo\ 
letter, and combines with 
which follows the course of the first curve, 
within a half-space. The proportions of the 
oval are: Height, three spaces; width, two 
spaces. •'Children, do not make any sharp 
points in the oval. " 

i shall spoil 

writien O. the 
■ full height of 

outer lef t-c 
stronger at 
to the la 



1 easy sbade 
, making it light at first, then 
er of curve, then light again 
Coax your pens to write 

the Direct 

spaces ; width of final oval, one ai 

spaces ; length of horizontal loop. 

Give a full shade to outer left-curve of oval, 

and a light sbade to Stem." 

A critical point in D is the broad upper 
turn, which requires full curvature to left 
while the curve is rising above the Stem. 
The five fiowing curves that form the body 
of J) give harmony to the letter. It is easy 
to get up a discord among these curves. The 
symmetry of the outside curves, and careful 
spacing, are also essential points. The move- 
ment in D is very beautiful, the broad ellipse 
giving fuU plsy to the fore-arm, while the 
inner curves call the fingers into exercise. 
Practice the letter freely with the dry pen, 
slightly lifted from the paper, letting the 
hand glide lightly on the finger-rest. 
• "In E, the sharp angles of ihe Italic are 
changed into winding curves. I wish first 
to show you how this beautiful letter is built 
from two ovals." I make on the board a 

3 space ; 

symmetrical oval on main slant, 

in height ; and immediately above the 

and slightly intersecting it. a small oval 

space in height, and half as wide 

igles to main slant 
oval (illustrating 

Tne Writing Class. 

voice to ihe cheerful class-leebng, the best 
possible condition if you wish to incite in- 
terest. "I notice you oan aU apeak the 

as the lower oval. I next erase portions of 
the right-curves, leaving the connecting loop. 
" You see that written JS comes from two 
intersecting, or crossing ovals. Now all look 
sharp at the small loop ; how does it point?" 
"Downward." " Kight ; it droops just as 
the curves droop at this point. The slant of 
this tiny loop is the key to the letter ; if you 
do not make it at right 
you will spoil the lowi 
clearly to the class)," 

"Children, you must always picture to 
yourselves the form of Ihe letter when you 
write it. When you write E, try to make two 
beautiful ovale, and be sure to have both on 
main slant. .E begins at top with inner left- 
curve of upper oval, which descends on main 
slant nearly a space, and combines in a short 
turn to right with outside curve ; the oval now 
rises on main slant to top, descends on main 
slant a little below one space, and connects 
in a narrow loop with the outside curve of 
lower oval ; this oval descends on main slant 
ts written with a full turn to base, rises a little below 
base-loop height of two spaces, and combines in a full 
turn with inner curve, which follows the 
course of outer left curve within a half-space. 
Isn't it a pretty movement,— all curves and 
turns! Give a full shade to the main left- 
curve of lower ovol. The crossing-point of 
the narrow loop marks the height of lower 
oval. Horizontal width of upper oval, one 
space ; of lower oval, two spaces. The dis- 
tances across center of upper oval ore equal." 
A critical point is to combine the ovals so 
that the long diameters will be in line, and on 

Capital G is simply a looped oval. The 
main-oval outUne is incomplete, as in the cor- 
responding Koman letter, and finishes with 
a small Direct Oval. C begins with an intro- 
ductory right-curve, which has full slant to 
height of one space, then ascends on main 

space and a half ; of final oval, < 
of upper loop, one-half space. 

Critical points in C: The change of slant 
in first curve at one-third the height, or inter- 
secting point of loop; slight curvature in 
upper part of main curve, to avoid a hump- 
backed letter. Let the introductory curve 
be written in the plain oval, at head of dia- 
gram, to form the loop of C.and compare the 
full curvature and high shade with the modi- 
fications in the regular letter. The loop in C 
droops a little from main slant, to preserve 
the oval outline. 

Note.~ln writing these oval letters, it is of 
the utmost importance Ihat the pupil should 
follow the general outline, and not proceed 
by slow, and labored effort from curve to turn, 
and from turn to curve. While he should 
know each element of form, and be able to 
fully analyze and criticise the letter, he can 
only acquire ease of movement by striving 
after the general form rather than the par- 
ticular elements. There should never be any 
stopping on a curve. Making the ovals by 
piecemeal results in painful drawing, rather 
than fluent writing —Pm/iary Teacher. 

id letti 
Ovals." I change Italic D into 
counterpart, by simply adding ; 
and finishing oval. The children 
sociate the written with the printed form, and 
learn much by mere sight about tho letter. 
I tell them that in both forms the lines mean 
just the same, only those of the written letter 
are much more beautiful. The stiff, straight 
line of the Italic becomes the graceful Capital 
Stem, and now combines in a narrow base- 
loop with the main curve, which is finished 
with a hanging-oval. I next complete the 
outline of the letter, to illustrate how it is 
that of a very full oval. 

•■ Begin /> at a little above height of two 
6paces,and make the Capital Stem on slightly 
increased slant to base ; here combine the 
Stem in a horizontal loop with the outside 
curve ; let this oval-curve touch base a httle 
to right of crossing-point of loop, rise on 

main slant above Stem, and combine at full I slant and combines 
height in a broad upper turn with a Direct height with the ma 

Oval; let this oval descend on main slant a I this oval descends on main slant, with sUghtly 
httle below two spaces, then rise on main I decreased curvature and with full turn to 
slant a httle below full height and finish with I base, and finishes in u small Direct, 
inner-curve, which should follow the course | which rises to half the height of letter and 
of outer left-curve within a half space. Let terminates near base. The inner left-curve 
the outside curve come a half-space to right, j being 
and the final oval a half-space to left of ) the co 

My Primary Writing- Class. 

I am now in a primary graded school. 
Average age of pupils is eight years. It is 
11 o'clock, "Tling"goeB thebell. Twf^nty 
lads and lasses quietly drop slates, pencils 
and books upon their desks. "Tling" again. 
Forty little feet feel the weight of half as 
many httle bodies ; forty bright little eyes 
watch me intently, as the owners of them 
stand in their places waiting for me to tap 
the bell. The tap is given, and hke a band 
of veterans those twenty little knights (to be) 
of the quill march out with measured tread 
in front of the blackboard. " What are they 
going to do Ihere?" you ask. "I thought 
this was to be a writing-class?" "So it is," 
" But whoever heard of u writing-class get- 
ting out there to write without desk, peu, or 
anything else ?" " Who ? Why Jennie 
Brown and her nineteen classmates. Now 
see what they know about writing. Class, 

' One, 

Stem. Whole width of D, two and one-half 

I "twenty" rings out full and clear, 
umber one, will you please tell how many 
ciples we use in forming letters ?" "We 
use five." (I have taught them Gaskell's sys- 
tem on account of its simplicity). "Number 
three, please write the first principle on the 
board." He writes. While he is doing so, 
nineteen critics watch his every motion. He 
returns to his place in the class. " Who will 
criticise?" I see three hands up, "Num- 
ber four may report." " I think he did not 
slant it enough." " Number six may report." 
"He made the top too heavy," "Number 
fourteen." " Why, teacher, he leaned against 
the blackboard." ** Good. Now who will 
tell the three mistakes made ?" No answei. 
' ' Well, I will tell you. The principle is not 
slanted enough, and is shaded. He leaned 
against the blackboard while he wrote. Now 
you will all please tell me that." Class re- 
peats. Some make a blunder. I give it 
again, and so drill until it is given correctly. 
" Now, class, we have only two minutes yet. 
How many have their lead pencils?" All 
bunds up but one. "Annie, where is your 
pencil." " I lost it this morning." " Well, 
here is mine, you can use it." "THng. " All 
of a smaller oval, does not follow I hands fall at the pupils' sides, with the pen- 
of outer left-curve. Shade low on | ciU in the left, "Now, as your hands hang 

left-curve. Main width of letter. 

I put pencils in right hand." I b 

3 that 

aU are held properly. T have been teaching 
peoholding for Bome time pawt. "All ready. 
B.aifte your right hand to a level with your 
chin, about one foot from it- Now please 
imitate me." I describe a circle about ten or 
twelve inches in diameter, changing the 
movement from right to left at intervaU of 
about fifteen or twenty seconds. "That, 
cloBR, is the whole arm movement. I will 
tell you more about it to-morrow." Another 
" tling " and the clasa pass to their seate. 

This, fellow-teacher, is one lefison in de. 
tail. The next I probably will have all take 
their turn at the board to practice simple 
curves. It will likfly be ten write and ten 
ciiticiso. I wnnt to teach the science of let- 
ters and the art of making them, but I do 
not expect to do it all this term. I will lay 
the foupdation, and I expect my successors 
to finish the structure. If they do not. I am 
fully convinced that they do wrong. I do 
not want those little eight-year-olds to grapple 
A pen for three or four years yet, but I want 
them to be fine penmen when they reach my 
age. I will t«ach them the principles, some 
simple leltera, the whole arm movement and 
givo them a start in blackboard writing. I 
hope my successor will move with care and 
keep them in the way they now are going. 

Ornamental P i 



About twenty-seven years ago 
penmanship— which up to that time had re- 
oeived very little attention in this country, 
through the efforts of a few men of more than 
common artistic ability, began to grow rap- 
idly in public favor and to be considered 
something more than a superficial accom. 

We migbt venture to say that it began 
to be almost an Institution and to convert, 
and not unscientifically either, not one only, 
but many arts. 

Such men as Brown, Williams, Tracy and 
others were not wholly copyists or mechanics 
by any means ; under the pressure of com- 
petition they quickly learned that copy would 
nob answer the requirements of the Exhibi- 
tion HaU. 

Placed at this time at the side of every 
other art, before multitudes of people, the 
penmen were convinced, that the little cuu- 
ning metallic point, must produce not only 
fine pictures, but now ideas and new combi- 

Here then was a new labor, neither con- 
temptible or circumscribed. It was no less 
than the masttry of pencil as well as pen, 
and more than that the erudition, the difficul- 
ties, and the mysteries of composition. 

All capabilities of old pen art were to be 
overhauled — defects to be noted — excellen- 
cies accredited and converted. The monastic 
love — if you pleasu to call it that -of Europe, 
was to be uuciirthed ; all improvementa by 
German, English, Irish, or Scotch, were to 
be consulted and utilized. 

And then came drawing, designing, sketch- 
ing, and every other aid to the so-called 
votaries of the new light ; device of creation, 
relative developmentandadjustmeut. The re- 
sult, a thing not to be ashamed of here or in 
Europe, or anywhere else, does not want ap- 
preciation here at home. We might perhaps 
truthfully add, only one thing is still want- 
ing, adequate remuneration. 

The first thing developed in this new art 
here. was off-hand flourishing. Rice, Fellows, 
Williams, Eastman, Ely, Goldsmith, Spencer, 
Cooper, Cowley, &c., were pioneers in this 
business. Each borrowed much and added 
something to the common stock. New and 
beautiful creations and comb: 
peared one after another so progressively and 
80 rapidly that we may safely say that this 
art as well as writing soon beci 
ized. A great deal has been said about the 
merit or claims of the united art of fiour- 
i^hing and text writing type, ^'i;irf included. 
&c., as a sort of art independant. Such are 
the possibilities of the conversion of skill in 
this art alone, that I have never yet seen a 
master, who had not something more to add 
or learn in this direction. 

After the development of what we call off- 
hand work very soon there was a demand 
for something else. The beautiful crea 
tions of the scribes were still, it was averred, 
something less than compositions or pictures 
complete. It was for these masters to find 

out what that something was. We might 
perhaps with justice say that Tracy, led the 
way in completing the sum of the parts of the 
Pen Cartoon. 

But others soon followed ; men of more 
imagination, if not more skill, who if they 
could not surpass Tracy's mechanism very 
quickly surpassed his pictures as such. For 
a few years the works of these artists were to 
be seen only on exhibition in art halls and 
tlie commercial schools, but by the aid of the 
photographer's and engraver's arts, they are 
now so generally distributed that their merits 
are understood by the whole country. 

There was after all still one thing more 
to be done. It was to utilize and to convert 
the art to all proper uses, and it may be to 
further methodize and finish its cartoons or 

In this final labor, many were to have a 
part ; gentlemen of ability and fine art cul- 
all over the land, whose works are gen- 
erally understood and appreciated, but of 
these none, it seems to me, can claim greater 
t on the whole than Professor Ames, of 
New York. 

We have just been looking over a large 
number of Mr. Ames' sheets. So many and 
eritorious are their points of excellence 
that we are at a loss what to admire most or 
what to speak of first. The word artist we 
find aOixed to Mr. Ames' sigoatiire on each 
of these miracles of skill and inventive gen- 
ius. What American, if we consider Mr. 
Ames' qualifications, can refuse assent to this 
appellation : If Mr. Ames is not an artist, 

There is or should be to every pen cartoon 
a central idea. What resources of art shall 
be used to illustrate this idea in each espe- 
cial case? What is fit? What nppropri 
ate? What new ? What old may be intro- 
duced ? 

What strikes our attention first in the work 
of Mr. Ames is the economy of space ; next, 
his abundant illustration and ornamentation. 
Indeed there seems to bo no end to his re- 
sources, and the variety of forms seems to 
have no limit ; but all is so put, so just and 
so fit, that each ornament and feature gives a 
meaning and lends a new beauty to some- 
thing else. No pen artist seems so lavish of 
ornamentation as Mr. Ames, and yet there is 
certainly nowhere in this work too much. 
The whole is so discreetly chosen ; so skill- 
fully put on, that the work without it would 
now appear imperfect and incomplete. We 
are impressed with the idea of great labor, 
great painstaking and a patience and perse- 
verance that never stops short of that finish 
which after all characterizes every merito- 
rious work. Still there is no want of free- 
dom in execution or coherency of adjust- 

Some artists forget the central idea and 
fall to picture making. This is not a fault of 
Mr. Ames ; he rigidly adheres to his central 
thought, and so pointed are all of bis instru- 
mentalities or auxiliaries, that the true lesson 
of the whole cartooi is as easily read as a 

It has not been my good fortune to see so 
much of the work of many other fine pen 
artists as of Mr. Ames; but recalling all I 
have seen I do not now remember one, who 
has so emphatically and so fully illustrated 
pen art proper in every part of it, leading 
nothing out ; or who in so large a Dumber of 
compositions has made so few errors of judg- 
ment. Indeed I am satisfied that so fully and 
artistically and so scientifically has he illus- 
trated the bights and depths of his art, 
that if any ooe sceptical in regard to the just 
claims of the art as such, will gather copies 
of his works, he will no longer doubt the ar- 
tistic and exalted claims of the profession. 
We, therefore as a matter of course wish Mr. 
Ames success and health, long to prosecute 
his chosen pursuit. 

Being myself delighted more than most 
any other by every piece of pen skill that I 
see, I can but feel a brotherly friendship for 
all meritorious and noble-minded men in the 

The true artist, if he loves his art, by that 
token lovea its friends, and by those that be- 
lieve in all leamingiind trur art there can be 
only a communion of thought, feeling and 
emotion ; he feels also much of the same re- 
gard for all other student life that he does for 

Expertiflm of Handwriting. 

Edit4>r Penm^Ti'g Art Journal: 

I have read with pleasure several articles 
on expertism of hand-writing which 
appeared in the December number of the 
JouBNAL. It has been a question with me fo' 
a long time why a subject commanding as 
much attention as this was not more fully 
ventilated and discussed by the various lead- 
ing newspapers in the country ; but upon 
further reflection of the matter, concluded 
that nowhere could the object desired be ob- 
tained BO well as in a penman's paper, believing 
that a thoroughly trained penman possessing 
a thorough knowledge of penmanship, and 
one who had made the study of haod-writing 
the labor of years, to be better qualified to 
act as an expert, than one without a knowl- 
edge of :analysis ; therefore my opinion 
is that a penman's paper ought to be the 
"organ " of expertism in hand writings. I 
am glad to loarn that the Penman's Art Jopr- 
NAL has consented to be the "champion" of 
expertism, and trust that this subject will be 
one of the leading and prominent features 
of its columns. In my humble opinion, it 
seems that of late years there has been a 
greater de.nand for true experts, than at any 
time which my memory recalls. What we. as 
experts, and I may add the majority of attor- 
neys, want, is a carefully and completely 
compiled digest of the laws and ruUngs of the 
several courts of this country and Eugland, 
(and if possible, France and Germany) re- 
spectiing the use and admission of 
expert testimony, the manner of con- 
ducting direct and cross-examination, the 
privileges allotted to experts in manner of ex- 
planation and elucidatiou of the subject upon 
which they give their testimony- From 
my own experience as expert I have met many 
obstacles in giving testimony, being limited 
to giving only duect answers to direct ques- 
tions, without the privilege of illustrations. 
I attribute such proceedings either to 
the ignorance or skulldoggery of the attor- 
neys. For this reason alone, if no other, a 
complete digest of the ruhngs of oourts, 
touching upon the testimony of experts, 
would bo of incalculable value to both, experts 
as well as attorneys ; and if our fellow experts 
througout the country will only assist in 
bringing this department of the Joubnal to a 
success, it will surely result in their pecuniary 
benefit sooner or later. 

As you request an opinion as to bow far 
3'our fellow experts may agree with you in 
your opinion in the alleged forgery case of 
Gibbons v. Potter, I will state, so far as I can 
judge from the engraving ou tae endorsement 
on the bond (as published in tae Joubnal) 
you cover nearly every point that I can think 
of at present — although to me there appeared 
to be another important point in this matter 
which you have omitted mentioning— t.e 
ink used in writing the word eighty, whether 
there was any difference in color or quality of 

Ink and pens are materials which should 
receive the most careful attention of the 
pert, especially iti a matter of this kind. This 
question arises, has the same quality of pen 
and ink been used in writing the word eighty 
or not? In a case of this nature I would di 
rect special attention to these matters, and ] 
invariably examine the writing to determine 
the probable age of the ink used. Now, &i 
the endorsement on the bond is dated August 
1st, 1876, I would determine, from my knowl- 
edge and experience with inks, whether the 
word eighty was written at the same time the 
three hundred dollivrx were paid, or how long 
afterwards. In my experience as expert, I have 
discovered that a thorough knowledge of inks 
"cuts a very important figure" in giving 
clear and defined testimony. It would be 
well for experts to study the action of heat, 
light and moisture upon written documents 
how they affect the paper and the writing — 
also the effects or results of certain inks upon 
certain qualities of paper under similar con- 
ditions — also the similarity of color of a cer- 
tain ink on various-qualities of paper. 

Another feature which should be carefully 
and constantly kept in view— pens — the quali- 
ity of lines and shades, curves, angles, as 
produced with gold, quill or steel pens, also 
the various degrees of fineness, smoothness, 
executed by the same person with the 
several kinds of pens. In these studies the 

expert will find a great deal of material for 

Now, retHrning to the case of the bond for- 
gery. From the rngrating it is almost im- 
,ble to tell with certainty what kind of 
was used, as the engraving has de- 
stroyed several important characteristics of 
the original hand-writing, especially the pe- 
culiarity of the hair lines, but judging from 
the cut, I conclude that a gold pen was em- 
ployed, with a firm pressure, wherea.s the word 
«(yA(y appears somewhat " timid," and lacts 

Instead of saying: "the peculiar skip of 
the F, as it crosses the P." you meant to say 
<?, I should think. The view you have taken 
of this point is a good one, for it is evident 
that, had the lett-r, G (in eighty)heea. finish- 
ed at the base, it would have crossed the top 
of the P. which the party evidently well knew 
would be (to use a common expression)' 'a clear 
give away," as it would have shown at once 
that the G was made after the P was. When 
a letter is once made, and there is something 
added to it, or if it is crossed by other lines^ 
it becomes apparent at once, especially so 
when black ink is used, and more so when 
the addition is made sometime afterward as 
it undoubtedly was in this case. 

Most of th6 inks now in use, are the simple 
nut gall and iron inks, usually called "steel 
pen ink" and "black writing ink," the "bq- 
perior black " inks, composed principally of 
logwood, with a very slight addition of galln 
and iron, the " chemical writing fluid," like 
Arnold's, Carter's, Stafford's and others, the 
basis each of which are nut-gall, iron and sul- 
phate of indigo; the common black ink, 
called "school ink," '" jet black," prepared 
with logwood and potash ; the ' ' French copy- 
ing inks, composed of logwood, acid and al- 
kalies ; and the aoaline inkp, such as violet, 
crimson, mauve. It is highly important 
to the expert that he direct his attention to 
inks, and familiarize himself with them, as it 
will be of service to him when making ex- 
aminations of hand-writings. The violet inks 
are those that fade the quickest, the "su- 
perior" black, "school" and "jet black,'' 
are but little more durable. It is almost 
child's play for an expert to determine the 
age of writing executed with violet ink. Not 
long ago, I had occasion to appear in a case in 
court where the time of writing a signature to 
a certain invoice, was disputed by plaintiff. 
Upon giving my testimony, amongst other 
points offered, was my knowledge of the mat- 
ter of ink. In this case violet ink had been 
used, and I gave it as my firm belief that the 
writing was executed at such a date — I have 
forgotten the date. This testimony, in con- 
nection with corroborating testimony of other 
creditable witnesses, gained the case for the 
defendant, by whose attorney I had been sub- 

I would be very much pleased to hear a re- 
ply to the following questioDs which are oc- 
casionally propounded in court, and have 
been answered cooflictingly by other experts. 

" Is expertism of hand-writing a science? '' 
"Or, is the judging of hand-writings based 
upon mathematical science ? " 

Another question which I would like to 
have answered for myself is this : "Is there 
any statute by which an expert can be sub- 
pained, and receive no more than ordinary 
■witness fees "^ Or can he be called upon to 
testify agiunst his free will?" 

Tours, WrESBHAHN. 

The art of writing was among the great 
discoveries of the world. The art has 
gradually been improved upon to the present 
day, but it would seem that it is now about 
as near perfection as possible. We come to 
this conclusion when we visit the rooms of 
D. T, Ames, 20.1 Broadway, where we see 
some of thf grandest specimens to be found 
on the continent. Mr. Ames is excelsior in 
that line, and those who wish anything in 
the line of fine penmanship can procure it of 
Mr. Ames. His exhibition in the Art Gal- 
lery of the American Institute Fair is a most 
able display of the art of penmanship. To 
Mr. Ames' exhibition was awarded the 
"Grand Medal of Excellence" in 1878, and 
the " Grand Medal of Superiority" in 187!!.— 
American Ihmiiess Journal, Nov. 29, 1879. 

Now is the time to subscribe for the 
JoDRNAL, and begin with the new vol- 


Dt I 6nA iDjMir much mlaUk^ 

Bat go up and down and kll o*»r 
^^ IbooKb th»y wero rf»oclDg ■ Jig 

Thoy •« tli-M Id «ll ■bapM ud aize 
Medium. lltUe .nd big. 



've c«rt»lDly 

wrong Bide 
at to do. 

Mr t«ubar uyi sbe la 


Thern'd bp 10010 com'ort lu letrnlD 
ir one cnuld K«t tbrniigb : lnat«a< 

or that Iboro am book* >w«UknR, 
Quite anoDgblo erase my bead. 

Tbrrc'a Ibe multlpllcatloo t«bl«. 

Tbero'M no 

haa oe^UD. I 


My leacher 



Expert Teitimony Begarding Hand 

wiib a digoRl of the law and llie rullnuB by the 
Court, or Uw. 

An wc apprcbended it has proved no easy 
iiuik to coatloG within reusonalilu limiis 
even a brief digest of llie rules and dc- 
cisioiis of tlic Courts rcmpuctiiig tlie usc 
and admission of expert teatiiiioiiy n- 
garding iiandwriting, and, at the same 
time, to reader oui' subject of interest not 
only to fellow experts, but convenient as 
reference for attorneys making use of ex- 
perl testimony. 

We sliail, bowovor, in tliis number, give 
the Iiilcst decision, &c., on the subject. It 
miiy be profiinblo in the first place for tlic- 
bcnedt of the unprofessional reader 10 dc 
fine the terms employed. 

Ilaadwriting is the manner in which a 
person writes, including the formalion or 
llw cbavHt'ters. the separation of the words, 
anrl olIuT features distinguishing the writ- 
ten iiiatlcr, as a nic-cbanical rusull, fruiu llic 
writing of otber persons. 

It is sometimes necessary to prove that a 
eerUiin instrument or mimo is in the hand 
writing of a particular person ; that is doiu' 
cilber by Ibe testimony of a witness who 
saw the paper or signature actually written, 
or liy one who has by sulllcient means ac- 
quired such u knowledge of the general 
cliaraeler of the handwriting of the party 
aH will enable him to swear to bis belief 
that ihe handwriting of the person is the 
baiidwritiug in (lueslion. 1 Phillips, evi- 
dence 422 ; Suirkee, evidence ; 2 Johnson's 
cases, N. Y., 311 ; 6 Johnson, N. Y., 144 ; 
111 Jrtbnson. N. Y.. 134 ; 1 Dallas, Pennsyl- 
vania. 14 ; 2 of Main, 83 ; 6 Sergeant Itawlc. 
IVnnsylvnia, 568 ; 1 Nott & McOord, South 
Oiirolina. 554 ; 3 Nott & McCord, South 
Carolina, 400 ; AntboD, Nisi Prius 77 ; 4 
tira>'. Mass., 167; 5 Cushing, Mass., 205; 
7 Comyiis, Digest 447. 

Experts, (from Latin experti, skilled by 
experience) are witnesses selected by the 
court, or parties in a cause, on account of 
their special knowledge or skill, to examine 
and analyze any matter, ascertain and suttc 
the facts relating thereto. They are nd- 
niiitcil to testify, from a peculiar knowledge 
of some art or science, a knowledge of 
whieh is requisite or of value in settling the 

Thi'y should be persons who are profes- 
sionally aeipiainied with the science or 
practice in question, (Strickland, evid. 408). 

Persons conversant with ihe subject- 
matter ou questions of science, skill, trade 
Hud othcrsof like kind. Best evidence §346. 

See geuerally, as to who are experts, and 
the admissibility of their evidence, 1 Green- 
leaf, evidence 440; 3 Douglas 157; 2 Moody 
& Malkin, 75 ; 12, Alabama (New Style) 
648 ; » Connecticut. 55 ; 17 Pickering, Mas 
snchusetts, 497 ; 12 Louisiana Annual, 183. 

CImrles W. Miles. ApptlLtnt, vs. Francis 
A Loomis Hai Executors, &c. RapontUnU. 
Wlierc the genuineness of a signature is in 

queslioQ in an action, experts in hana. 
writing who have no other knowledge of 
the handwriting of the person whose sig- 
nature the one in question purports to be. 
than that derived by a comparison in 
court of such signature with other signa- 
tures of the person to instruments proved 
and properly in evidence, are competent 
as witnesses to give their opinion, de- 
rived from such comparison, as to the gen- 
uineness of the disputed signature, and 
as to whether it appears a natural or sim- 
ulated hand. 

Where the instruments, the signatures to 
which are thus compared, were for ought 
that appears in tbe case offered in evi> 
dence for other purposes than compari- 
son, and were received without objection 
it cannot be objected upon appeal that 
they were immaterial for any other pur- 
pose and so could not be used for com- 
parison ; having been received without 
objection they must be regarded as prop- 
erly in evidence for all the purposes of 
the case. 

As to whether where it clearly appears, 
either by the avowal of tbe party offer- 
ing them orolherwise that tbe instruments 
were put in evidence simply for the pur- 
pose of comparison, the failure to object 
precludes the other party from subse- 

, as a ireneral rule, this 
manner of obtaining evidence was not al- 
' lowed. Exceptions existed, however: Jinl, 
where the writings were of such antiquity 
that living witnesses could not be procured, 
but were not old enough to prove themselves 
by being of 30 years standing unquestioned. 
7 East. 282; 14 Ejisi, 328; Ryan A; Moody, 
143: 8 Wendell. N. Y., 426: fefond. where 
other writings admitted to be genuine were 
already in the case. 1 Orompton & Jervis, 
Exchequer 47; 1 Moody & Robinson, 133; 

5 Adolphus & Ellis. 514; 7 Carrington & 
Payne, 54S, 595; 2 Maine. 33. 

3. The rule on the subject of admitting 
"uinents irrelevant to the matter in issue 
fo, 'le purpose of instituting a comparison 
of b dwriting is not settled uniformly. In 
England, such documents are not admissi- 
ble. 5 Adolphus & Ellis. 514,703; 11 Ad. 

6 E. 322; 7 Carr. & P. 548, 695; 8 Meeson 
& Welsby, Exchequerl23; lOClnrk & Fin- 
nelly, House of Lords, 193; 2 Mood. «& 
Robinson, 536. 

This rule is adopted in New York, North 
Carolina, Rhode Island, and Virginia. 9 
Cowen, N. Y., 94. 112; 1 Denio, N. Y.. 
343; 1 Hawks. No. C. 6; 1 Iredell. No. 0. 
10: 2 R. I..319: 1 Leii-li. Va., 216. 

In Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Maine. 

y documents are admissible to the jury for 

as comparison with any other writing legal- 
ly introduced and proved for any other pur- 
pose than comparison is competent, there 
would seem to be no reason why the oppor- 
tunity for comparison should not be extend- 
ed. Actual comparison is really the best 
test, for, as the law stands, the solution of 
the question generally depends on more 
mental comparison, which is necessarily im- 
perfect. (Tobe continued.) 

Kind Words for the Joorual. 

BiNGHAMTON, N. Y., Nov. 16, 1879. 
Editor Prrimau's ArtJaui-ual: 

Deab Sir : In answer to your favor of the 
t4tb inst., I will cay that I am in sympathy 
with every effort that you may put forth to 
advance the interests of practical education 
and also that I know of no more valuable 
auxiliary iu that direction than the spicy and 
ably-edited practical teacher's champion, 
known as the '■ Penman's Aht JmjnNAL." 

The indomitable energy, pluck and deter- 
mination to excel in whatever you undei'take 
has never been more fully demonstrated than 
in your efforts to make the Joubnal tbe fore- 
most paper of the kind in the laud. I have 
no desire to flatter you and yet I will say 
frankly that the Jouenal is the only paper of 
the kind that I have seen during the past de- 
cade that in my humble judgment was buIB- 
ciently broad and liberal in its views uml un- 
partisan in character to wnrrant even a 
"practical" educator iu spending either his 
time or his money for the sake of reading it. 

queuty resisting their use for that purpose, 
quaese People, vs. Spooner (1 Deu., 343); 
Jackson exdem. vs. Phillips (9 Cow., 94; 
Phttnix P. Ins. Co., vs. Phillips (13 
Wend.. 81), so faras in conflict over- 
ruled, 75. N. Y. 288. 

The following is the syllabus of the case 
in 10 Hun. 372, (Miles v. Loomis). 17 Su- 
preme Court Reports. N. Y.. from which 
this case was appealed. 

Where, in an action upon a promissory 
note, the defense of forgery is interposed, 
experts, as to handwriting, may be permit- 
ted to give their opinion from the compari- 
son of the disputed signature with other 
genuine writings in evidence in the case, 
and to state, from an examination of the 
genuine writings and the disputed signature, 
whether the latter appears to he simulated- 
It may be well before going further to 
more fully define what is meant by Com- 
parison of handwriting. It is a mode 
of deducing evidence of the authen- 
ticity of a written instrument, by showing 
the likeness of the handwriting to that of 
another instrument proved to be that of the 
party whom it is sought to establish as the 
author of the instrument in question. 1 
Greenleaf; EWdence: §578. 

the above purpose. 11 Mass., 309; 17Pick- 
ering. Mass., 490; 21 Pick. Mass., 315; 2 
Maine, 33; 9 Connecticut. 55. 

In New Hampshire and South Carolina, 
they are admissible only for the purpose of 
turning the scale in doubtful cases. 3 N. H., 
47; 5 N. H., 67; 3 M'Cord, So. C. 518; 2 
Nott & M'Cord, So. Carolina, 401. 

In Pennsylvania, such documents only are 
admissible as have been conceded to be 
genuine, 5 Binny, Penn., 340; 10 Sergeant 
ARawle, Penn.. 110; or concerning which 
there is no doubt. 6 Wharton, Penn., 284. 

And see 3 Halatcd, N. J. . 87 ; 2 Leigh, Va. , 
249; 25 Wendell, N. Y., 469; 3 Humphreys, 
Tenn., 47; 1 Gushing. Mass., 189; 19 Ohio, 

We notice in the last Albany Laic Journal 
the observation that Mr. Fowler has intro- 
duced in the Senate a bill to amend the law 
of evidence and practice on civil and crimi- 
nal trials, by admitting comparison by wit- 
nesses of a disputed writing with any writ- 
ing proved to be genuine, and the submis- 
sion of such standards of comparison to the 
court and jury. This strikes us as a sensi- 
ble suggestion. It is only legalizing what 
has been done by consent in many cases, and 
the refusal to consent to which has always 
prejudiced the party's case. So long, too, ; 

On the contrary the Jocrnai,, by its hberal 
views and judicious course, by its gentle and 
yet firm rebuke, administered occasionally 
to those of "Ur oitin profeasiun who are so 
prone to adopt the "spread eagle" and 
" braggadocio " style of advertihing, has 
steadily gained in public favor and woo to 
itself a host of friends who are not only capa- 
ble but willing to examine both sides of a 
question, lu my opinion there is now. and 
has been, by far too much prejudice ex\&i\up 
between those persons known as " practical" 
and " theoretical " educators. This prejudice 
has arisen in part from the fact that they did 
not fully understand each other. In my aix 
years experience iu a business college and 
ten years experience in a seminary I have had 
an opportunity of learning, to some extent, 
tbe advantages and disadvantages of each. 
Our school is "general" iu its character 
while the other is "special," hence the 
methods adopted need not, in all cases, he 
alike, and yet, so far as I can judffe. the one 
school is as "practical," as " usi;ful " and as 
" uecessary " as the other. Taking this view 
of the case I see 110 reason why certain over- 
wise and erudite educatorB should forever be 
"throwing mud" at each other simply be- 
cause they do not think just alike or happen 
to be engaged in tbe same kind of but>iueNe. 

If I can add anything of iutcn^sl to 
your valuable paper, as a contributor durmg 
the coming year. I shall gladly do so. 

Hoping that you may coutinue to meet with 
the success, you so richly deserve. I remain. 
Very respectfully yours, 

A. W. Madisom. 

Piibllabcd Momhlr ni 91.00 per Vrnr. 

SOS Brokdway, New lork. 
Slnf[]« eople" of Jopbw*!. Mut on receipt of U 

Blngla iDMrtlon 20 cenU pT lno nonpareil. 
1 Colnmn 130 00 »M oo' »«c 00 flfto 

5 " !'!!!!! 4 38 la 60 as oo « 

IlDeh(I311nM)... 8 20 * OO BOO 12 

t llnM, 94 wordi. 60 1 BO 2 Ift * 




rs. inclosing $2. wi 

mUom e*cb of w 

Uicb !■ nmong lUc 

of penmanBhlp pv 

The Family Kecor 

8 Specimen Rheela 


OoDRJoQ'a No 

rpubllBbed, viz.: 
ICnnlH, ISdifTere 

price $B, The uine lioiiml tn g 
•Idhteen Biibscrlbers and |1«, prk-. 

of Wllllama ft Faokard'a Qems ui 1 
for la. 

All com muni cat! on B doalgpod I 

and promptly a 



peed and coduraoce, the other the slow 
. HouD tired stage horse; auolber impor- 
t fealure in this movemcm is the fact 
t writing aud autographs executed with 
re much more difficult to furge or sioiu- 
late. than writing executed with the finger 

This will he apparent from the fact that 
1 forging or simulating the writing of an- 
other, the writer must move slowly aoUcau. 
usly, studying to avoid his own habit, as 
01 as to simulate that of the writer be 
would imitate. This drawn or copy move- 
>rds in all its quality of line, with 
written naturally with the finger 
t, aud is therefore very difficult to 
Dguisb from genuiue writing: while the 
llowing, graceful, hair line, nicely grad- 
ut^tcd and clean cut shades that result 
from the forearm movement, can never be 
successfully imitated by a drawn or copy 
movement; and it is equally impossible to 
iniiate the same, successfully, on a rapid 
uovement, for while the quality of line 
night thus be secured, the writing would 
lack the form and habit of the original writ- 
ing, and would be surely and easily detect- 

Movement ia Writing. 

Probably no one thing does more to deter- 
mine the ease and celerity with which writ- 
ing is executed, tlmn movement; not only is 
this the fact regarding cose and rapidity, 
but is equally so as regards the length of 
time one can write continuously without 
fatigue. In writing with the finger move- 
ment, tlie delicate muscles of the extremities 
and all the joints of the thumb tmd fore 
flncers are kept in constant aud rapid ac- 
tion, by which they soon become wearied 
nnd finally exhausted, undshould the writer 
be at all nervous, it is fully manifest in his 
writing. This is not the case where the 
muscular or forearm movement is employ- 
ed in writing; in that the strong muscles of 
the arm are principally used, the motion of 
the lumd being imparted simply by muscu- 
lar contraction and relaxation, calling for a 
very slight actlou of the fingers and joints; 
hence the extraordinary ease, facility, and 
long endurance of writers, making use of 
this movement. Their writing is always 
free from that nervousness, hcsitnling or 
drawn nppeurnnce that characterizes, to a 
greater or less degree, all writing executed 
with the finger movement. Nooue who has 
never made use of the muscular movement 
can possibly understatid or appreciate the 
wonderful advantage it possesses over that 
of the finger; the one is as the locomotive 

Successful Fenmanship 

Successful penmanship may be considered 
ider three heads, viz. ; practical or busi- 
;ss writing, skillful teaching, and the exe- 
cution of fine artistic penmanship, and one 
may be eminent in either of these depart- 
and be without pretension in the 
To be a good business writer, re- 
a free, rapid, legible, and elegant 
hand. 'Writing, to be rapid, must be simple 
in its construclion, and entirely without 
superfluity. Any one who can write rapidly 
a really good business hand, possesses an 
enviable accomplish inent, and one that often 
proves more valuable for financial success, 
than the most exquisite attainments of the 
professional penman. To be a really skill- 
ful teacher of writing, is also an accom- 
]ilishment both honorable and remunerative. 
Special teachers of writing are now employ- 
ed in most of our large cities, at a liberal 
salary, while no business college, or other 
educational institution, having a commer- 
cial department, can-maintain a creditable 
standing without the aid of a skillful teach- 
er of writing; and in many portions of the 
country itinerant teachers still find lucrative 
employment. In many of our large cities, 
the demand for various forms of artistic 
and displayed penmanship, is sufiicient to 
give constant and remunerative employment 
to those having the requisite skill. This de- 
mand for the penman's work and skill has 
yrcatly aud rapidly increased within the 
past few years, on account of the discovery 
of various photographic processes, by which 
pen drawings are readily transferred to stone 
or glass plates, and printed as lithographs, 
or to metal relief plates, and printed upon a 
common press, the same as wood engraving 
or type. Thus a really skillful pen artist 
cuabled to come into direct and successful 
ompetition with the lithographer and en- 
:raver, and thereby not only greatly enlarge 
his field of labor, but to assume the dignity 
of peuman, artist, and engraver combined. 
Never has there been a more promising fu- 
ture for penmen well qualified for rendering 
eftloieut service in any department of pen- 
manship than now. The rapidly reviving 
business of the country demands the service 
of multitudes of good business writers, while 
the growing interest in practical education 
gives no less a demand for well qualified 
teachers, while to the artist penman there is 
open a field for profitable and honorable 
labor, limited only by his energy and skill. 

Our London Agency. 

For the convenience of the great number 
of applicants for the Journal and our pub- 
lications in Great Britain, we have estab- 
lished an agency with the \vell known In- 
tcrnational Kcws Company, 11 Bouverie St. 
(Fleet street), London, through whom the 
Journal or any of our publications may be 
safely and conveniently ordered; we hope 
thereby to largely increase our already num- 
erous list of subscribers among our British 
cousins. Those who desire can continue to 
remit directly to us. 

A Qneer Commercial Law Case. 

According to the Rev. Mr. Scuddcr, a 
issionary in India, four men bought a 
quantity of cotton in co-partnership. That 
rats might not injure it they bought a 
and agreed that each should own one of 
legs. Kach leg was then adorned with 
beads and other ornaments by its owner. 
The cat accidentally injured oue of its legs, 
id the owner wound a rag round it. soaked 
oil. The cat by chance set the rag on 
e, and. being in great pain, rushed among 
the cotton bales, where she had been accus- 
tomed to hunt rats. The cotton was totally 
burned. The three other partners brought 
against the owner of the invalid leg to 
ver the value of their cotton, aud the 
judge decided that as the injured leg coidd 
be used, the cat carried the fire to the 
cotton with her three remaining legs. They 
)nly were culpable, and their owners were 
■cquired to compensate the owner of the 
njurtd leg for bis share of loss. 

Bay's Spacing or Shading T Square. 
We again call atleution to this very use- 
ful instrument, a full description of which, 
ith terms, will be found in ouradvertising 
)hnnns, and also specimens of ruling and 
shading executed with its aid, with the rapid- 
ly of free hand lines. We can scarcely over- 
estimate the advantages we have derived 
the use of this 

. tha 


fully under- 
stood and appreciated, no draughtsman 
would be without it. It is al all times and 
be readily used for all the purposes of a 
T square, and by simply turning a 
thumb screw, it can be used for spacing or 
ihading purposes, which may be done on 
a horizontal line, or at any desired a ngle, 
and at any width of space from zero to 
seven eighths of an inch. We shall take plea- 
sure in exhibiting it to all who desire to see 
it in use, at our otfice, and all orders will 
be promptly filled. 

Communications to the Journal. 

For several issues past much more matter 
has been received, intended for the col- 
umns of the Journal, than they could con- 
tain. This is owing chietly to the unneces- 
sary length of many of the communications. 
Writers fur the press, and especially those 
young and inexperienced, should consider 
tbeir articles carefully lest the grain be hid 
and lost in a mountain of chaff. 

And we wish all our readers to bear in 
mind, that at best the correspondence of 
such a publication office as the Journal is 
burdensome, and that large one-sided and 
trashy communications are especially annoy- 
ing. If information is sought, mistakes are 
to be corrected, spare us the time and trouble 
of reading a page or two by way of pre- 
amble,int.roduction or apology ; state at once, 
and briefly your case, giving all necessary 
information, with your name and address 
distinctly, and we shall endeavor to give you 

Something New in Photography. 

D. N". Carvalho. of this city, has recently 
received patents, both in Europe aud the 
United Suites for a new and very important 
discovery for instantaneous photography 
the attainment of which has been earnestly 
sought for by photographic scientest for 
thirty yeaiB past. The discovery consist of 
the use of colors complimentary to each other, 
and which when exposed to each other, seem 
to affiliate, inducing an instantaneous de- 
composition of the sensitive plate, the time 
required being but a single moment. This 
discovery will undoubtedly work a revolu- 
tion in the art of photography. 

King of Clubs 

The largest number of subscribers sent by 
any one person during the month of Jan., 
was forty-eight, sent by A. A. Soulhworth 
teacher of writing in the State Norma! 
School, Valparaiso. Ind., and he says that 
he hopes to do better in the future. 

The second largest number has been sent 
by A. D. Wilt. Principal of Miami Busi- 
ness College, Dayton, Ohio, who has scat 
twenty-nine. Clubs are trumps ! 

Valuable Illustration. 
In the next issue of the Journal we shall 
give a most beautiful, original, and highly 
artistic rustic alphabet. To any penman or 
artist it will be worth twice the entire sub- 
scription price of the Journal for a year. 
We intend to make each single number of 
ihe Journal henceforth worth a dollar to 
any practical penman, pupil, and admirer 
of artistic penmanship. 

We are indebted and hereby express our 
thanks to Hamilton Pomcroy, Esq. ,14(t Broad- 
way, "Mutual Life" Law Department, 
for kindly furnishing material and rendering 
able and valuable assistance jn the prepara- 
tion of the digest, comracuced in this issue, 
of laws and rulings of courts touching the 
admission of expert testimony regarding 
handwriting in courlis of law. 

Ames' Compendium. 

College Currency. 
e now have ou band a stock, in con- 
venient denominations, of college currency, 
and 5, lU, 25, and 50 cent denominations of 
fractional currency which we can furnish 
by return of mail at low rates. Special or- 
ders for currency, diplomas, and display 
cuts of every description received and 
promptly filled in the highest style of art. 
Send for samples and terms. 


More new subscribers and renewals for 
the Journal have been received in the 
month of January, than during any other 
three months, since its publication. 

We return our thauks. and assure our pa- 
trons that their liberal favors will be fully 
recipmcated, in our increased effort to pre- 
sent them a paper worthy their growing 
favor and increasing patronage. 

Increased Rates for Advertising. 
Owiug to the largely increased circulat: 
of the JouBNAL, hereafter the regular ra 
per line, single insertion, will be twei 
cents: no advertisement received for less 
than sixty cents. 

Hereafter this work will be mailed on 
receipt of $4.50. It is universally con- 
ceded to be the most comprehensive and 
practical guide, in every department of ar- 
tistic and displayed pen work ever pub- 
lished. No penman seeking to excel in 
ornamental penmanship can afford to be 

F. P. Preuitt, who has recently opened a 
Businejs College ut Fort Worth,Texas,bas re- 
cently taken uuto himself a partner, not a 
felluw "Quill," but a maiden fair. Miss 
Effie Emery. The happy event transpired on 
the 23d inst., at Kaufman. Texas. The new 
firm have our heartfelt congratulations. 

Back Numbers- 
We still have remaining a few of all the 
back numbers of the Journal since and 
inclusive of the September number, 1877, 
twenty-seven up to volume four, which will be 
sent with eifkej' the " Lord's Prayer " or 
"Eagle" as a premium for ^1.50; both pre- 
miums and the "Centennial Picture of 
Progress" for ^3.00. 

The Ferkinaon Transfer Plate. 

We cull the attention of readers to this 
very convenient and economiaal invention 
for reproducing letters, circulars, <&c. AV'e 
have found it ' 

uother eolu 

Exchange Item. 

" The Teac/ier'n Gtiitle." published month- 
ly, by J. D. Hoicomb, Mallet Creek, O., isu 
sprightly eight page sheet, well filled with 
matter pertaining to education and other 
subjects of general interest. It is mailed 
one year for fifty cents. 

Dela^ ed. 

We have to ask the indulgence of o'lr 
readers for a slight delay in moiling tli<: 
present issue of the Journal, which o< - 
curred ou the account of an accident to ob<- 
of our cuts 


Writing Le 

If there be in the proviuee of penman- 
ship ouc thing of moru importance tbtin an- 
otluT, it is the accurate formation of the 
Arabic numerals. 

A word in a sentence may be so hastily 
or carelessly written as to be in itwlf, ob- 
aeon .or wholly unrecognizable, and yet 

] by reference to Us context easily deter- 
mined. Not so with figures, each one of 
which has a signiflcance of its own, and 
which cannot he aseerlained from its sur- 
roundings. The latter have long enjoyed 
no excellent reputation for veracity, and in 
such degree that it has been frequently 
averred that " figures cannot lie;" many lu- 
dicrous lis well aa grevious mistakes, have. 
however, arisen from them: but this does 
not militate against their fair fame, but 
falls heavily ujion those who carelessly, 
ihoughtlesnly, or ignorantly produce crude 
or doubtful forms in place of what should 
be certainty. 

I have kiiowa teachers to excuse pupils 
under their charge from practicing the num- 
erals as being unimportant, and I have been 
ask&d, "Will I copy the figures too?" 

"What good does it do to practice the fig- 
ures?"and other questions of similar char- 
acter, showing that an idea prevails quite 
generally among the youth of our schools, 
and to a limited extent among teachers, that 
no special study or practice of figures is 
necessary. We believe that figures should 
be made so accurately as that they not only, 
"cannot lie," hut that it shall be impossible 
to be deceived thereby, and to do this re- 
quires special practice; — to do it as rapidly 
as business may demand necessitates much 

The height of the numerals is one and one- 
half spaces from base line, except 6 which 
is one-half space higher; 7 and 9 extend 
one-half space below. Width, one space, 
exceptions / and o; width of cipher, one- 
half space. 

^-j The ciplier is formed by descend- 
^_ ing left curve united by short turn a* 
— bottom to ascending right curve meet- 
ing first curve at top. Shade slightly. 
—7 Figure / is a straight line made down- 
'/ ward with increasing shade, 
^j Figure 2 begins at full height with 
^^ right curve on main slant descend- 
ing three-fourths space and unit- 
ing by short turn to left curve ascend- 
ing to lop of letter, where it forms loop 
and by right carve descends to base line, 
then by short turn unites with horizontal 
left curve forming small loop and tfrmina- 
ting with right curve, one-third space above 
base line. Shade second downward stroke. 
~7? Figure j begins at full height with 
C2- descending right curve on main 

fllant exlcoding downward one-fourdi the 
length of flgure, then by short turn 
unitea to left curve which asccoding to 
top of letter, crosses llrel curve forming 
loop and by right cun'v dcAceodiog one-half 
space, and by narrow loop at right angles to 
slant of letter unites to base oval termina- 
ting three-fourths space above base line.i 
small loop. Shade smnll loop at top, and 
base oval. 

Figure 4 begins one and one-fourth 

'2^" space.H above base line with dcs- 

cending left curve continued one 

space where it unites angularly to left 
curve extending horizontally one and one- 
half sp%ce.H; from a point at full height 
of letter and one space to right of first curve 
extend a slight left curve to buse line cross- 
ing middle of horizontal left curve. Shade 

first curve. 

— ^ Figure 5 begins at full height 

YJ _ slight right curve descending 

'half space and uniting to base 

— the loop and oval being preeisel, 
in 7. Finish with horizontiil straight 
extending from point of beginniug 
thirds space to right. Shade oval. 
—^ Figure b begins two spaces above 
'^ base line with slight left curve 

which descends on main slant to 

biiHc and by full turn unites to right curve 
iiscending oa main slant one space and uni- 
ting by short turn to descending left curve 
terminating at base. Average distance be- 
tween left curves, one third space. Shade 
first downward stroke similar to shade of ( 
and (/. 

— y-r Figure 7 begins at full height by 
/ ^_ straight line descending one-fourlli 
■^"~' space upon main slant, unite angu- 
larly to a left and right curve extending to 
the right one space, and at full height join 
angularly to a straight line on main slant 
terminating one-half space below base line, 
Shade last straight line similar to shade oip. 
~-f^ F'guro S begins one space above 
"iO base line with right curve extend- 

iug to the full height of letter, 

where by oval turn it unites with a leftcurve 
extending three-fourths space, where it 
merges into right curve continuing to base 
line and uniting by short turn to left curve 
which forming loop at half the height of 
letter and passing through the middle of 
top terminates ut full height of letter. 
Shade below loop. 

__ Figure 9 is formed by uniting the 
y'l pointed oval of a, rf, g, or y to a 

— straight Hue like that of 7. Shade 
both downward strokes. 


Milking flguves too large, too angular, or 
loo elaborate; omitting portions; shading 
wrong parts; shading too heavily. 

The next lesson 
after which the second sjjeciuien of penman- 
ship should be sent for comparison with 
first, and that the relative improvement of 
all competitors may be determined and 
awards by competent judges be made in ac- 
cordance with the plan set forth in March 

AH the specimens should be received as 
soon as March 20th. as it is desirable to an- 
nounce the list of awards and the names 
and addresses of the recipients in the April 
number of this Jouknal. 

For hors-^s and wagons S.ToO 

For freight 00 goods .^[sotj 

For expenses conducting bueiness. . 6,642 

For cattle shipped to Chicago 30.200 

For expenses shipping stock 1,760 

Remaining on band $10,400 

He also reports a list of uncollecta- 
ble accounts, which are allowed as 

Book-keeping Department. 



y open at top; unequal 

Milking: / with initial right curve; with 
diminishing shade. 

Milking too small loop at top of _>, and 
loo large at bottom ; making figure loo angu- 
lar; omitting portions. 

Making upper part of j too long; turn- 
ing second loop downward; making figure 
too angular; omitting portions. 

Making first part of ./too high; making 
figure too long and too narrow; extending 
the second curve loo far below crossing. 

Making fii-st part of 5 too long; ending 
hose oval abruptly ; finishing figure with a 
disconnected curved line instead of con- 
nected straight line. 

Making t too short and too much curved 
at top; making base oval too small and in- 
correctly divided 

Omitting first line of 7/ making figure 
loo short; making it to resemble figure / 
with initial line. 

lleversing the order in forming J/ omit- 
ting portions of top; crossing loop too high 
or too low. 

Milking top of oval of p too obtuse; unit- 
ing it to straight line too groat distance; 
milking figure too short. 

It is hoped that those who have practiced 
according to the instruction of the preced- 
ing lessons, many of whom have sent very 
satisfactory accounts of progress, will work 
as earnestly during this month upon this 

ish to offer 

the desire of every commercial 
make his school-room \ 
field in which his students may gathi 
practical thoughts and ideas as is 
The problem reftrred to is not a complicated 
may serve to test the aptness of 
the practical accountant. But we refer to it 
in this connection as a specimen of examples 
such OS, we tliiuk, should frequently be pre- 
sented to classes in book-keeping. Questions 
of a more simple character may be ut firit 
given and these gradually followed by others 
of a complicated and intricate coustructiou, 
the complex problems being introduced as 
the teacher finds his student brightening up 
to the work. The analysis of these prac 
tical examples will gradually lead the learner 
to exercise thought and judgment rather than 
to follow out some stereotyped process of 

Suppose the example to which reference iu 
made be submitted by the instructor to his 
school and a request made for all who have 
been in attendance one month or more to 
bring in a neatly gotten up statement, show- 
ing the process of doing the work aud the 
result. These statements should be as care- 
fully .prepared by the. student as if he had 
been employed by the parties in question to 
do the work for them. As soon as they have 
been received by the tfeacher he should make 
up a report for publication in the Journal, 
showing the proportion of students who had 
solved the probk-m co 
where the accuracy, nea 
serving of special mention the work should 
be forwarded with the report and the proper 
notice would follow. 

The fair number of solutions which have 
been received in response to questions given 
in the last number is a guarantee that 
broad interest will soon be awakened in tl 
department. We w ill spare uo pains 
bringing about the desired wishes of those 

After auditing bills and making a proper 
adjustment of all accounts and proprietary 
interests, it is proposed to dissolve the co- 
partnership. Adams proposes to purchase 
the resources of the Chicago office, and West 
agrees to take the Houston house with prop- 
erty and goods. A general discount of :;0 
per cent is agreed upon for all fixtures and 
furniture, aud of 10 per cent for horses aud 
wagons. The goods are to be valued at 
prices given by West in his report with 
freight added thereto. Question : Which 
partner is indebted to the other upon a tiual 
settlement ? llequired : A comprehensive 
of all 
&. This 
w entries 
admit of 

showing an adji 
and proprietary in 
should be made witti 

as possible aud yet be so lucid 

perfect analysis. 

irs and solutions 
given in the last 


We have received ai 
to examples aud probl 
number, as follows ; 

To O. P. and Q. interest 
ginius H. Wyatt, Old Doi 
Richmond. Va.; H. S. Walker, O. D. B. C, 
Richmond, V. ; W". G. Hussey, Augusta. 
Me.; J. L. Luxford, student 0. D. B. C. 
Richmond, Va. 

Answer as given by above journal entry 
for adjusting through interest account : 
Interest to sundries $140 83 


$56 93 

P 67 40 

Q Iti 50 

For adjusting by cancellation: 
(i lu sundries |30 44 


» 99 

i the 
i practical significance which 
J demands, 
the problems early for the next 

,vho would 1 

W. A. Adams, of Chicago, and J. C.West, 
of Houston. Texas, entered into copartner- 
ship. The agreement specified that Adams 
should remain at Chicago and West at 
Houston. Adams should buy goods in Chi- 
cago and ship to the Houston house and 
should dispose of cattle shipped him by 
West. It was the business of West to buy 
cattle for shipping to the Chicago market, 
and to dispose of goods shipped him by 
Adams. Adams should be entitled to one- 
third of the profits aud liable for one-third of 
the losses of the Houston department, while 
West was to have a third interest in the 
operations of the Chicago house. The busi- 
ness had been conducted upon this under- 
standing for one year when the copartners 
met aud presented statements of business 
transacted in their respi^ctive departments. 

fieceipts from sales of cattle $ 45,000 

For ofiBce fixtures aud furniture $ 1,280 

For freight on cattle 3,526 

For goods shipped to Houston 37,200 

For various expenses .5,2y0 

Sent Houston house draft for 10,000 

Received from Adams per draft $10,000 

Received from sate of goods 4O..'>00 

For stove and office fixtures 3,250 

P 30 45 

Answers to M. and N. investment exam- 
ple: W. G. Hussey, Virginius H. Wyatt, H. 
B. Walker, J. L. Luxford aud J. A. Wil- 
liams, Hazel Green, Wis. Answer as 
given: M.'s investment after gains have 
been adjusted, $2,730, and N.'s $3,843.75. 

Answer to problem 1 ; TUos. Emmelte, 
Central High School, Middletown, Conn. 
Answer as given is that the partner who in- 
vested the $220 is entitled to receive the 
amount of cash in hand, which be makes, 
$174.46, and should also receive from the 
partner $23.77 additional. The net loss is 
shown to be $45.54. Mr. Emmelte thus 
prefaces bis solution : '■ I do not agree with 
the partner in a business of four mouths du- 
ration who claims for his share of gain or 
loss $111.23. It is diflicult to tell which be 
means the phraseology is so ambiguous. 
In one line he calls it a total gain of $222.46, 
aud then contradicts the. statement by say- 
ing, 'I hold that by dividing the $222.40 I 
divide with niy partner half the loss, aud 
that my actual share is the remainder on 

Mr. E. bases bis solution upon the hy- 
pothesis that the total cash debits were 
$1,715.01, and made up thus: 

Investment $ 220 

From business done 1,351 61 

From sale of business 144 


John R. Sparrow, of Wright's Business 
College, Brooklyn, writes thus : 

" I desire to express my accordance with 
the views of Prof. Cochran in regard to the 
JopBNAL devoting a column to the elucidation 
of original questions emanating from the 
counting-house. Outside of my duties in the 
school room I have considerable of this work 
to do. aud I often feel constrained co urge 
upon business men, and especially the 
younger class, the importauce of adopting 
rigid aud systematic methods for recording 
business affairs. 

I hope the introduction of this depiirtmeut 
will be carried out and made successful, aud 
I am satisfied that it will become a lever of 
good in the commercial school as well as out 
of it." 


the w 

shield upon 


streamers benrinc 

either side. 

'I'ho » 

tljree and n 


f il,-iK 

round, the scidII, 
!tlic- names nf the 
those nf all ihe 


riif^SS Co. 


Total 1,715 01 

If the answer given is not the correct one 
it is ascribable to a misconstruction of ihe 
wording given in the problem. 

Answer to problem 2: John R. Sparrow, 
WrigUfs B. C. Brooklyn; P. L. Lord, Dar- 
ling's B. C, Rochester, Minn. Answer as 

Cash $31 81 

21 10 

To nidse $31 fii 

Wm. Uoles 7 00 

Smith &G 4 27 

H. G. Osborne 10 00 

. L. Luxford also gives a journal 

entry for the same problem which differs 
the above only in the merchandise 
hich he credits 33 cents as a dif- 


Western Ba.sijir,, Cnii, ,.,._ (,,„ulia, Nebnis- 
ka, was reccTiil^ ili.' irci|tt- m of a beautiful 
SI ver caster, pn-i-ntL-il l,y liis students. 

The Omahit B<r. spL-ukuii; of the occa- 
sion, says: '■ I'lof. Kalhbun seems to be a 
great favorite with his students as the vari- 
ous testimonials he has treasured up will 

John Joss and J. W. Remisb.bave recent- 
ly opened a business college at Galveston 
Texas. Their prospectus is a model of good 
taste, and spealt slrougly in their favor 
as do the many warm testimonials from 
prominent citizens of Galveston and else- 
where. We wish them success. 

Oi!<> of tb'> nii-'-l hisiyand elegant school 
ciniiliii-; \\.. iLivr fvri-seeu, was only recent- 
ly is^ih-l h\ ihr l'.i.\ lint &Stratlou (Buffalo) 
I*|i^|'|' • ' ' i' -' I'liiounciuglhere-opeuiug 

The Rev. F. B. Wheeler, of Poughkecpsie, 
N. Y., recently preached a special and very 
able aud interesting sermon before the slu- 
denla of the Eastman Business College of 
that city. 

The Youngstown Business College, con- 
ducted by Jos. H. Cook, is highly compli- 

by the Warren, Ohio, Tribune. Mrs. 

C. A. Allis Cook, the teacher of writing, is 
of ihe most accomplished lady writers 

n the country. 
Col. J. P S^ 


! befoi 


< bet^^ 

the t 

given 1 


ihe above. 

Communications from practical 
anis to this department are respectfully 

bany (N. 
subject of ■ ■ 1 1 
Was highly mt 
prefaced his h'l 

ical sketch, during w^ich he staled tCal'be 
had crossed the Atlantic seventeen limes and 
visited every kingdom, empire aud republic 
upon which the sun shines. He then de- 
scribed the -'Sentinels of Antiquity," which 
he had seen and investigated in foreign 
I lands. The great pyramids and obelisks of 

dwelt at length upOD the marrcloua di 
erie» mudc by tlio cxcsvatioiia of Pompeii. 
He khUI it wan bin good fortune to wiiacss 
the opening of the tomb of an Egyptian prin- 
d-M. TIiL' cotlln weighed fourteen tons, 
while nroiind the interior of the tomb were 
painted churaclcrs. the coloring of which 
wa-H an clear and bright as if painted but yes- 
terday. The body waa cncawrd in five hun. 
drtd fold* of linen, and the cloth was of the 
llncittu:xturc. The golden necklace wciRhed 
tbrt-cquartcra of a pound, and for work- 
manHliip liAfl never been equaled. At the 
entrance to the city stands the famous 'Sen- 
try llox," the hero immortalized by Bulwer, 
the gla«w botilc« found in drug stores, the 
baker's bread, the word •'welcome." in 
mosaic, were all mentioned as proofs of the 
use of ihenc articles, long before they were 
supposed to be discovered. IlcturoJng to 
" new liinrs." the colonel said he considered 
our railwny from Albany to New York equal 
in iiiiporiiince to any great event of mocfcrn 
limf', for (lie rcHtfon llmt it is of prnctical 

■ hi>[ml foiii biilliiiul future fui hi 


A. H. Dfikiu, Tuiiy. N. V., unles a baud- 
Kome lottor in which be incloHe!) a skillfully 
executed specimen of UourLibiug, 

F. P. Preuitt, Fort Worth, Texas, Sfuds 
several tino Bpecimeus of copy-writing. He 
reports good succusH iu his ti-iiobiug. 

Three oinbornto and skillfully executed 
specimens of off hand flourisliiiig have been 
ret;eiv«d from Qoorge A. Kntbbun, Omalia, 

H. J. Williamson, Morrisville, N. 0., sends 
several elegantly written copy- slips ; aUo 
specimen nf Qourishing exhibiting more tbau 
ordinary degree of skill iu design and exeou- 

We have received a photo-litbographed 
copy, 22x'26 inches in size, of a pen and ink 
picture, entitled, "The Monument of Pro- 
phecy," i-xocuted with a pen by John liock- 
wrtod, Natiirk. Muss. It is a work of more 
thiiu ordiiiiiry iiunt. viewed eitlier as a skill- 
ful produi-t [if thi^ pen cr as au ingenious and 
iirtisti? prohfuliitiou of Biblical history iind 
I>roi)lu'(\v. 'I he work will attract ntteuliou 
nniout^ tbo-ir interested in the subject. 

Answers to 


H, p. — Ques. Ist. Does "Amos' Compen- 
dium " ^ivf piinted instructions for flourinb- 
iuj;. .^n«rossiug. Av. V It gives no iustnietiou 
b.y.iiid pr.'seuliiig « variety of alpha- 
bets and prin'tionl examples of Sourisbiug and 
ongros^^ing, which it does to a fuller extent 
tliAU any other public^ition. Ques. 2d. Cuuld 
you not give brief biugntpbies of the leading 
ptMimen of the country, and give cuts of 
th<Mu in the Jot'RNAi. '/ In my judgment, 
uotbtuK would H've your readers greater 
s»tisfiwtiou. We shall probably do so shortly. 
Ques. M. Could you not give some practical 
It'ssouK in tlourisbing ' At the close of Prof, 
Keiley's wntmg lessons, which will be with 
the ut>zt issue, tte shall be^in a course of 
practical lessons iu flourishing, to be followed 
with lessons in lettering and deniguiug. 

V. B., Cuba, III.— What i« the best way to 
make gilt writiug on t-ards? Hovr should 
India ink be prepared for use ? Writing in 
gdt is best done by using what is known as 

This work is universally conceded by the press, professional penmi 
generally, to be the most comprehensive, practical, and artistic guide "" 
manship ever published. Sent, postpaid, to any add: 
premium for a club of twelve subscribers to the Journal. 

The above cut represents the title page of the work, which is 11 x U i 

ind artists 

enlal peu 

receipt of $4.50, or as a 

gold or silver inks, which are composed of 
gold or silver bronze mixed with a fine quality 
of liquid glue. It flows readily, and has a 
fine appearance when written. We can send 
cither by express for 75 cents, India ink 
ready prepared iu Uquid form does well for 
ordinary purposes. Yet for fine, delicate 
work the best quality of stick ink freshly 
ground in a tray containing rain water is 
best. The liquid we send by express for (>0c. 
per bottle; ^2.00 per stick by mail ; a half 
stick $1.00. 

FrereqniBites of SacceES. 

Integrity of character and truth in tbe^in- 
aer-mau are the prerequisites of success in 
any calling, and especially so iu that of the 
merchant. These are the attributes which 
never fail to command respect and wiu ad- 
miration. No one fails to appreciate tbem, 
and, if they " do not pay" iu the vulgar 
sense of the phrase, they bring an amount of 
satisfaction aud peace to the owner that all 
the wealth of Crcesus could not yield. 

There is no better stock in trade than these 
principles; no capital gees so far or pays so 
well, or is so exempt from bauki'uptcy and 
loss. When known, they give credit and 
confidence, and in the hardoat of times will 
honor your paper in bank. They give you 
au uulimited capital to do business upon, and 
everybody will endorse your paper, and the 
general faith of mankind will be your guar- 
anty that you do not fail. Let every young 
man, upon commencing business, look well 
to tbo!ie indispensable elements of success, 
and defend them as he would the apple of 
his eye. If inattentive and reckless here, he 
will imperil everything. Bankruptcy in char- 
acter is seldom repaired in an ordinary life- 
time. A man may suffer in reputation and 
recover ; not so the man who suffers iu char- 
Be just and truthful. Let these be the 
ruling and predominating principles of your 
life, and reward will be certain, either in the 
happiness they bring to your own bosom, 
the success which will attend upon alt your 
business operations iu life, or both. — Halifc 

If you know a good thing or have a happy 
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I Hie columns of the Journal is the plaei 
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TUOMAS MAY PEIltCB, M. A., rtiiiclpal, 
30 South Toiith Stroot, PblUddlphU. 

far more difficult. The long in- 
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for buhioess penmen, but hardly 

executioQ i 



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LEGE. -lOS 8. lOtU Straot, PblUdelpliia, Pa. 

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suited for our younger pupils. The pen 
not creep up these long curves easily ; being 
at the start almost at right angles to main 
Hiaol. they are exceedingly awkward of exe- 
cution, unless struck with a broad, off-hand 

For business writii.g such curves are ad- 
mirable, but for young pupils, they present 
extraordinary difficulties, and are seldom ex- 
ecuted wilb any degree of success. Sim- 
plicity of form is no evidence of ease of 
execution. The long distressed curves which 
most pupils give to these current ovals are 
not stimulating to progress. The standard 
oval, whether direct or inverse, gives more 
play to the muncles, a more natural move- 
ment, and better training for the hand th 
any modificatiou of it. The shorter curi) 
require less scope, a-id the pupil is better 
able to approximate a true curve. The prac 
tice in writing these curves parrallel is a fine 
educating process for both eye and hand. 

We cannot afford to banish the standard 
oval from the school-room. And in general, 
a thorough elementary drill on the standard 
letteri will prove the best possible prepara- 
tion for the bold, rapid, and off-hand strokes 
of busineHs penmanship. 

The third and last division of capitals 
that of the Inverse Ovals. There i 


. New York. 

Ttte Writing Class. 

The three standard movements iu writing 
are tho tstmight-line movement, tbo Direct- 
oval movement, and the Inverse-oval move- 
ment. These tliree include every written 
form, and are the gtxiundwork of practice. 
The child's hand should be educnt«d on the 
staudant, or 0, oval in both Direct and In- 
T«nie movement. And iu the earlier stages 
of his practice he should not be given any 
more current, off-hand, or busiueas forms. 

By carrying up from base a long left-curve 
to combine directly with the shaded right- 
oarve, wo obtain a modification of the stand- 
ard oval ; a popular business style- There ore 
(ewer lines iu this abbr«Tiat«d form, bat the 

groups of these letters, and the family like- 
w is strongly marked in both. " Children, 
direct Ovals the left-curves are alway 
made on downward movement. In Inverse 
Ovals the Inft-curvcs are always made on up- 
So you see that in writing 
Ovals the hand moves in just the 
opposite direction from what it does in writ- 
ing the Direct Ovala (illustrating both move- 
menU on the board). Now I will write the 
framework of these capitals by itself, and 
will cut off the long, shaded curve, and you 
may think how you wiU name the part which 
is left ; think, and not guess. " I next write 
beside the small inverse Oval, a Direct Oval 
of the eame size, in order to interpret the 
form to the class. The children's minds be- 
gin to work: "Oh! the second is a little 
citpitalO;" "And the first is a httle capital 
O upside down." " Now. if we combine this 
littU capital upside down with the long, 
shaded curve, thus, we have again the new 
framework for our new letters. What you 
caU (hf little capital upside do,m is the In- 
verse Oval. When you \\Tite it, give easy 
play to the arm and fingers, letting tlie hand 
glide gently on the finger rest." 

Inverse oval principle begins at height of 
one space, and rises with left-curve on main 
slant a Uttle above height of three spaces, 
turns to right, and descends with right-curve 
on main slant to height of one space, turns 
to left and follows course of first curve with- 
in a haU-space to head-line, turns again to 
right and descends with shaded right-cnrve 
within a half space of oval to base. Have 
the heaviest part of shade opposite center of 
Inverse Oval Width of inner oval, one i 

space ; distjtnces to right and left of same, 
one half-tipace. Practice both Direct and 
Inverse oval movements with the dry pen, 
as a preparatory exercise. 

" Children each letter of the group begins 
with the Inverse Oval, so we will write it 
once for all. Now, from resting-point at 
base, make first a slight right-curve well 
slanted clear to top; from tbis point make 
next a very slight l^ft-curve on main slant 
nearly to base, add the shortest possible 
turn, and finish with right-curve on main 
slant at height of two spaces. Final curve 
of IK. like that of N, droops a little at top 
to give a graceful finish to the letter. In 
written W. instead of the right point at base 
as in the Roman letter, there is the shortest 
possible turn. Make the angles narrow near 
top and base of letter, but keep the lines 
ipen clear from the point of the angle, The 
distances are equal across center of letter. 
Width at base, one and two-thirds spaces." 
A critical point in Wis the slant of the third 
main-curve, which should not follow the 
course of the preceding curve, but contin- 
ually diverge from it, otherwise the balance 
of the letter is lost. 

I next erase the last three curves, leaving 
only the Inverse Oval. "Now begin at top, 
well to the right of oval, and bring down a 
left curve well slanted so as to strike the 
sliaded line at center, add a full turn to base, 
and finish as in C, with a small Direct Oval. 
These long curves look iust as though they 
crossed at center. What Roman capital has 
two long lines which cross at center ?" A' is 
readily remembered, and the analogy at once 
recognized. " When you write Xyou have 
only to make an Inverse and a Direct Oval, 
letting the long curves touch at center. 
Main width at top and base, one and two- 
thirds spaces." 

Now prase all but the Inverse Oval and 
the part of that below height of one space ; 
iry the long shaded curve on increased 
slant to base, and combine it in a narrow 
horizontal loop one space in length with a 
double-curve, which touches base a little to 
right of crossing-point of loop, and ends at 
height of one space, one sijace to right of 
' oval. You can always remember capital Q, 
children, because it looks so much like the 
figure 2." Compare the lower part of shaded 
curve in Q with that in -Y. to illustrate the 
change of slant, which is the critical point 
in the letter. 

"Again, erase all below height of one 
space ; complete the long curve on usual 
slant to base, and make a full oval turn, which 
forms a narrow, slantt^d loop to height of 
one-third space, and combines from base 
with lower loop as in the same small 
letter." Round off Roman Z and finish with 
lower loop in order to name the written let- 
ter. In Qand Z. inner left curves of Inverse 
Oval are main hnes. Critical point in Z, the 
full, oval turn combining the main parts. 
The slanted loop is incidental, and is left out 
of the small letter. The whole of capital Z 
iply the repetition of Inverse Ovals, 
n our last group, the Inverse Oval has 

base with a slight double-curve on main slant, 
which ends with a gracefiU bend at height of 
two spaces." The beauty of this letter de- 
pends upon thesymmetry of the main ourvci. 
Let the pupils compare and analyze these 
double-curves. Main width of Fat center, 
two-thirds space. 

"For capital U, erase all but the Inverae 
Oval, and from the turn at base carry up a 
slight right curve on main slant to height of 
two spaces and one space to right of pre- 
ceding curve ; from this point make a straight 
line on main slant nearly to base, add a short 
turn, and finish with final curve as iu small 

"Letusnext change iTto Y." The chil- 
dren watch with interest while I erase the 
final turn ond curve, and complete the last 
main line with a lower loop. Main width of 
f and F, one space. 

For the And sign, begin at height of two 
spaces, and simply write in reverse order the 
main curves of capital V, and finish from 
top with the crossing-curve, which is the 
section of a full oval. The shade is on lower 
part of first curve. 


iblo-curve for the main line, " iilustraf- 
_ o the class. "For capital V, this shad- 
ed double-curve combiseB in a short turn at 

The Philosophy of Handwriting. 

A book, having the above title, written by 
Don Felii, D. S., Salamanca, lately pub- 
lishcd in London, has just been the subjeot 
of several lengthy and somewhat compli- 
mentary reviews by the metropolitan press. 
The work presents in fac nmilt the auto- 
graphs of one hundred and fifty-three cele- 
brities, mostly Europeans, there being only 
a few of Americans; at the head of each 
page is placed an autograph, which Is fol. 
lowed by a brief diagnosis of its authors' 
character, as deduced from his ■' sign 
manual," as to how much there is in this 
beyond the author's caprice is a question 
upon which readers will entertain a widely 
varying opinion, but upon the whole we ap- 
prehend that no reader will fail to find the 
work enlerlaiuing, or will they deny its rare 
literary merit. 

" An autograph," say» the writer, ■• may 
generally be accepted as truly characteristic 
of its writer. It Is often written more 
carefully— always more fluently— than the 
remainder of his manuscript; and from these 
very circumstances— from the extra care, 
deliberations, and frequency of its use— ac- 
quires a settled form that better portrays its 
author's idiosyncrasies than could any quan- 
tity of his other writing. The handwriting 
bears au analogy to the character of the 
the elder D'lsraeli remarks : " as all 
voluntary actions are characteristic." One 
ily to ponder over the strength of 
the.'.e fluctuating feelings which pass from 
the heart or brain into the fingers— impelling 
hem to reveal or conceal the thoughta of 
he scribe— to feel that it is not claiming too 
much to claim for them the power of im- 
printing some "touch of Nature" on the 
page— some touch by which the adept may 
be more or less guided to a comprehension 
of the writer's character. Of course it is 
not always the workmanship of the best 
scribe that is the easiest for the chiromancer 
to unriddle, any more than the artist finds 
his best models in the prettiest fact s. 

Hawthorne ob-serves, in an unknown 
essay of bis own autographs; "There are 
said to be temperaments endowed with sym- 
pathies so esquisite that, by merely handling 
an autograph they can detect the writer's 
character with unerring accuracy, and read 

his ioraost heart aa easily as a less gifted 
eye would peruse a written page, without 
pretending to such prctcrnalunil discern- 
ment as that shsdowed forth by the author 
of • The Scarlet Letter.* The longer I study 
chiromancy the more assured do I becomc 
of its value and utility." 

It has been declared that next to seeing a 
distinguished man we desire to Bce his 
portrait, and. after thai his aulograph. But 
an aulograph has this advantage over a 
portrait, it mutt be faithful, which a portrait 
rarely is. In perusing the veritable hand- 
writing of a celebrated person, we seem 
brought into personal contact with him, 
and are ready to exclaim with Calderon. in 
his inimitable " Secrets of Voices:" 
" Whftt, biB ■iito(fr»ph I Ul» letter I 
Every IIdo LlsOffo linudwiitlDgl" 

Again, alluding to the autograph of dis- 
tinguished people, Hawthorne says: "Their 
written words may come to us as with the 
living utterance, spoken face to face in 
friendly communion.'! "Strange," he con- 
tinues, " that the mere identity of paper and 
ink should be so powerful." 

The same thoughts might look cold and 
ineffectual in a printed book; in truth, the 
original manuscript has always something 
which, when printed, is inevitably lost. 
An erasure, even a blot, a casual irregu- 
larity of hand, and all such liiile imperfec- 
tions of mechanical execution, bring us 
close to the writer, and perhaps convey 
some of those subtile intimations for which 
language has no shape. 

Although the cliirographical performances 
of men secluded from the hurry and turmoil 
of the outer world may reasonably be sup- 
posed to have a finish in style and impress 
of individuality utterly unattainable by the 
handwriting of toilers in more hurried pur- 
suits Accustomed to jot dowu hasty notes 
in the midst of his dully avocations, with 
any implement obtainable, the lawyer or 
physician acquires speedily a style— or want 
of style — totally at variance with that 
ordained for bim by Nature or previous 
education. Editorial urgency, also, fre- 
quently ruins a man's calligraphy, and re- 
duces it to anything but a fortuitous con- 
glomeration of ciphers, beyond the skill of 
jv Champolliou to interpret. Yet, when it is 
eonsiilered that "one shade the more, one 
shade the less," ofttimes makes all the dif- 
ference between the legil)le and the incom- 
prehensible, and that, indeed, the addition 
of a single comma onco made a man's legacy 
ten thousand francs less, the importance of 
writing clearly, and punctuating correctly— 
on art almost unknown— is apparent. 

The importance of handwriting has been 
recognized and carefully giuirded by leg- 
islation, which, indeed, attaches more 
value to a single signature than to the per- 
sonal testimony of numerous witnesses, and 
permits a dead man's autograph to make or 
mar the future happiness of bis fellows. 

A strong resemblance is oftimes discern- 
ible between the handwriting of various 
members of a family, especially after prac- 
tice has caused the style to become settled. 
D'Israeli says that "to every individual. 
Nature bus given a distinct sort of writing, 
as she has given them a peculiar counten- 
ance, voice and manner; and it is but com- 
pleting the analogy to point out how Nature 
has, also, given family resemblances in all 
these peculiarities. Indeed it is not over- 
straining the limits of this theme to assert 
that not only are the idiosyncracies of in- 
dividual scribes proclaimed by their pen- 
mausliip, but even the pecularities of whole 
nations. For example, the writing of a 
Frenchman is generally florid, almost fever- 
ish in its petit, fantastic formations; while a 
commercial carefulness distinguishes the 
calligrapby of the refleclivo tutor. The 
lUilian is cf a finer but less forcible type 
than the French, but has many features of 
similarity, as has. Indeed, the manuscript of 
the whole Latin race.'" 

From among the many autographs and 
comments thereon we have selected the fol- 
lowing, which may be considered as fairly 
representative of the whole work : 

Tln> writing of no American poet is so 
plc.isiuy to us aa that of Oliver Wendell 

Holmes. It is somewhat old fashioned, like 
his verse, and like that has a polish of a 
man accustomed to good society; is, indeed, 
that of a gentleman. There are no needless 
flourishes on the one hand, nor unsightly 
conlractiooB on the other, but there is a very 
determined kind of finish to nearly every 
word, as much as to say, ' I am Dr Holmes, 
and Dr. Holmes, aa yon are aware, issome- 
body.' There is just that amount of inde- 
pendence to he looked for in this writer as 
would preserve him from doing a shabby 
act, without any traces of those flourishes 
which betoken offensive egotism. A fluent, 
clear, gracefully (luaint chirography is that 
of the ' Professor,' with dash just enough 
about it to intimate the humor for which 
Holmes-the witty wise— is famous The 
tails of letters carried below the line do not 
loop, but have a merry twirl, apparently sug- 
gestive of their writer's drolleries. If we 
have any fault to find with Holmes's JTand- 
sckn/t. it is that, as a rule, it is written with 
too fine a quill, His signature has greatly 
improved of late, and is better executed 
than the body of his letters. It is impossi- 
ble that a man who writes ai the ' Pro- 
fessor' does could be anything but kind- 

strike the double-curve. After nearly a score 
and a half of years of thought and study, I 
am. it seems to me, just beginning to get 
fiooie glimpses of what is meant by that tru- 
ine. syllabic word, Bngines-i. A deeper in- 
tromission into its esoteric meaning has been 
attained only by the study of political econ 
omy and this eminently business branch is. I 
observe, beginning to secure the attention its 
commanding importance demands Econo- 
mics is the real substratum of business educa- 
tion. If the business student aspires to the 
masteryofthe business branches, the road to 
the most desirable eminence will be found to 
lead along the highway of economic science. 
He should observe how intimately associated 
are the aUied sciences of economics and ac- 
counts. Would he be a master of bookkeep- 
iug, then let him study political economy, at 
least, so much as to give him the true con- 
of value. Political economy is the 
of value, while book-keeping is the 

, and tracing it 
changes, he very i 


Tlie Vestal Virgins could not have devo- 
ted more care to the preservation of the 
Sacred Fire, thau Mr. Bret Harte must ex- 
ercise over his microscopically minute calli- 
graphy, in order to maintain its legibility. 
In fact, despite the real beauty of his hand- 
writing, our Califoroian friend baa drawn 
down his ' pothooks and hangers' to such 
Lilliputian dimensions, that he may be con- 
sidered to have brought them to a redudio 
ad abmrdum. In chirography, as in all 
things, a happy medium may be preserved, 
and whilst Polyphemian proportions should 
be avoid'jd on the one hand, on the other, 
Aristratosian* invisibility is equally unde- 
sirable. Certainly it must be conceded that 
Bret Harte's handwritintr, however dimlnu- 
,ive, is clearly, and generally coirectly 
shaped. A fondness for looping two or 
three words together, and the occasional 
suppression of a letter, are the chief faults 
beyond the smallness— calling for animad- 
version. Seen through a microscope, the 
calligraphy is a fairly commendable one, 
and proves its author to be a careful and 
painstaking man. A spice of quaintness 
would have improved its character :— 
Which tUeaame I am free to mfttntain. 

When Cincinnatus returned tohis plough, 
he probably paid more attention to turning 
his furrows neatly than to cultivating the ele- 
gancies of calligraphy. Nowa-days retired 
patriots are not permitted to enjoy their oti- 
urn cum dignitate apart from the outer world's 
ken. and Garibaldi -no more than any other 
distinguished individual— is not allowed to 
flourish unheard even if unseen. His truest 
friends, indeed, deem it a pity that the old 
general does indulge in his chirographical 
exploits, but with that we have nnlhing to 
do: our duty is to judge the form and fash- 
ion of his letters' constituent parts. A clear 
straightforward, unvarnished style is that 
indited by the far-famed Italian, unmarked 
by any particular mannerisms or eccentrici- 
ties, and not very unlike an English hand in 
most salient features. The autograph is, in 

every respect, representative. 


The Business Student. 

To suppose that the man of business has 
no special need of culture, is a great fallacy. 
Possibly, for the complete mastery of busi- 
ness, there may be a broader scope to thought 
and study than many suppose. Upon his 
last visit to the Albany College, just before his 
decease, P. R. Spencer remarkedto me, that 
after a life of study and practice of penman- 
ship, he was just beginning to learn how to 

e of keeping trace of value. Transac 
ire the exchange of values. Business 
lange. Beginning, therefore, with val- 
bewildering ex- 
labled to handle 
the most difficult tranactions of business. 
Wg have yet many teachers of business 
who honestly think, political econ- 
omy has little or nothing to do with book 
keeping. Such teachers perhaps can inform 
the business students, bow value in its ex- 
changes, becomes property, debt, loss, gain ; 
but really I do not know how ! I have not 
emphasized economics and accounta as the 
only studies of the business curriculum. The 
business student, if be would be proficient, 
must give earnest study to the law-merchant, 
science of government, commercial geo- 
graphy. and ethics. On these subjects, ct least, 
the business student should receive frequent 
lectures. Commercial geography is eminent- 
ly a business study. No business student, iu 
this age of protean conimerce, can be regard 
ed commercially educated, whose miud has 
not been awakened, at least, if not stored with 
geographic information touching the relative 
itftges of different industries and marts 
dr various localities in both hemispheres. 
The business student of America needs to 
know much about the productions and man- 
ufactures not only of his own country, but 
those of the other nations of the earth. He has 
a single business carefr before him, and he is 
interested in seeking the most eligible local- 
ity, and in realizing, as early as possible, a 
competent share in the world's wealth. 

Then, too, scarcely second to any of the 
other business studies, which have direct bear- 
ing upon ultimate and permanent success, is 
a knowledge, at least, of the priuciples of 
ethics. In these the business student should 
be thoroughly rooted and grounded. By this 
is meant not dogmatic theology or any special 
religious tenets, but such laws and priuciples 
of human conduct, as are revealed in pure 
ethical laws. Few, perhaps, as yet. of our 
iialteachers, are aware that they have 
directly within their own reach, means of im- 
parting a knowledge of ethics, scarcely sec- 
cond to those of the literary college. Hnve 
they, as yet. fully realized that the relations 
of financf'i, as taught by the double-entry 
system of accounts, are strictly analogous to 
those of ethics ? 

Every business transaction indicates loss, 
gain, or neither. Every act of man is wi-ong. 
right or neither. Every man is financially 
solvent, insolvent, or neither. Every man is 
ethically solvent, insolvent, or neither. The 
generalized facts of the financial value ai'e 
loss and gain, which are the steps leading up 
and down the winding stair case in the temple 
the generalized facts 
of the moral realm are wrong and right, where- 
by the moral agent ascends to the moral heav- 
ens or descends to the moral hells. Between 
acts that are right and wrong and their re- 
sults there are casual relations. There are 
balauce sheets of the wrong^? and rights of a 
a life, -as well as of profits and losses. Said 
Confucius, 2..500 years ago : " In the upright- 
nessof the obelisk is its strength." Andmay 
it not be said that in man's uprightness is his 
strength ? If the physical law is imperious in 
its demands upon the obelisk why should the 
moral or ethical law be less so in its governance 
of men ? The former cannot so lean as to 
bring its center of gravity outside the base 
without toppling into chaotic ruins. Neither 

u_u safely dereUct from the eternal right 
as w bring his plummet line of rectitude out 
of the parallel range of himself and of his Ore- 
atoT. without falling into moral ruins. 

In purely business branches, if pursued in 
a coolly, philosophic spirit, wUl bj found 
plenty of scope for culture and discipline, at 
tl =ame time it is an error in our educa 
tional svstem to suppose that the studf^nt 
must pursue certain branches of no special 
practical importance, merely for discipline of 
mind. "It would be utterly contrary to the 
beautiful economy of nature." says Herbert 
Spencer, "if one kind of culture were need- 
ed for the gaining of information and another 
kind were needed as a mental gymnastic." 
This is the theory of technical education. 
Bread-winning knowledge first ; hdlfs lettres 
and cflioreBcencG afterwards, if there be time. 
The more culture the better, but that kind 
of culture first, which makes for complete 
liviug. The business student has no time to 
while away over dead old classics, transla- 
tions of which he can read at pleasure and 
with profit. How many a poor student 
whose mind, like his body has to be dressed 
in the prevailing fashion, utters in spirit, the 
old song : 

d long f eara. 

The business student need, by no mpans, 
be destitute of fine culture ; he will not, if 
read, study, and reason To be 
scholarly he must be a master of books. He 
St. also, be satisfied to grow by degrees, 
growths are slow. Strength of mind, 
like that of muscle, is exercise. Accumula- 
tion of knowledge is like the realization of 
wealth. Both are the result, of labor. In 
the effort of thinking we attain knowledge, 
just aa in toil we pile up material riches. 
All thinking, if true is a newly added asret to 
the mind's knowledge. Man wants, and 
must have material riches, and yet he needs 
far more mental riches, by as much as the 
one is perishable, the other not. The busi- 
ness student, while his chief preparation is 
for money-getting, should be warned not 
to be contented with the fouudation of the 
pantheon of knowledge, but strive y.;arly to 
add something to the general stock of human 
knowledge. He should not only be master of 
his profession, but he should be more ; and he 
can be, if he gathersa little daily. Suppose he 
resolve to treasure up in jnemory some fact 
in history, some principle in science, some 
sentiment iu poetry, and keep this up for 
one year even— how much knowledge he will 
gather. Suppose, too, he keep it up during 
life ; what an animated cyclopoedia must he 
become I The trouble with our young men 
is, they do not study, do not read, do not 
think and reason. All education is too su- 
perficial. Enough to turn the professional 
crank is all that most desire. Man is not the 
blind horse in the hark mill . he is a sentient 
being, abounding with faculties, whose cor- 
ilatcs are the stars, and whose sweep of 
thoughts are the eternities. 

3 of alBbt 
C ngUt hat 

The Penman's Art Journal.^ 

"Whose prospectus appears in our advertising 
columns, is one of our most interesting and 
valuable exchanges, and one which we cau 
earnestly commend to all who have to do with 
penmanship, either as teachers, pupils, or as 
professional pen artists. It is conducted by 
Prof. D. T. Ames, who has long been recog- 
nized as the leading pen artist of America- 
His compendium of "Practical and Orna- 
mental PeumauEhip" is the most comprehen- 
sive and complete handbook in the Penman's 
art we have ever examined. Prof. Ames' 
great experience and skill, as author and 
teacher of penmanship, is conspicuously 
manifest through the columns of his Joubsax- 

We are also in receipt of a copy of ll*'^ 
Lord's Prayer, which is given as a prenimiB 
to each subscriber. It is indeed a rare geai 
of pen art, and a valuable picture.— C««'^- 
dian School Journal. Feb., 1880. 

The newest cards for 4 o'clock tea parties 
have the name of the hostess in the center, 
the date of the party in the lower left cor- 
ner, and the street and number in the right- 




Iiktb • v^r lA abftiM) bU tbaaghtA, 



■th • apwrKl alKbt or mind. 
taKn>')^ ■■hill to do, 

ha- fa a ipA^lat tntt ot werlb. 

^ or pril". B ■PMC of growth. 


■eea bit trIiimpti'B goal afar. 


■warfmonla of prrfpctocaa. 

Tba biKb and di 
Tboir brcadtb, i 

Tbalr boltrarLa 

Kach f rom tbe c 

Tbe piira bavo « 
ADd trained lu i 

a llvtDg flame, 

Bball ccUo thr(>ui«b all f< 
Aud bluali witb Itfb-blot 
^\Ti«l we have been, wb 
Tbc letleroJ puRC "bull 

Bolf aaiiDolbMolUolf I 

And babit o 

Aa toue bel 

Will aliapa 

Aa tbougUfa Dfleollima luno ill 

Tku modiilatlous uf tbn mind 

e betrays tht> lyfog word : 

From fui 
Tbe BcroU of nnboru 111 
lu aiiotloKB uew-boru do 
How «Uill wo guard tlie 

WUb HlalQloM tbniiRbta 

r purity 

Tbe a 

lorlfy tl 

Dubli-niUUed by dwelt : 
Tbo glow of ilciith I'M hoD« 
Each added day miiat meet 
Upon eternal la'ilet pure. 

Expert Testimony Regarding Hand- 

prove themselves, we 
lore full; explaiu thnt 

Ancient teritingi, or deeds, wills, &c., more 
tlrnu thirti/ yearx old btc, in geucml, allowed 
to be roftd in evidonoo, npon n presumption 
of their being genuine, without any formal 
proof of their execution, where they are pro 
(fiMtoi /ivm the proprr custody, (such as the 
possesaiug of those claiming rights under 
them), aud corroborated by other circum- 
stances naturally accordant with their pur- 
port 1 Phillips Evidence, 273 ; 1 Greenleaf 
Ev. 241. 

Among the most recciit cases on this sub- 
ject are Hyues ta. McDermott aud Uunt w. 
Lawless, which we sliftll first cite. 

Id the case of Hynes r<ii. McDermott, N. Y. 
Common Pleas, General Term, November. 
18T1), it was decided that Bigualures notvX- 
Tv«dy iu evidence in the cause cannot be 
lihowu in evidence mrrtty for the purpose of 
comparison, er<n if proven to have been ad- 
mitted to be genuine by the alleged signers. 

In the ease of Hunt n. lAwless, N. T. 
Superior Court, November. 1S7!>. it w.\a de- 
cided by Hon. E. U Faneher, Referee, that 
instxiimontfi properly iu evidence in the cause 

jury, for the purpose of ioferriog the genu- 
ineness or eimolation of the handwriting. 

Also the fact that two signatures attributed 
to tbe same band are found to be facsimiles, 
and on being superposed against the light, 
match each other in every detail, is evidence 
that one is intentionally simulated 

See aUo on these points Moore tm. V. S.. 91 
U. S. (I Otto, 270): (the synopsis of which is 
given below.) 

Moore, r*. United States, ai U. S. (1 Otto 

1. Where Congress has not provided, and no 
special reasons demand, a different rule, 
the rules of evidence, as found in the com- 
mon law, ought to govern the action of the 
Court of Claims. 

8. The general rule of tbe common law.dis- 
allowing a comparison of hand-writiug as 
proof of signature, bos exceptions equally 
an well settled as the rule itself. Oue of 
tbe exceptions is, that if a paper ndmitted 
to be in the handwriting ot the parly, or to 
have been subscribed by him, is in evidence 
for some other purpose in the case, the signa- 
ture or paper in question may be compared 
with it by the jury. The Court of Claims 
determines the facts as woll as the law, and 
may make the comparison in like manner as 
the jury. 

on, 1 Cr. C. 

wear positively to handwrit- 
; it is for the other party to 
s to tbe source of his know- 
ledge. Goodhue t. Bartlett, .5 McL., 18«. 
j A witness is not competent to prove hand- 
I writing, who has only seen, for a few min- 
I utes. papers acknowledged by the defendant 
to be in his handwriting. United SUtes r. 
Johnson, 1 Cr. C. C, 371. And see Brown 
p. Pratt, 2 Cr. C. C, 253. 

As a general rule, evidence by comparison 
of handwriting, is uot admissible, where the 
witness has had no previous knowledge of the 
party's handwr'tiug. Strother c. Lucas, G 
Pet., 703; Turner c. Poxall. 2 Cr. C, C, 324. 
But where, from the antiquity of the writ- 
ing, it is impossible for any liviug witness to 
swear that he ever saw the party write, com- 
parison of handwriting with a known docu- 
ment may be admitted : but thia is an excep- 
tional Ibid. 

The opinion of a witness, who has seen the 
party write, that another paper is in his 
handwriting, is competent evidence, though 
such opinion be the result of comparison. 
Hopkins V. Simmons, 1 Cr. C. C, 260; 
United State v. Lamed, 4 Cr. C C, 312. 

other wTitings proved by witnesses, and also 
I of witnesses, is inadmissible to show that 
the peculiarities in the alteration are such as 
the party frequently used in his ordinary and 
genuine handwriting. Smith t. Fenuer, 1 
Gall., 170. 

Proof of forgery derived from knowledge 
of handwriting, though very strong, ought 
not to control positive and unimpeached evi- 
dence of an actual execution. Turner c. 
Hand. 3 Wall, Jr., 0, C. 

One who has become acquainted with a 
party's signature, iu due course of business, 
is competent to prove the same, though he 
has never seen him write. St. Marceaux's 
Champagne, 1 Ben., 241. 

If a witness has that degree of knowledge, 
however acquired, of a person's handwriting, 
which will enable him to judge of its genuine- 
ness, his opinion is evidence to the jury, 
though he has never seen the party write, nor 
corres])onded with him. Kogers v. Ritter, 
12 Wall., 317. 

What is sufficient evidence of handwriting 
in a criminal case is stated in United States 
». Crow, 1 Bond, 51. 

In tbe court of claims, the court will make 
a comparison of the signature to a disputed 
document, with that affixed to the claimant's 
petition. Medway v. United States, 6 N. & H., 
421. Sedqu/n-ef 

The above cut is photo-engraved by the Photo electrotype Co., 20 Cliff street. New York, from original pen and 
the office of Penman's Abt Jodrnax. size of the original 22x28 ins. We have photo-lilhographic copies of titis aud se 
bool testimonials and diplomas, printed upon good writing paper 17x21 ins., with blanks fornames of pupil, 

?ith blanks for r 
! doz. for $1..W. Special orders for certificates, diplomi 
Specimens furnished and estimates given on application. 

-al other designs 

istitution, place, 

., tfec., promptly executed, upon 

Comparison of Hands to let in docuvuntary 
eeideJKf. Beferences to the United States 
Courts:- 1 Abbot, Admiralty lir> ; 1 Baldwin, 
4ii ; 1 Benedict, 241 ; 12 Blatchford, 31>0 ; 1 
Bond, .'il ; 1 Brookenbrough, 135 ; 5 Cranch, 
13; I Cr. C- C, 27; 1 Or. C. 0. 96, 133. 183,18*. 
2.".0. 264,491and4il3; 3 Cranch Circuit Court. 
10r>and324;4 Cranch Circuit Court,301 and 
312; G Court of Claims, 421 ; 1 MacArtb., 270; 
1 McLean, 282 and42'.l ; 4 McLean 36ti ; .5 Mc- 
Lean 18<;; 1 Otto. 270; .5 Piters, 319; 6 
Peters 7t>3; 4 Washington Circuit Court, 
729; 8 Wheaton, 268. 


1 Benedict, 241 , 1 Cranch Circuit Conrt, 
371 and 491 ; 2 Cranch Circuit Court, 253 ; 
12 Wallace. 317. 

2 Cranch Circuit Court, 478; 20 Howard, 
4C7 ? 1 Paine. 4.^9. 

It is not necessary that tbe handwriting of 

The handwriting of a party cannot be 
proved by comparison with the signature to 
a warrant of attcrney filed in the cause, there 
being no proof of the latter, Shannon v. Fox, 
1 Cr. C. C, 133. 

The defendant's signature to a receipt can- 
not be proved by a comparison of hands. 
Martin r. Taylor, 1 W. C. C, 3; Macubbin 
r. Lovell, 1 Cr. C. C, 184; see Murati v. 
Luciani, Bald., 49. 

Comparison of handwriting is evidence in 
oivU cases. Dunlop r. Silver, 1 Cr. C. C. 27. 

Comparison of hands is evidence to prove 
the publication of a libel. Brooke r. Peyton, 
1 Cr. C. C, '.HI. 

Comparison of bands is not evidence in a 
criminal case. United States v. Craig. 4 W. 
0, C, 729; United States c. Front, 4 Cr. 
C. 0.. 801. 

Whether two or more signatures which 
purport to be those of different persons, 
were wrilten by the same hand, is the proper 
subject of proof by an expert. United States 
F. Damaud. 3 WaU, Jr.. C. C. 

Where a question arises, whether an altera- 
tion in a will were made by the original 
r by a stranger, evidence of 

when receivable in evidence in cases of for- 
gery, 31 March, 18G0, § 55 P. L., 443. 

Upon the trial of any indictment for mak. 
ing or passing and uttering, any false, forged 
or counterfeited coin, or bank note, the 
conrt may receive in evidence to estab'-ish 
either the genuiness or falsity of such coin 
or note, tbe oaths or affirmations of witnesses 
who may, by experience and habit, have be- 
come expert in judging of the genuineness, 
or otherwise, of such coin or paper, aud such 
testimony may be submitted to the jury with- 
out first requiring proof of tbe handwriting 
or the other tests of the genuines^i, a.s the 
case may be, which have been heretofore re- 
quired by law. And in prosecutions for 
eithei- of tbe offences mentioned or described 
in tbe 164tb. l(;r>th, IGGth and 167th sections 
of the "Act to consolidate, revise and amend 
the penal laws cf this commoDwenlth," the 
courts shall not require Ibe commonUif alth 
to produce the charterof eitherof said bauks. 


PnblUbed Momhly ai fl-OOper Ye»r. 

D. T 

AMM, Editok *!.d FBOP.irTOB. 

30S Bro«dwaj. New To 


BiDgle coplw of JoDBJiAL •ent 

n receipt 0* ten 


Bpeclnimi coplw fu ml shed 

Agenla free. 



loiertion 20 cenU ?■ r In 


1 Co 


f»00 »M 00 

^*SS *^?iS 


montb*. p.j«ble 

ae year payable 

BeadlDB matter. 30 ceoU per 





lo make the JoPBif.L 

lo loU-rutlnK and 


ber hlRMiib^criptioD or 

good word : bat 



co-opomllon as corrwpou 


M. or Flourlabed Kig 

a'xS8. I^^ $1.60 

Piotun- or ProgriMii, ; 

all tb 

reo w 

1 bo Bont wltb the flr»t 

opy of tbo JooB 

ThB Family Record 1B»23 

SBpeolmpuSbcolaorEngrosaino eaobllxl* 

Coogdon'i Normal Syetem of Letlerltig. 

Or, " " " " Flourihhtiig. 

ForlUreenamcB and »3 we will forward 

yor^'ievcn Mmce'and »7 we will forward a 
WlUlaiDB & Packard's Ooldo, retallfl for $3.00 

price $S. The aamo bound In glU will be 
elgbteen enbioribera and $18, price $7.50. 

1 BonverleSt., (Flee 

loon) pontage) may bo r 


Our Thanks 

Are due and hereby tendered to the host 
of f rioude who have worked mul iire workiog 
so earncslly nad successfully in behalf of Ihe 
Journal. Since January first, clubs of all 
dimciisious have come pouring in from every 
direction, uddiug in about sixty days over 
sevcu hundred names lo our already nu- 
merous subscription list. This liberal pat- 
ronage, insures beyond peradvculure, to its 
readers, thu best penman's paper over yet 
published. It enables us to add largely to 
the number and size of our illustrations, 
and warrants us in saying that no single 
number during the year, will bn worth less 
than the years subscription to any person 
interested, either as a teacher, pupil, artist, 
or admirer of skillful penmanship. We can 
assure the friends and patrons of the Jour- 
nal that wo are bound to reciprocate 
their liberality, to the full extent of our 
ability and that more suliscribers means 
more money, and pays for a better paper, 
which they will certainly get. As you 
give so shall you receive. 

The King of Clubs 
for the past month comes from E. A. Wil- 
son, Halifax, Nova Scotia, who has sent a 
total of titenty-four namfg. He speaks of 
that OS poor beginning- We shall look with 
interest for what he may be pleased to call 
a good ending—who will show the next 

Superlative Nonsense i 

The following article, relative to leaching 
:ind practicing writing, was recently copied 
from the London SpfrUitor by the New 
York Hernltl. without comment ; 

Tutors and governesses have all caught 
up a system from the professional writing 
masters, and the professional writing mas- 
ters are all dominated by two ideas, which 
are radically false. They all think that 
"copper plate writing," Ihe special band of 
writing masters and bank clerks, is good 
writing, which it is not. being devoid of 
character, far too regular in form, and from 
the multiplicity of hne upstrokes not easy 
to read; and they all believe that certain 
mechanical motions, if carefully taught, will 
produce clear writing. They will not, 'and 
they do not. 

•■Let the boy," says an English writer, 
" }ioUl hit pen as he likes, and make his strokes 
as he likes, and wnte at the pace he hkin — 
hurry, of course, being discouraged— but in- 
sist strenuously and persistently that his 
copy shall be legible, shall he clean and 
shall approach the good copy set liefoif^ 
him — namely, a well-written letter, not a 
rubbishy text on a single line, written as 
nobody' but a writing master ever did or 
will write till the world's end. He will 
make a muddle at first, but he will soon 
make a passable imitation of his copy, and 
ultimately develop a characteristic and 
strong hand, which may be bad or good, but 
will not be either meaningless, undecided or 
illegible. This hand will alter, of course, 
very greatly as he grows older." 

That notions so obviously absurd should 
emanate from so creditable a source, antl 
have the apparent endorsement of one of 
our lending metropolitan journals, is indeed 

That a copy can be too correct and regu- 
lar in form for profitable imitation by the 
pupil, we deny ; by striving to reproduce 
perfect and graceful forms the learner will 
certainly attain to a higher standard than 
otherwise. A shot aimed high cannot fail 
to strike higher than if aimed low. 

That "copper plate writing" and the 
"writing master's hand" has very little 
character, we concede, but deny that it 
is a fact which can be successfully urged 

Such writing is but little more than a 
mechanical construction, built up from 
straight lines and curves in accordance with 
well defined rules for form and proportion, 
which studied and applied, aid materially 
the imitative faculties of the pupil in learn- 
ing 'o write; and should he possess smrill 
power for imitation and great mechanical 
skill, it becomes the broad avenue to bis suc- 
cess. The true province of thcauthorand in- 
structor of writing is to deal with the theory 
and science of writing, and to impart the 
same to the pupil, and render such assist- 
ance as is practical to enable him to acquire 
ease and facility in its execution. 

Character, as such, is a thing absurd and 
impossible for the teacher to impart or the 
pupil to acquire in the school room. Char- 
acter, as we understand it, is that peculiar 
personal habit and identity by which the 
writing of one person is as readily dis- 
tinguished from that of another as are the 
persons by their different stature, physiog- 
nomy, drees, walk, <fec., and which can be 
acquired only in after life, and is the un- 
conscious result of temperament, disposition, 
habit, occupation, and the whole multitude 
of circumstances that surround and influence 
the writer. 

To expect a pupil to acquire in the school 
room what is known as a business or charac- 
teristic band, is no less absurd than to ex- 
pect him to lay aside childish habit, ways 
and thoughts, and assume all the staid, 
mature and dignified hubits and thoughts of 
an adult, or that he should graduate an ex- 
perienced and trained lawyer, doctor, en- 
gineer, or business man; special experience 
or skill in trade or profession is no more 
certainly and necessarily the result of long 
habit and experience than is what is popu- 
larly known as business writing. 

" Lrt the boif hohl his pen as lie likes, and 
make his strokes as he likes, &c. This, from 
a less respectable source we should call 
simply idiotic. Why not let him spell, read 
and use grammar as he likes, study, play.or 
in other things do as he likes ? Certainly he 
might, with much greater propriety than 
in learning to write. It is an obvious fact, 
that the pen to glide smoothly and easily 
over the paper, and give the best quality of 
line and shade, requires to be held in a 
certain position ; and strokes must be pro- 

portionated in length and shade, properly 
spaced, have the correct slope, &c. In all 
these essentials of good writing, the pupil 
doing as he likes, may be unconsciously at 
fault, and must remain so. unless en- 
lightened by a teacher, and assisted by the 
proper suggestions for correction and im- 
provement ; to say otherwise is to assume 
that the " boy " can correct faults of which 
he is unconscious, and that the aid of ex- 
perience is worthless. 

Another equally absurd idea is that the 
length of a copy should exceed a single line. 
It is a noticeable fact by all teachers of writ- 
ing that the longer the copy the less the im- 
provement made by the pupil. This results 
from the fact that when a fault has been 
discovered and pointed out by the teacher, 
that by the time a long copy has been com- 
pleted, and the letter or word having the 
fault is again reached, even if the lesson is 
ni>t snnni r !it iin end. the fault and sugges- 

Part ni of the Spencerian Compendium 

Is already in the hanc^s of the printer, and 
will be ready for delivery before our next 
issue. In beauty and practical utility it ex- 
cels those already issued. 
Sent by mail for tiO cents. 

Lessons in Flotirlshing. 

In the April number we shall commence 
course of practical lessons in flourishing, 
o some extent this will be a repetition of 
le matter and exercises of a course former- 
ly given in the Journal, with many 
exercises, and suggestions. Wo shall 
spare no pains to make the course of in- 
itructiou and the exercises as interesting 
ind practical as possible. 

9 for 

heeded, and the fault is repeated instead of 
being corrected. 

Faults can be best corrected by an imme- 
diate and often repeated effort, and the 
shorter the copy the more completely is this 
the case ; indeed only advanced pupils should 
ever be permitted to write the extent of an 
entire line for a copy. A single letter at the 
beginning, then words followed by short 
sentences, and lastly, a line should be, and 
is, unquestionably, the best order of prac- 
tice byapupil learning to write. "Not how 
much, but how well," is the motto for suc- 
cessful teaching and practice. 

Bosiness Writing. 
The leading essentials of business writ- 
ing arc legibility, ease and rapidity of exe- 
cution. To be legible the lines should not 
be too delicate, the. letters well formed and 
simple to the extreme in their construction, 
and they should not be too large; a medium 
sized writing is more easily and rapidly ex- 
ecuted than large writing, and the less 
shade the more rapidly and easily it cau be 
written. Movement has much to do with 
the graceful and rapid execution of writing, 
The muscular or forearm movement po?- 
sesses many and great advantages over the 
finger, both as regards speed and the length 
of time one can write without tiring. 
But a single type for each of the letters, 
large or small, should be used in business 
writing!; t''^ l^^s in number the forms, the 
more frequent will be their repetition, and 
the greater the skill and facility with which 
they will be made. 

Portraits of Eminent Penmen. 

In the April number of the Joubnal we 
anticipate giving the portrait of John D. 
Williams, with a biographical sketch of his 
life and work. We shall also insert in the 
same number one of the finest specimens of 
flourishing ever executed by Mr. Williams. 
We hope to he able to follow the portrait 
of Mr. Williams in the April number with 
a portrait and biography of James Lusk ; 
and that by one of Victor M. Rice, George 
W. Eastman and other worthy represent 
atives of the profession, who though gone, 
still live in their works and examples. In 
order that this list maybe as complete, and, 
that we may give as full and truthful bio- 
graphical sketches as is possible of each, 
we invite any reader of the Journal who 
may be in possession of any well authen- 
ticated and interesting reminiscences of any 
of these gentlemen to forward the same to 
us at their earliest 

Back K umbers. 
We still have remaining a few of all the 
back numbers of the Journal since and 
inclusive of the September number, 1877, 
twcniy-sccen up to volume four, which will be 
sent with either the "Lord's Prayer" or 
"Eagle" as a premium for $1.50; both pre- 
miums and the "Centennial Picture of 
Progress" for $2.00. 

Improved Pen Holder. 

We have received from William H. 
Sprague, Norwalk, Ohio, one of his im- 
proved penholders, which to many persons 
will be very useful. To those who are 
troubled with numbness or pen-paralysis 
in their fingers, this penhotdec will certain- 
ly he very useful. It will not only prove a 
preventive, but will cure sueh complaints. 


We are indebted and hereby express our 
thanks to Hamilton Pomeroy,Esq.,14(i Broad- 
way, "Mutual Life" Law Department, 
for kindly furnishing material and rendering 
able and valuable assistance in the prepara- 
tion of the digest, commenced in the Febr- 
uary issue, of laws and rulings of courts 
touching the admission of expert testimony 
regarding handwriting in courts of law. 

With this issue the writing lessons, by Mr. 
Kelley, will close. We hereby express our 
thanks to Messrs. Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor 
& Co. for the cuts of letters and figures, 
which they have kindly loaned for the pur- 
pose of illustrating these lessons which have 
been based upon the Spencerian system. 
The cuts are the same as those used in the 
' ' Spencerian Theory, " and copyrighted 

The Habit of Criticism. 
It is an obvious fact, that no one can mend 
a fault that they are unconscious of. There 
are two ways of discovering our faults; one 
is by the suggestion of others, and the other, 
by our own study and scrutiny. Many 
pupils fail to become good writers because 
they never learn to properly criticise their 
own work; the second exercise should never 
be written until the preceding effort has 
been studied and its precise fault ascer- 
tained, then, instead of repeating the fault, 
an intelligent effort may be made for its cor- 
rection ; this plan carried out, faults will 
rapidly disappear, success become easy, 
rapid and certain. 


Jackson Caole— On the morning of Feb. 
9, Prof. Jackson Cagle died suddenly from 
pneumonia, at Atlanta, Ga., aged 40 years, 
leaving a wife and six children. He had 
been teaching writing during the past fifteen 
years. For several years he taught writing 
in Moore's Business College at Atlanta; last 
year he opened a writing institute of his 
own in Atlanta, which he conducted up to 
the time of his late illness. 

As a writer and teacher he stood among 
the foremost, especially so at the South. 
Although wc had not the pleasure of his ac- 
quaintance personally, from a frequent cor- 
respondence and general report, wc had 
come to hold him in high esteem, not only 
as a highly accomplished penman, hut as a 
gentleman of more than ordinary personal 
worth and attainments. 

James T. Knadbs— On another page will 
be found an extended biographical sketch 
of Prof. James T. Knauss, who died very 
suddenly on Feb. 22 of typhoid fever, at 
Easton, Pa., where he had conducted a busi- 
ness college during the past three or four 
years. Mr. Knauss was a young man of rare 
attainments, not alone in penmanship, hut 
in other dcparlmentB of education. As a pen 
artist he possessed a rare and enviable skill ; 
he was, besides, a genial and social gentle- 
man; and he will be sincerely mourned bya 
large circle of warm friends, to whom wc 
earnestly tender our warmest sympathy hd'I 


Owing to a pressure of other matter ;iiHi 
the absence of Prof. Hopkins who has iKio 
called to Chicago on business the Book-keep- 
ing Department of the Joubnal has bt-io 
deferred until next month. 

The abovw cut s pho o engraved d reotly from our own pen and nk copy by the Photo electrotype Co C ff street New York a d^repreeents one of the thirty-four 
alphabets given in Ames Compendium of Practical and Ornamental Penmanship. The cut represents one half of a page of that work, the leltera being the same size as 
in the Compendiuro. The alphabet ib entirely original and is copyrighted.* In the next issue of The Joornai, we shall give an old English rustic alphabet and the email 
letters, making three entire new and origiual rustic alphabets, worth to any penman several times the entire subscription price of The Journal. 

In tins lesson we give a brief review of 
the previous ones, together with some gen- 
eral facts in relation to the prevoiling style 
of pmctical penmanship. 

In writiiig, directly fncc the desk, or in- 
cline the right or left side little or much as 
circumstances or inclination may dictate or 
indicate, hut in any position see that the 
right arm supports no more than its own 
weight, and that respiration be not iutcr- 
fored with. 

The proper manner of holding the pen, 
and the position of the hand in writing may 
be easily seen in the following illustration; 

taneously with the movement of the fore-' 
arm, or with the fore-arm- as the principal 
propelling power, the fingers being used i 
either to modify or extend the movement of j 
the forearm. 1 

We give here a single simple example for 
muscular movement; by shading the short 
downward strokes, the combined movement 
is introduced. 

agreed in relation lo it, 

although otherwise at variance, this position 
should be rigidly adhered in. yet. not in the 
sense of rigidly adhering to the pen as that 
should be held as lightly its possible, except 
when shading is required. 

Four moveraents may be used in writing: 
— T\\vjingfr tnoe^ment, the fore-armor iitu*- 
cHJrtr, the rtmibined and the whole arm. Of 
these, the muscular and the combined 
movements are the most practical. The lat- 
t of the fingers simu)- 

In forming the loops of this 
purely muscular movement will be found 
inadequate and it would seem that the fin- 
gers must be called into requisition to sup- 
plement the action of the forearm: but, 
were the fingers mode to act when the move- 
ment of the arm terminated, greatdilficiilty 
would be experienced in forming a line 
which would appear to have been made con- 
tinuously, and a loss of time would result. 
All this could be obviated by simultoneous 
action. In this exercise the short s, if un- 
shaded may be made with muscular move- 
ment, except the dot where a slight move- 
ment of the fingers is necessary; If shaded. 
the combined movement is required. The 
oval form inclosing the letters should be 
mode with purely muscular movement. 

The thirteen short letters may be made 
principally with the muscular or with the 
combined movement ; the semi-extended I 
and extended letters require the combined ' 

The style of writing most extensively 
practiced by pupils and used by business 
men of the present generation differs from 
the old round hand of a previous generation 
in approaching more nearly a horizontal di- 
rection of lines, especially in _the connec- 
. lives, in short upper and lower turns, in the 

omission of most of the shaded lines, and 
in avoiding almost entirely any retracing of 
lines — all of which modiScations render the 
writing of to-day greatly superior to that of 
the past in point of facility and rapidity of 
execution, thus enabling the business man 
to keep pace with the age of steam cars and 

The main slant and the oonnective slant of 
writing are illustrated by the following sub 
divisions of a quarter-circle. 

To determine the deviation of a letter, 
a word, or words from the correct slant, a 
very gooil test is that suggested by a cor- 
respondent of this Jouunal; it consists of a 
card with end rut in such manner as to form 
an angle of tit° with the lower edge of card; 
when this edge is placed upon the base line. 

the ^ 

and the card 
fault in slant is at once shown. 
If a straight line be drawn oi 
all the letters of the alphabet 
andx may be so adjusted to it 

riting the 

1 all. Thi 

ment will do much towards determining 
whether the pupil making it habitually 
slants his writing too much or too little. 

If the handwriting of an individual be of 
uniform slant, whether it slant little or much 
is of little moment compared with the form 
of the lines. Many seriously err in making 
the connective lines of too great 
while n 

left should be used and cice verm, or make 
simple curves compound. A very good test 
of accuracy in cj 

forming letters is 

shown in writing 

the combination C 

ki/min uhy. which 

if correctly writ- - 

ten will appear - 

the same when . 


~^ The extended loop as it appears 
- /''^ in 6. /, h, k, I, and long a hjis first 
-^ line curved much more than sec- 
ond, and, if a straight line be extended 
from its higliest point to where it touches 
base line, one-third of loop should be seen 
on left of line and two-thirds on the right. 

• -r;^ If the same principle be inver- 

j^ 'led and reversed, as it appears in 

/y ' q. j, y and long s, and a straight 
line be drawn from the upper to the lower 
extremity, one-third of loop should fall on 
right of line and two-thirds on the left. The 
crossing of the loops of all extended letters 
Hhould be at the head line, and all loops ox- 
tending below the base line should cross on 
that line. 

A, e, r, ff, i, m, n, o, y, u, ». te, x, y and *, 
extend one space above base line; r and % 
one and one-fourth spaces; rf, p, and /, two 
spaces; h.f, h, k, I and long a, two spaces 
below; pand q, one and one-half spaces. 


^W ^ 



All capital letters should 'exteod tbrcc 
spncM above the base line; J, T and Zmny 
extend two spaces below. O, E and D ter- 
roinutc one space from base line. J, Q, U. 
X, i and Zlcrminatcal head line: irand V 
end at two spaces from base line. "Width of 
ovjil in C. Vr. X and Z. one and one half 
•paces; in U. Kand W. one and one-third 
epa<:os ; in / and ./. one space. Tenninatlon 
ot A.U. K. S, M. and /(. one space above 
base line; of fl. F. O. P, S and T. one and 
onc-balf spaces. Height of capital stem in 
JS, /■. II. II. K. T and F. two and one-half 
spaces: in ti one and one-halt spaces. 

Height of numerals except 6, one and 
one half spacca; height of 6 two spaces; 7 
and 9 extend one-half space below base 

'I'he specimen of writing given with this 
lesson may be copied by those who have 
pursued the course, and those who sent 
spcciniens previously will please write once 
(julto compactly and ordinary size, all the 
email leltere, the capitals, numerals, and the 
fonu given on this page, sign name and 
send to this ofilce, not later than Marcli 
26lh, tliat the list of awards may appear in 
the April number of the Jourk^l. 

The Creston (Iowa) Adctrtiaer of Feb. 7, 
says: One day this wei'k we were shown a 
beautiful piece of pen work in form of a 
family record executed by Professor J. M. 
MoLan, who is teacher of Writing in the 
public schools of our city. 

Professor Foeller has in successfu! opera- 
tion writing schools in Ashland, Mahouey 
riaiu, Girardville and Gilbertou, Pa. 

W. H. Lameon. formerly teacher of writing 
in tlie public schools of New York, and au- 
lliorof Lamfion's system of writing published 
by ILirper & Bros., has recently opened a 
writing school ai Rahway, N. J. 

PyofeBSor A. II. Dunton of Camden, M©., 
one of the veterans in the " beautiful art." 
rectiutly paid us a visit ; his quill is as nimble 
and griiceful as in days of yore. 

J. B. Peckham. Pontiac, 111., addressee 
to the Journal a statement that one F. 
lluuimond has been organizing classes in 
that place, collecting tuition, and then " skip- 
ping" without giving the promised instruc- 
tion, or paying his bills, and that he made 

ference. We kuo' 

such a name upon 
Mr, Peckham would like to kuow 
Prof." Hammond's present address. 

Buch person, i 

and whom many, who attended the first 
Peunian'a Convention will remember as the 
official Reporter on that occasion for the 
P&nmam'b Abt Joubnal, has returned to New 
York, after nearly a year's residence in 
Oumha, where he was Secretary to the Gen- 
eml Manager of the Union Pacific Railroad. 
Mr. Granger returns to his old position as 
Assistant to General G. M. Dodge, President 
of the Pacific Railway Improvtment Com- 
pany. The immediate cause of hia return 
wiw a very considerable increase of salary, 
ha\ itig been with General Dodge nearly eight 
ytiar.* before going to Omaha. That gentleman 
found him practicably indispensable, and in- 
bistt'd on hiB return to his old desk. He is 
now locfltfd at the office of the Company. 
No. 78 Broadway, and we are glad to wel- 
coiuo 60 genial aud accomplisUed a gen- 
tleman back to our city, and trust that he 
may long remain among us. We have Mr. 
(irauger'8 promise to favor the readers of 
the JouBsxL with some interestiug pages 
from his experience as itinerant teacher of 
ptrnumnship and "stntUing stenographer." 

V. S. Lnmont. penman at the Canadian 
Business College, Chatham, Ont., sends a 
biipcrior spucimeu of his writing, and circu- 
lar of the college. 

Several roost elegant specimens of copy- 
wriling, and a very graceful specimen of 
Uouiishing. have been received from Cbas. 
D. Bicelow, who is teaching writing at 
Bryani^a Buffalo College. 

specimen uf tlouri-hing. 

A. W. Dakin, Tully, N. Y. sends a pack- 
age of very skillfully executed fancy cards; 
were we to criticize Ihem. we should say 
thai thev arc somewhat overdone. 

The most elegant specimen of ofF-hand 
business writing received during the month 
is a letter from Prof. Henry C. Spencer, 
principal of the Washington, D. C. Busi- 
ness College: he reports his school to be 
highly prosperous. 

A photographic copy of a memorial en- 
grossed for an insurance company, by G. T. 
Oplinger, Ims been received. The photo in- 
dicates a work of a high degree of merit- 
both in de.<^ign and execution. 

I. W, Pierson, teacher of writing at the 
Business University, Rochester, N. Y., in- 
closes in an elegantly written letter a grace- 
ful specimen of flourishing. 

J. B. Moon. Powder Springs, Ga., a re- 
cent pupil of the late Jackson Caglc, sends 
several specimens of bis writing, after tak- 
ing a course of instruction, which are very 

H. J. Wlliamson, who is teaching writing 
at Norrisville, N. C, sends specimens of 
writing executed by three members of his 
present class which are creditable alike I0 
teacher and pupils. 

W. H. Patrick, teacher of penmanship al 
Bryant, Slratton and Sadler's Business Col- 
lege, Baltimore, Md., writes a beautiful let- 
ter, in which he incloses several slips of 
writing which we have rarely seen excelled. 
L. D. Ray, who is teaching at Gilles- 
pieville, O., writes a handsome letter and 
incloses quite a variety of linely-wrillcu 


al very perfectly-written copy slips and a 

skillfully L'xeculed specimen of flourishing. 

G. H. Bridge, penman and superintendent 

of Telegraph department, Lawrence (Kan.) 

City Business CoUege " conducted by Pro- 
fessor Allen. We found it in a highly pros- 
perouB condition. The penmanship depart- 
ment is in charge of Professor Thos. Stewart, 
whose skill as a writer and teacher entitles 
him to a place in the front rank of penmen. 

Hibbard's, Bryant and Strfittoo Commer- | 
cial School. Boston, continues to enjoy a 
remarkable degree of prosperity. We found 
on a recent visit the spacious rooms literally 

On the evening of Feb. 27, the students 
and fritnds of ihe Spencerian Business Col- 
lege. Cleveland, Ohio, had a reunion and 
reception in the college rooms. The college 
is conducted bv P. R Spencer, and is enjoy- 
ing more than its usual degree of prosperity. 

Mr. Gaskell will open a branch of his 
Manchester School in Jersey City, May 1. 
The College in Manchester will remain under 
his general management as now, with Mr. 
Wm. Heron, jr., as. resident principal. Mr. 
Heron is a fine penman and a first class ac- 
countant, besides being a good friend of the 
Journal. The College in Jersey Citj' will 
occupy nearly the vhole upper part of the 
large brick building. 23 and 2S Newark ave- 
nue, one of the finest locations in the city, 

O. M. Powers, Principal of the Metropoli- 
tan Business College, Chicago, 111., author of 
the "Complete Accountant" states that the 
work is liaving a large and rapidly increasing 
sale. A new and revised edition is now in 
press and wiU soon be ready for sale. 

Folsom's Business College, Albany, N. Y., 
is enjoying an unusual degree of success. 
Over two hundred students are in attendance. 
Professor Folsom is now giving a course of 
lectures before the students upon the science 
of accounts, based upon the science of Politi- 
cal Economy. In this department Professor 
Folsom is one of the recognized leaders of tbe 
age. His theory of moral ethics based upon 
laws and principles, awakened great interest 
and led to warm discussions in both of the Pen- 
Oien'sand Cdmmercial Teachers' Conventions. 
Professor Carhart, the junior partner, is a 
well-qualified and popular instructor in sev- 
eral of the departments of the College. 

his own brush, and \mdoubtedly tbe only one 
of its kind in this country — amarvelof work- 
manship and the admiration of passers-by. 

In the general acceptation of the term Mr. 
Kn:iuss was a self-made man. belonging to 
that large and growing class who manfully 
press onward a^inst hosts of opposing in- 
fluences, but who finally surmount all ob- 
stacles, reach the highest summit of fame and 
come off conquerors in the irreat battle-field of 
lifu. The possess'on of self-reliance, indomi- 
table ptwA, unswerving fidelity and the secret 
of making friends by being friendly, contrib- 
uted largely to his success. He was not a 
teacher by mere ehance. His temperment 
fitted him for the society of tbe young, and 
they clung to him 
dable. He gov- 
;o their finer sensibilities 
38 of ambition. Those 
t'=acher will bear testi- 
mony to his ability antl tuct, having the hap- 
py faculty of imparting to others the know- 
ledge that he had himself, and will assign 
him an houornblp place among the foremost 
who believe in a thorough practical education 
ealities of this practical age. 
ve for the beautiful in nature 
him to the beauties of art, 
study with his characteristic 
[e was emphat- 
lau. His blaLkboai'd or- 
college rooms are unsur- 
passed for beauty of design and artistic finish. 
His off-hand flourishing aud pen-work are 
models of grace aud delicacy of touch. In 
all the departments of penmanship his work 
bears tbe impress of the master, yet we think 
he excelled in lettering. The resources of bis 
fertile brain seemed to be inexhaustible. We 
have frequently observed with much pleasure 

once under his influ< 
with a tenacity truly 
erned by appeabng t 
and arousing the fii 

tended 1 

The above cut 

most skillful 

Inclosed please find a P. O. 
order for $15.00 and fifteen names of sub- 

bers to the Journal. " We have read 

'se composition than that. 

Ve are in receipt of an imperial photo- 
graph of a highly artistic and exquisitely 
executed piece of pen work, by F. W. II. 
Wicsehahn, of St. Louis. Mo., designed 
for the "Album of Pen Art." 

W. H. Shrawder, who is teaching writing 
lit Middletown, Ind., writes a Imndsomu let- 
terin wliicli he says: "Inclosed youwill find 
P. O. order for $13.00 for which mail Joun- 
NAL one year to persons named; shall send 

from Professor H. W. Flickinger, 
teacher of penmanship at Peirces Union 
Business College, Philadelphia. We have 
received none of a higher degree of ex. 

From a two column and highly flattering 
review of the Orchard City Business College 

?ublished recently in the Burlington, (lowaj 
lawktye we clip thu following : 

" At a meeting of the board of trade and 
business men in Burlington, held December 
6, 18711, Mr. Baldwin presented the following 
resolution, which was adopted : 

WlifTfos, Messrs. Elliot &, Powers proprie- 
tors of the Orchard City Business College, of 
this city, have, with much enterprise and a 
liberal and commendable outlay of capital, 
established their school in our midst, upon a 
foundation which we regard as stable, and 
with faciUties for practical business training 
for the young of both sexes, unsurpassed. 

liesohed^ That the board of trade aud the 
busioeES men of Burlington, assembled at 
this meeting, recommend to the parents and 
pupils of Iowa and of tbe West, the Orchard 
City Business CoUege, as an institution wor- 
thy of their confidence and patronage." 

Jos. Ballbons formerly principal of the St. 
Louis (SIo.J Business College, is now princi- 
pal of the Cleveland (O.) Business CoUege, 
and is enjoying a good degree of prosperity. 

During a recent visit to Trenton, N. J., 
we had the pleasure of vudting the "Capital 

Brief Sketchiof the Late Professor James 
T. Enauss. 

Another of America's prominent and suc- 
cessful penmen goue to his reward! Prof. 
James T. Knauss of Easton, Pa , principal 
of the KuauBs' Institute of Business and Fi- 
nance, departed this hfe Feb. 22, after an iU- 
ness of ten days from that fatal disease, ty- 
phoid fever. Being in the prime of life, the 
future bright and promising, his reputation 
achieved by dint of hard labor and perse- 
verance, he is called away, lamented by all 
who knew him. 

The subject of our sketch was bom on the 
seventh of April, 1839, at Emons, Pa. 
Reared in the country, he developed a good 
muscle and a fine constitution. Attending 
the public schools in his boyhood, he became 
in due timeateacher, and teachingfora num- 
ber of yeais amidst ihe scenes of his youth, 
he moved to Bath, securing the position of 
principal of the public schools, where the 
writer in IfiO.'i first made his acquaintance. 
Having had already quite a reputation as a 
"writing master, "it was with some reluctance 
that we entered his domain, but armed with 
Spencerian ideas and an array of birds, 
beasts, &c., why should an itinerant hesitate ? 
Entering his school-room we found ourselves 
in the presence of a genial and " hale fellow 
well met." Explaining the simplicity of the 
Spenceriim, aud unfolding its beauties, he 
promised his support and proved one of our 
most attentive and enthusiastic students. 
Perceiving the artistic taste combined with 
rare skill, he was encouraged in tbe rudiments 
of the ornamental, and thus wassecuredafter 
a few months instruction one of the strong 
eet supporters and most devoted admirers of 
Spencerianism. Continuing to teach for a 
short period in the public schools of Bath and 
Nazareth, and, in connection, penmanship, 
in 1873 when Thos. H. Stevens opened the 
Unitid States Institute of Business and Fi- 
nance, at Eftston. Pa., he became teacher of 
the penmanship department. In 1677 he 
succeeded Jlr. Stevens, and changed it to 
Knauss' Institute of Business and Finance, 
putting up a script sign, the production of 

weU as profit the wonderful ingenuity dis- 
played in the execution of blackboard embel- 
lishments for his college walls, and show cards 
for the mercantile community. His inventive 
mind kept pace with the trained hand in pro- 
ducing forms of matchless variety and pleas- 
ing effect. He loved art for itself. Design- 
ing was his recreation. Nothing would sat- 
isfy him but perfection itself. While com- 
mending what was good in others he was a 
severe critic of his own productions. Full of 
kindly impulses, genial and courteous in de- 
meanor, generous to a fault, Mr. James T. 
Knauss was a favorite to all with whom he 
came in contact, and who sincerely mourn his 
early departure. 


This number of the Journal was delayed, 
in printing, over one week after the forms 
were complete, ready for tbe press — first by a 
misuudcrstaniling, aud subsequently by an 
accident on the part of the electrotiper, in 
making the relief plate of Mr. Kelley's speci- 
men of writing. The proces-s ot making such 
o cut from a copper-plate engraving requires 
a very delicate mauipulatiou, aud occupies 
necessarily about four days' time, so that 
mistakes are not only perplexing bat require 
much time for correction. 

The Force of Imagination. 
People of strong nervous temperament are 
great slaves to the whims and caprices of 
their imaginalious ; and heuce people of 
good mental, but of very ordinary physical 
acquirements are the most subject to this 
tyranny of mind over matter. Occasionally, 
a very ordinary sort of person, that is, an in- 
dividual of considerable mind, but whose 
mental capacities are unsustained, and so 

doubt (says the beht phytiical authority) 
half tbe ills that flesh is heir to are superin- 
duced by the fancy of the sufferer alone. 
Hundreds have died by mere nymptoma of 
cholera, yellow fev<-r and plague, induced by 
sheer dread and fear of those terrible mala- 

laid bare to the "ehouider, and thrust 
through a hole in the partition while he was 
fast bound to the opposite side ; the hidden 


execntioriPT. opon thi^ 
lAnc»t to hi« Arm ir 
cnlprit h^nrd the mni 

uifle, applied tbo 
click. The poor 
mddv Rtre»ni ontpourintt, 
wfwVcr, and fainter, he 
foil iDlo A Kwnon and di^d : wh^-n the fact 
wa«. not a drop of bloofi had bpen flbed— a 
nnrneon hnviag merelr (mapped bin lancet 
upon the arm. and continued to poor a (small 
Ntream of wat«r over the limb and into a 

Another caRO in " pint" wa« that of a I 
Phi!'»dpl|.hiA amatenr htitchpr. who. in plac- \ 
incr hi* mt'nt upon a hook ftlipped and btrnf; 
hims'-lf. inntead of the beef, upon the 
barbrd point. His nROny wai inlen«e : he 
wA< qnii-kly tak-^n down and carried to a 
pbvnician'H offlcf. and bo (treat wan his pain 
(in imaKination) that he cried piteounly upon 
everv motion mtide bv the doctor in cuttinR 
the oftfil And Bhirt Bleove from about the 
wo.ind^dftrm! When at last the arm wnn 
bared, not a wratcb wan there! The hook 
point had mer«'ly grazed nlonR the akin and 
torn the shirt H\eiiye. — lilac f^irnod. 

Ames' Compendiom. 


Flerenftor this work will be mailed on 
rcci'ipt of $4. .'50. It is tinivcrsully con- 
ceded to he the most comprehcuslve and 
practical miido, in every dcpartniPDt of a*"- 
ti«'ic anil (Hsplaycd pen work ever pub- 
lished. No penman seeking to excel in 
ornnmenliil penmanship can afford to be 



Vol. n. No. 4, NEW SERIES. 


a.nipoll", Ohio; F. W. Ham 
Patxb. of Rnnxvlllo; B. W. 
bUBh.TVIi.: D&viB.orCoDn.; a 


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ibovo. wItU I 

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vrrttor; Off-band CapUala. by W. B. Dehsib; and 
B KUimtb flutinru Lttur by C. W. Bics, of Bry- 

III,— MiBcellano'kut readlDR raalter— cxtrBctB from 

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Price Mix Cenu. Nnuo freo Remit poat«t:o 

RtampB. Tl>o edition »'lll Uat but a abort time, tberis 

0. A. GASKELL. Publisher. 



16-1 !in<l ir.O jM;iin Street, 

ini or, ml, bitif, b«T(>I ti 
I iddod to oar stook a full line of p 




This work is universally conceded by the press, professional penmen, and avtists 
generally, to be the most comprehensive, practical, and artistic guide lo ornamsulal pen 
manship ever published. Sent, postpaid, to any addfess on receipt of f4.50, or as a 
premium for a club of twelve subscribers to the .Journal. 

The above cut represents the title page of the work, which is 11 x 14 in size. 

What Everybody Wants. 

On receipt of prices auoeied. 1 will BeD( 

The Ceulenuial Picture of ProgreiB. 28x40 In 

The Lord's Prayer 32x28 In 

The MArrlBge Ue.-tiDcAlo 18i'J3 lo, 

"i Specimen SlioelB of Bngroseitig each llsU In 
100 n««uUf ul Scroll Cards, 18 de«igus 

"YJISITING C\nD3 written ai 
KELLEY, 205 Bro»dw»y. N. T. 

1NK-A collection of o»er l-o valubie recipe* for 
«, ^i"'^'"- '*"""■ *■"* '*•■ *" porpoeee, includlog 

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l°k"D ""°'^'"""' '"**■ '"^^"""^ ■"'* Sympatbrtic 
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1 'ft^^i-1-S SWIFT, UarionTaie,Oaond^ Co.. N.Y. Wt 



An TIonoTdblf Mention at th< Pari* Exposi- 
tion, 1878. 

Bfcommended by the Mini*t^r of Education 
for Ontario. 

Recommended by the Council of Public In- 
ttruciion, Quebec. 

Recommended by Chief Superintendent of 

Etineati"n, 'ifova &eot 
Recommended by Chief Superintendent of 

Education. Brit. Columbia. 
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A Committee of some of the Leading Educa- 
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and, Manitoba and-Sr^tish Columbia, ffiua 
luiving each section of the Dominion fully 
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ay, New York. 


. or any otberB wishing 

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Forged, Disgaiaed & AnonymoiuWntiiig 

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ilii.lio,, -I I i'.i.el. «.!0, 


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• uest Known. £sTABLi5iiED.iS24 



Letteig Tablet 


lucea the mechauical difficulty la e 
trcr tB roriued completet and 

The Analytical Alphabet 

eiitlri-ly original and Ihe most complete and perfi 

As a Self-Instructor, 

J Tablet le absolutely perfect, not only teachlna t 
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it JuBl the thing lor peom 

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Useful Instruments 

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Fancy cards, birds and acrollf, 18 differ 
sigus, very popular, per pack of 'JG card« 


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Prepared India Ink, per bollle, by eipresB 65 

Ttie New Speucerlan Compendium, Part 1,2 

3, each 60 

Crow Quill Pen, very fine, for drawing, per doz., 76 

Congdon'a Normal System of Flouriehing 60 

" ofLettering 60 

Both Flourishing and Lettering 76 

Spencerlau Compendium 

Sponge Rubber, 2x2 in., very superior, per 

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stone clotb, one yard wide, any length, pe 

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mail on receipt of 35 Cri.r- 
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n. T. AHK<«, Kdllor nnd Proprlrto 


VOL. IV. NO. 4. 

n. T. AMBM, 


Counncl fflvoii an Export on HaiKlnrltlng. 

PAC'KARirS nV«INKH-t (]0LI.B4iB, 



KiNOHTOw, Pa. 
L. L. aPK VOUk:, I'binoipal, 

I'BIR<-F»»* I'NION nU-tlN 

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til V ANT .V NTKATTllN nr8INBS<4 COI.- 

i.iUJit.-ioas. loi.mre-t, I'uiiidoiiiii". p». 

MILIUATIi ;illll > VMi 1,1 

N y. <,uiai»B).»a..',oi. 11 

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ao- Broi-lwoy. 


ISO J'ffnrani vuime, Detroit, UluU 


; Iribes of Intlir 

'!4 nC^IMtSK 0»I.I.B»B. 

, suit tnlio.i Nt. Bruklrii. 
Iwuiily yum nt 295 . ulloii Stroc 

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(8ir«m} S«vr«pA| 

«r «ud Job Prlut»ra, 

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IB. 0. Fic»»» ] 

The Writin? of the Past 

Wlicu. whpu' nnd by whom wriiing 
origiDitted is not known; wo may, however. 
rcAsounlily conjecltirc ihai nntl communica- 
tion previously oxiKled Hnd hud, for ages. 
During K purlion of the tinu-, at h^ast, an- 
terior to the invcniioD of writing, ideas were 
presented to the eye of individuiils by monu- 
ments, pillars or heaps of stone-*, and by 
periodical festivities commemorntive of past 
events. Then may have followed pictures 
of natural ohji^cls each conveying a single 
idea, hut incajMble of arrangement in con- 
Dcoied nitrmttvc, in cousequcnce of its limi- 
lAlion to malcrtal objects Examples of 
thi» kind of picture writing may be seen in 

Egypt. A*syria. Chin 
was formerly among 
in our terrtlorics. 

As ilie conncclion between the pictures 
and llie ideas tlicy reprcsonled hernmc 
familiarized. less care .was cxercisi-d in their 
formiilion, or their nbbrevinted forms were 
u*>ed. II purl being taken in place of i In- 
whole, and iLcRC used symbolically nnd 
marie 10 indicate qualities or altriliules ns 
iaoren'^cd reflcctiim upon things invisible 
seemed tn deiiiind. Among the Egyptians 
the eye was a symbol of Prnvidence, llu- 
bird indicated swifiness: a scaling ladder, a 
siege; rising smoke, a conflagration; two 
li'indu and a bow. an archer. 

These symbols did not represent snund". 
but tilings, material or immiUiTinl ; but 
itriiduidly the al)brcviated forms were nuidi- 
to Indiciite speech, and signs more arbitrary 
were inlroduced. These signs probably re- 
pri'seuied entire woi-ds, uuMI the discov»-ry 
of the fn-qm-nt reeurri-nc<- of the same sound 
in diiTerenl words suggested a sulHlivision 
Willi signs <ir elijiracicrs used us C')nnnon 
1'cpre.scnlnlives of such sounds. 

Hieroglyphs, then, may be ilivided Into 
Iwo classes : Ideographs which repre-^enl 
id(';is. and Phonetics, wiiicli ruprescnl 
sounds. An ideograpli iseitliera picture of 
an iibject Used for llie purpose of conveying 
im ideii, or a symbol agreed upon as a fep- 
resentntive of ihe same idea or a quality be- 
1 mging lo <ir sugnesled by the object. Tin- 
rtrsl of these divisions of ideographs is 
called Ihe kyriological and is limited to ma- 
terial things, while 'lie «ymbolical has a more 
extemh'd field. 

The modern written language of the 
Chinese has. until a comparntively recent 
date, been said to be composed of 80.000 ar- 
bitrary characters, sufHeieni familiarity with 
tbe appearance ami use of which In be avail- 
able would, of course be impossible for any 
one num. Later investigation, however, has 
shown that there are 214 characters called 
mdicnlti, derived from 873 ancient symbols 
and these together with 411 nyllnblrti consti- 
tute their written language, it being ncillier 
alphabetic uor syllabic, hut understood 
throughout nit Eastern Asia and the adja- 
cent inlands by people who cannot hold oral 
converse one with another. The Arabic 
numerals which wc use are also understood 
by all Ihe civilized nations of the globe. 

In our own land and age, in 1824. a Chero- 
kee named Guess or Ouyst who could not 
speak English, or read a word in any lang- 
uage invented a syllabic alphabet, and many 
young Cherokees came a great distance to 
learn to read and write by his method, tht 
courne occupying three dtiys. 

We pass hastily from word, and syllable 
writing to a considenttlon of the more uni- 
versal method, alphabetic writing. This in- 
vention is claimed for the Assyrians, the 
Egyptians, and the Phoenicians; some are 
of the opinion that Xoah and hi.s family in- 
troduced it after the deluge, others that it 
was known previously. Some believe 
Moses lo have been Ihe inventor, others at- 
tribute ii to .Abraham, to Abel, or to Adam, 
while tbe Jewish Rabbins say God created 
it on Ihe evening of the Urst Sabbath. 

It H the general belief that the Pbo'nician 
alphabet is the oldest known, and directly 
or indirectly it is llie basis of all the exist 
ing methods of alphabetic writing. The 
Ureek. the Latin and the Arabia alphabets 

were derived from it. About four hundred 
nipbahels have been known, but tbe present 
number does not exceed fifty. All modern 
alphabets, nnd ancient as well, have more 
points nf similarity In form, power nnd nr- 
raiigi'meni of leiiersihnn would nt first siirbl 
appear but we have no time or space to con- 


* her 

One simple eletuent, arrow shaped, by 
various combinations f.irms an ancient sys- 
tem of writing called the Pcrsepolitan, from 
Pcrsepolis where il is found in inscriptions 
upon the ruins. niiil;-- liiuiiLjiil (m'Ih im- 
cicnl Rabylon have iiiM , i|.ii.n- ..f :i Miiiil:ir 

cbara.'I.T. We give l.rl,.^^ ll... fl:l,„r DavillS 

which lu* the name i.l iIuli Pum.iu kings 
frequently appears in inscriptions in this 
chanicier which were slamped upon tiles 
about 500 11. ('. and the same characters hnd 
been iiMd at the same place nt Uast. 1500 
year< enrliei'. 

In llie Plueniciau and other Semitic lan- 
guages writing proceeded from right to left. 
The (.reeks for a time wrote in the same 
manner, but afti-rwards adopted a mode 
called fiiinffop!u'ii"n. fturning like an nx In 
plowiiiL') in which the nioveineut was from 
right to 'efi and frMin left, lo ri-lit allernate- 
ly, but finally llie .liie.linii from left lo right 
was exclusively luh.pled by the Western 
nations, llexican picture wriiing. however, 
began at bottom iiml was arranged verMcallj. 

Tbe oMesi (Jicck and Latin manuscripts 
me wiilten enlirelv in capitals ; frequently 
wonls iitiil s'liieiiccs are not separiiled by 
"I a"iii,i; or pimeiualion; the introduction of 
the laiK-r is a^sciibed to Aristophanes about 
2(10 11. c. 

Uncial letters began to lake the place of 
cnpUals in Ihe middle of the fifth century, 
these were used until the tenth century. 
This style was more curved than that pre- 
viously used. It came to be adopted at the 
time when hard substances were replftced by 
papyrus nnd vellum, as greater rapidity was 
possible with such material, and its attain- 
ment was facilitated by tlie curved nature 
of the writing. It was more easily learned 
than tl;e Iloman Cursive style and was gen- 
erally used by the monkish scribes for works 
of imporUince. wliile kgad documents which 
usually were required lo be done at short no- 
tice, were written In Ihe Cursive style. 

Writing was probably first done upon 
stone, wood and melal ; afterwards on skins, 
leaves or bark of trees, tablets covered with 
wax. ivory, linen, the Egyptian papyrus and 
paper— by the chisel, style, pencil, reed, 
(luilt, and metallic pens. 

For writing ou ihe harder substances the 
style made of iron or of ivory was used 
This instrument was pointed at one end 
and broad at the other, the broad end was 
for the purpose of erasure. For forming 
letters with colors or ink, a reed split and 
sharpened like a quill pen, was used. The 
quill pen was first used io the seventh cen- 

Ink was usually black aud prepared from 
soot and gum. Ancienily titles of boobs 
and important sections were often written 
in red ink. In the middle ages, initialleU 
lers. borders, signatures and ornamental 
parts were executed in red ink. 

The books of theancients were usually in | 
the form of rolls which consisted of sheets , 

of parchment, papyrus o,* paper glued to- 
gether at the ends and wound upon a rod or 
cylinder of wood or ivory, having projec- 
tions at Ihe ends similar to the mod<'rn wall 
maps with which we are familiar. Gibbon 
mentions a manuscript of Homer, sjild to 
have been in the library at Conslaulinople. 
upon a roll of parchment one hiindifil mid 
twenty feet in length made of the inlcsiines 
of an enormous serpent, 

Tlie ancient Britons prepared slicks so as 
to present three or four flat surfaces on 
wliieh letters were cut. These sticks were 
pliicc'l in a framework in such manner as to 
lie turned upon tlieir ax'js and read continu- 
ously. Itimic wands were of a similar na- 

Tue Peruvians used quippos or knots of 
various colored threads which by change of 
color, size or arrangement conveyed ideas. 

For centuries the principal innierlal on 
which writing was done was papyrus; iisuse 
was supecseded by a revival of tlie use of 
parcliiuent in the 13lh century occasioned by 
re trictions imposed by Egyptian rulers. 

The use of pai'ch.tiQnt dales back at least 
.jOO d. c, but evcnlually it gave place, al- 
most entirely, to paper. 

made paper from pulp I wo 


nd ye 


The Am!>tans established a manufactory 
of paper from cotton at Samarcand in the 
year 70l( ii. c. In Ihe beginningof the laih 
century the Egyptians made paiM;r from the 
liueu cloths in which mummies had been en- 
veloped. Sometime during the same cen- 
tury the Romans made paper from linen 
ragj. In England a patent was taken out 
by Charles IIi:deyerd. in imn. for making 
an inferior sort of paper, and another by 
Knstacc Barnaby in 1075, and still another 
by John Biscoc 1085. The best paper at this 
lime na.s made from linen rags, and poorer 
gradc.s from a variety of other materials. 

During the last century attempts were 
made to obviate the necessity of sharpening 
or mending the points of the quill pens then 
generally used throughout Christendom. 
This was done by fitting small metallic, 
(sometimes ruby) points lo the nibs. This 
was a delicate and generally unsuccessful 
operalion but paved the way to the manufac- 
ture, soon after the beginningof the present 
century, of pcnsentirely metallic. At first 
these were barrel pens made nearly in the 
form of the quilljien. These at first were 
sold nt one-half crown each, but being slit 
but once they were rigid and in consequence 
abraded Ihe paper and proved so unsatisfac- 
tory that comparatively few were sold. In 
1820 Mr Joseph Gillott whose name is 
known by every schoolboy in England or 
America, being at the time a dealer in me- 
tallic pens found that, by making a slit ou 
each side of the pen, this defect waaobviated 
nnd from that time onward tiic glory of the 
gray goose quill waned. 

;igBtiog the subject of writing 
ing materials of the past, wc cannot 
but see that the tendency has been towards 
perfection, and, to show thai in these later 
days we have not ceo-sed lo progress, we take 
pleasure in presenting the above three letters 
Si'lected at random from Edward Corker's 
"The Pen's Transcendency." published in 

John D Williamr. 

(Wrllt-n tfr Ihe Jo^bkal by *», W. I>.ek«rd ) 
In fketchiog Ibe character of Mr. Wit.- < It was juitt such a show aetliiK that attract 
liamu, im I am r^jquested to do. it will not be ed the boy John Willinms, nod just bocfa in- 
iiPCCSMry to attempt hi« "life" in nn>- bio- i gpiralioHo that started Iiira ou a career wbere- 
Uraphical form. If it wen-. I »<hoiild put tbe in he final y made bia mark as the best off- 
latlc in otb'T handH. I fcnow very little of baud penman of hia time. I nm nuable to 
hifl earlier life, piirticularly of bin boyboud say what progress be bad made iu bis chor^en 
(layt. except as tbe cnrtain ban sometimes vocaliou of writing ma^tiT before he was 
been lifted by bim in brief nllusioDa to tbe /neized upon aud utilized by Peter Duff of 
impulHOS and environments which bnd their I Dufft* Commercial College, of Pittsburgh. 
He was raised \jy first recollection of iiim or of bis work, <>;' 

bile be was able to draw for the engraver 
rilh great accuracy, by holding tbe pi-ucil as 
a the position for flourishing, and using the 
Lrm movement entirely, be c luld not use the 
len with any marked skill iu ordimiry wri- 
iug. This fact was tbe hOiirce of muchn-gret 
o bim, the more especially %s it left opt-n to 
ronjecture whether the copy lines which ap- 
peartdinhis publisbed bocks were the en- 

very i 

Mchool, his father 
being, if I mistake 
not, a "Covenant- 


penmanship at Bart 




iment of the 
which only a 


t-nforC(d the letter 
aa well an tbe spirit 
of hiH creed. Against 
this creed, ns it bore 
upon the cffmts 
cenco of hia youth 
the boy inwardlj ^^ 
proletitcd, and not ^'^ 
infrequently out- 
wardly acted So 

nl discnesions be 
tWGon father and 
Kon, in which the 
father ceemcd at 
tbe time, to have 
carried off tbe palm, 
while the bai-k of the 

l.oy carried off undeniabk impreswonfi of the 
,ir;iiimfn!um ti(l fiominrm. Whateverelse may 
linv.- liL-en the effect of tbla sort of training 
il dill not tei>d to make the subject a devout 
courorniist in religious matters, as he began 
to think and act for himself. He bad, bow- 
ever, a remarkably ulear dii 
right, either as to thoaglit 
connigo in expressing bis vi^ 

any question that demanded biK attention 
were always positive, anil the result of care- 
ful thinking. There were very few things, 
ill fact, entering into life's reliktions that were 
itutifferont to him. Though not a scholar, in 
the common acceptance of that term — his 
schulaHtic education having been of a rudi- 
mentary FOrt only — bo was, nevertheless, a 
man of keen perceptions as to literary work, 
having a degree of culture which made him 
appreciative and critical, and an instinctive 
feeling which was rarely at fiiult. 

He was born in the city of PittKburgh in 
IK^H, but his boyhood days were spent in 
Newcastle, Pa. — at least, until lie was eleven 
or twelve years of age. He showed an early 
love for writing and drawing, and it is ^aid 
that a piece of chalk or charcoal and a board 
fence would come as near making bim per- 
fectly happy as anything could. Those were 
tbe days of peripatello writing masters, 
wherein wonderful results were achieved " in 
ten lessons," by candlelight, with quill 

Tbe traveling quill driver was as much a 
curiosity to the country bniupkin as the men- 
agerie or circus, and was possessed of as 
many antics— chirographically speaking— as 
the monkey or the clown. In fact, the 
"show" of framed " specimens " was quite 
as curious in general and in detail as any cir- 
cus bill that was ever printed. And it never 
ceased to be the topic of wonder that any 
more mortal could attain to such subhme skill 
of portraiture through the instrumentality of 
a quill pen ; and, in fact, it is an even thing 
whether, as mere objects of curiosity, the 
world bas ever produced tbe equal of the 
"kit" of tbe traveling writing-master of 
thirty-five years ago. Impossible elephants 
iu red and blue ink, carrying their cork-screw 
trunks between their striped legs , flying horses, 
with legs and tail so stiffly bent and curved as 
to elicit an unconscious prayer that they 
might never attempt to 'light ; birds of gaily 
mixed plumage (blue and red), with out- 
stretched wings aud fan-like tails, of species 
unknown to naturalist or taxidermist ; aogeU, 
with wings and trumpets, proclitimiog to the 
world that "the unrivalled ebirograpbist, Mr. 
Seth Jones, is about to stArt a u-rttiug school. 
At the frame sohool-house at Dixou's Cross 
Roads, on Monday night next, at early candle- 
lighting, to continue for ten lessons, at a dol- 
lar a bead, each pupil to bring his own can- 

College, of Giucin 
nati, aud my atten- 
tion was called to a 
b autifully written 
st aiuboat manifest 
w hich had been hung 


t,ood work 
roomhOf the "Ex. 
rhange," the Cham- 
ber of Commerce of 

nati. I 

/ Mr Duff 1 

s saying I 

impressed with thi 

tht. work, aud evei 
inite envious of th 
skill which it bftt^- 

aew how to utilize Williams's 
being afraid to puff him geuer- 
the Pittsburgh papers, be soon madf 
liim famou** and gave bim tbe iucitemeut 
which he needed to push him forward 
artistic field. At that time the famo' 
eccentric O. K. Chamberlain was r 
an opposition school in Pittsburgh. 1 
a balf-way pupil of Spencer's, though by far 
too egotistical to acknowledge any mere 
as bis master, and nothing pleased Will: 
or Duff better than to stop tbe louder bons<- 
ing of Chamberlain by the superior work of 
Williams. Williams was a rapid aud tireless 
workman, and he fairly "flung" bis speci- 
mens about with an extravagant liberality 
that awakened wonder, Oiamberlain. was far 
more skillful with bis tongue than wilh his pen, 
and it began to be pretty well understood 
that while be could beat Williams blowing, 
Williams could ' ' write bis very boots off. " At 
length. Chamberlain so far acknowledged the 
situation as to send for the veteran P. R. Spen^ 
cer. then in his prime, and put him into the 
toutest. Whatthe practiciil results w<-re, I don't 
know, neither is it of importance here. The 
only interest which attaches to the matter at 
all is, that it places in strong ligbl tbi^ 
peculiar school in which Mr. Williams's fac- 
ulties were trained. The influence of those 
early aud sometimes bitter contests never left 
him. He was always a competitor ; always 
noticing tbe wurk of others and determining 
to beat it. Nowhere was he so truly in bis 
element as at a State Fair, where there was 
plenty of competition and a chance to win 
the stake of " Champion Inkslinger," He 
omitted none of the accessories, aud was 
untiring in his efforts to secure the most ad- 
vaniageous position, tbe bebt recognition 
from officers and men of influence, and tbe 
best chances of winning tbe game. While 
be was always anxious to dfuci-re the first 
place in the final award, be was just as 
anxious to steure it, and left no stone un- 
turned to this end. 

It is scarcely necessary for me to speak of 
Mr. Williams's work. Fortunately be bas 
left on record in the published books fr 
bis band sufficient indication of bis style 
leave nothing iu doubt. When the wi 
of the off-haod penmen of to-day shall show 
a sufficient departure from the v<-ry form 
application of Williams's curves, either :n 
embellishment of ornamental lines, or iu fig- 
ures of birds and foliage to denote originality 
of conception or movement it will be time to 
assert bis claims as a leader. For the present 
it w ill be necessary only to refer to his origin- 
al designs in the "Gemh" aud "Key" with 
wliicb all aspirants to excellence in ornamen- 
tal writing are famihar. As a practical pen- 
man, Mr. Williams laid no claim for great 
excebence. Owing to an accident which 
almost wholly disabled his right thumb he 

be author's. It i 
thing to sft> that no author who ever pre- 
pared uopiis for an engraver did it with more 
care or mure exactness, and whatever work 
of his came from the engraver's hands was 
au exact copy — as nearly as tbe engraver 
could make it— of the ariist's lines. 

It is, after all, as an author that Mr. Wil- 
liams will be best known And longest remem 
bered. His " Gems of Peiimaasbip." a book 
prepared at ray suggestion, aud with my 
assiblauce in a small way, was intended more 
to conserve his !>tyle of offhand flourishing, 
and to secure to bim the credit of originality 
wb"cli, from tbe extensive copying of his de- 
signs by other artists, be was iu danger of 
losii'g. tbau as an mbodimeut of practical 
and ornamental writinjj. His series of copy- 
books and "Guide to Penmanship " after- 
wards published by Slote, Woodman A Co., 
were more in tbe line of instruction oud tm- 
body lit length th j "principles " of his system. 

There is one credit belonging to Mr. Wil- 
liams which he is not libely to have unless I 
give it to bim here. He was the discoverer 
of tbe now famous ' Spenceriau Pen, No. I,'', 
nudwhi-h was originaUy Gillotl's 170. ITie 
peculiarity of this pen is its quill-like flexi- 
bility, owing in great measure to the peculiar 
rotundity of the barrel. This pen was shown 
by me to Mr. Lusk then a^eiit for tbe Spen- 
ceriau Books ; and by him to the Messrs. 
Ivicon, Phinney & Co., who prf)cured its 
manufacture by Gillott under the nume of tbe 
"Spenceriau Pen No. 1." It is probably tbe 
most popular pen among good writers to be 

It is something to be saidof Mr. Williams 
that he never excited the animosity of his 
competitors, and that at the time of his death 
he had not an enemy on earth, Tbe reason 
lay in the very nature of the man. He could 
bold enmity. In love with his profes- 
, he had a genuine respect for every man 
who was striving to excel in it, and he habit- 
ually took as much pride in ether people's 
work as iu his own. He had the remarkable 
quality of being able to criticize his own work, 
d he often did it unsparingly. And he 
uld ju'tt as clearly see the failingsof others, 
id did not hesitate to point them out. Hi.' 



wished to r.ucceed on bis merits, invaluable. 

Mr. Williams died at Albany, on the t>th of 
.January, 1871 — at least so says the record. 
'L'o tbe writer of this imperfect sketch hej 
was never more alive than now. v 

THE 1 


Expert Testimony Regarding Hand- 


Before giving a digest of the Engbsh law 
on this subject we will take a brief retrospec- 
tive glance at the principal points already 
gone over in the preceding numbers. For a 
more full presentation of the latest rulings on 
this subject in the State and Federal Courts, 
the reader is referred to the Joubnal for Feb- 
ruary and March. 

I, Documents over thirty years old prove 

,ng the 
be living and in 
he called, provided such document on its face 
and in it« mode nf production be free from 
suspieinu as to its genuineness, and produced 
from the proper custody. IS N Y., 431 ; 57 
Ga., .SH'.i ; 13 Me., 281 ; '. Cow. 123 ; 4 Deuio 
'ioi ; n Cow. 221 ; 7 Wend 371 ; li) Paige 
190; Ac. [3- Mo.', 4G ; 40 Ala., 2.'>3; 03 III 
lOG: ]4Mb3«., 257; 11 Barb 527; 7 Weud, 
:i7l, Ac] The same rule is applied to docu- 
ments unnttfglfd by witnesses, which are ta- 
ken (roin the proper depositaries. 111.* Me., 
41(1 ; 41 Tex., 428. Such documents may be 
verified by exp.rts. 8 Wend., 42(! ; 20 111. 
14 ; H Penn. St. 43(i. 

II. The presumption of competency is in 
vor of a witnesh calkd to testify at, to band- 
riling and the burdeu of proof isontheop- 

positc party to show that the witness is 
incompetent. 17 Pick., -ifiO , 12 Wall.. 317; 
3 Weud., 102, &c. 

III. Ou cross-examination the witness may 
be tested by other writings, 11 A. and E. , 
322; 2 M. and Rob., '.Zl ; 3 P. aud D,, 1711 ; 
22 Mich.. Ut;, &c. 

. A witness familiar with another's baud- 
ng may prove it. 5 A, and E.. 731 ; 2 
Pick. 47; 1 Met.. Mass.. 428: 14 Me.. 478. 

V. Seeing a person write, qualifies a witness 
to speak aa to his writing, Sr* Me., 78 ; 32 N. 
Y.. (jGli; r)4N. Y., 3il8; 5 0,, 7; 17A]a., 706. 

VI. Handwritii.g may be proved by the 
writer himself or his admission. 4 Wend., 
21',l; 10 Wend., 404; 21 Wend.. 659. and 54 
N. Y., 400. 

VII. Tbe parly whose band-writing is in 
^dispute may be call upon to write in tbe 

of tbe court and such writing may 
'be compared with tbe writing in litigation., 155, 45 Me., 534; lOMooreP.C. 
R., 502 and 520. 

VIII. Iu some jurisdictions, comparison 
geuerilly is permitted. 108 Maes , 344 ; 105 
Mass,, t!2: .-.3 N. H., 4.'i2 ; 2 Vt., 2.5U ; iJU 
Vt., 225 ; 7 Gray 177 ; 9 Conn., 55, Ac. 

IX. Test papers, made for tbe purpose are, 
however, inadmissible. IKi Mass., 155. 

X. C^unparison of hands it- permitted by 
Roman law ; but. it is said to bo inadmissible 
by tbe Eiigbsb Common law. 4 Esp., 37; 7 
C. aud P., 548; HM and W., 123; 5 A. and 
E,. 7*»8and 710; 75 N. Y.. 288. 

XI. Tbe scries of authorities in this coun- 
try which exclude evidence of genuineness 
based on comparison of bauds, seem to rest 
ou aud follow the reasoning of this old Eng- 
lish rule, to which, however, there are ex- 
ceptions equally as well settled as tbe rule it- 
i^elf, ouo of which is the exception as to 
lest paper already in court ; so th it if a pa- 
per iidinilted to be in the baud writing of the 
party, or to have been subscrib d by bim, is 
iu evidence for some other purpose in the 
cause, tbe signature or paper iu question may 
be compared with it by tbe jury. 75 N. Y., 
2HK; 4H N. Y., 45ti ; 14 N. Y., 430, &o. 28 
and 20 Vict, c. 18. 

The rule that no test papers written for the 
purpose, can be iutroducLd an a btandcrd 
meets the objection that collateral issues 
might have to be tried through tbe introduc- 
tion of spurious writiugs. 

Aud the objection that the selections might 
be unfairly made, is met by the fact that un- 
fair specimens could be encountered with true 

Xn. Experts admissible to test writings, 
(apart from the questiou of comparisou of 
bands^ to determine; 

1. Whether feigned or, (14 N. Y., 
430 : 30 N. Y., SS.".. and 75 N. Y., 288. Ac.) 
though, in absence of evidence as to simula- 
tion, proof of no simulation is not to be re- 
ceived. 40 N. Y., 193, Ac. 

2. The period to which a writing may be 
assigned. 1 Denio 343; see 75 N. Y.. 288. 

3. The nature of the ink or other material 
used. 30 N. Y., 35.5, &c. 

4. Whether a certain writing shows com- 
parative ease and facility, llli Mass., 331. 

5. Whether certain figures in a cbeck have 
been changed. 18 Ind.. 320; 3 Gilmer (;44. 

(!. The difference between the subbtance of 
forged addition. 

Ky., 523. 

Ky.. 2.i8; though see 2 Metcalf, 

ther certain words were written be- 
)er was folded. 13 Gray 525. Ac. 
meaning of certain illegible markn 
.56 N. Y., 200, and 7 Cushing 595. 






Id oI 

■D ioRtrum 


wrilU-n b. 




witb the « 







11 Gray 

; Allen iZi. 

10. Whilher a certain Uuk note i" » coun- 
terfeit. 3" M«-*»., 4fil ; «nd. for thin purpoup 
ItdPtineiM men, long familiar wilhnoUs called. 
13 Irc(l-II N. C. 114. 

11. Wbether certain woids were written 
over others. 30 N. Y.. 3.'..'.. 

12 The dnte aud meaning of certain wordu 
upon an erasure. 40 Barbour ASC ; 14 Mich. 
•JH7 i thoutrb we 7 Mo., 2:11. 

It baK, bowevor, been beld inndmUmibU 

ng wbich no professionnl ciperience 
M needed to xpr^Ak. TfTi Me., 8!I3. 

Nor citn an expert be exiiiniaed as to bow 
nr A pi>non mity improve bin writing in a 
rivf^D time. 108 MiiHH., 844. 

XIII. Pbotographers may be received as 

that of the defeidant, aud givt3&<^ his rtiisou 
for that b«-lief, the alMt^nce or preR«oce of 
c"rtaia peculiKriliett, wbich, be says, do or do 
not exist in the genuine signatures of the de- 
fendant, the opposite eounti^l may put into 
hiK band a p»per unconnected with tb(- cause, 
and ask. if. in bis opinion, tbat contains a 
genuine nignatur^ of the defendant; and, if 
be atuiwen in the affirmative, be may then be 
a«ked, " Dofb the iti>:nature in this paper, 
which yoii Hay is genuine, contain the same 
peculiiintiL'fl, or want the tiaiue peculiarities 
(tut tbe cpse might be), which you have before . 
RtAted iin your reaflDns tbat the gtgnnture in | 
Young e, Houner. | 
1 C. and K., fil ; '2 AI. and Bob., ftSC— Alder- 
Evidence of baudwriting is inndmifwible, 
except eitber where the writing acknowledged missible; that they 
to be genuine is already in evidence 
CRU8e. or the disputed writing is an t 
document. These exceptions are of 

itiogency | di«put« is not genuiii 

XIV. ExpertH may be c 

i to fl'ty- 1*0K d. perry v. Newton. 1 N. and P., 
j 1 : 6 A. and E., r,l4 : W.. W. and D.. 403. 
XV. Teotiraony of experts to bo closely Evidenc of handwriting formed by the 
«nitini/.ed. witDC8<< called oo an immediate comparison 

Doe d. Modd r. 
Ki; o A. aud E., 

On the croiss examintttion of an attesting 
witness to a codicil, he denying that it was 
in his baudwritiog. other documentsHdmitled 
by him lo be in his writing were allowed to 
be submitted to the jury for tbe purpo<% of 
comparison of biindwriting. Cresswell r. 
Jsi-kHon. 2 F. aud F.. 24 -Pollock. 

In an ncti'-n for libel, to prove that the li- 
bels declared ou were written by the defen- 
dnnt. certain documents admitted to be in her 
handwriliug were used as staudards of com- 
parisoj : and iilso seven auouymous letters, 
generally relating to the same matters as the 
libels. This evidence was admitted to prove 
malice ; and they were also used as a com- 
parison of the bnudwritiug in dispute, aud no 
objection was made at tbe trial : 

Held, tbat the anonymous letters were ad- 
ere relevant to the issue 
to show malice ; that if a proper objection 
had been made at the trial, they could not 
have been received as evidence of hftudwrit- 
iug. Hiighes c. Dinorbeu (Lady). 32 L. T., 
271 Q. B. 

The question being whether a memoran- 
dum was in the bandwritiug of a defendant 

1. Comparison of 
SUihitr. —By 17 

and in tlie 
ing becu got t 

; of 

b\ tbe stereolypel tipression, "students o' 
this school are expectfd lo behave themselves 
like gentlemep. Ac," but in view of the fact 
that a great many, indeed a very large propor- 
tion do not do this, the great question theo 
comes up, " What are yon going to do about 

it ? " 

Boceutly many of our school commuu'ties 
have forbidden all resort to corporal punish- 
ment in sctiools. It is denounced as barbar- 
ous aud d«gn»diug. I would however relapse, 
into barbarism sufficiently to huggebt tbat 
in the prestnt state of oiir civilization nod 
our school orgauizntio", ci>rporaI punishment 
is a means of grace which we cannot profit- 
ably or safely abolish. The ueccwity of 
using it is very, perhaps increasingly, rare, 
aud the teacher, who frMjuently needs to re. 
sorts to its ui^e is presumptively unfit for his 
position. But the right to use it should rest 
with tbe teHcber aud is a great preveutative 
of tlint mischief which calls forcorporal puu- 
isbm«>ii>. Few fomilies exist in which at 
some time or other, iu greater or less degree, 
some resort to it has not been found necessary 
or expedient. Mituy a mother knows while 
of her children may be governed by a 

3 sometbiug on a piece of I look, or an Hppcal to 1 1 

nd 1« I'lV 

, VlXy 


/*) Act of 
27. compari. 
ion of a dtMptitfd 
le-riliiig wit/i (iny 
writing procfd to the 
satitfaotion of thf 
i'liifff t" be grnuiiie, 
nhiiU be prrmilUd to 
be madf- by iritne*.»rH, 
II nd nteh writiiigH, 
aiul tlte evidence of 
init'iFiue* respecliiig 
llir K'lmt; maybe nub- 
milted to the court 
ati'i jury ti* ecidenee 
of the g.nuioauna, 
or ftt/ieiiei'ge, of the 
irritiug in diepntf. 
.ltd 2!t 

of eeriftin sigiiiitures 
Ik' luul in IjIs niiud 
such a distinct know- 
ledge of the hand- 
writing as to be able 
to say. without iin- 

ten by the same per- 
son, is a competent 
witness. Cmwford 
and liiudsay Peei 

7'M« of God-, ivfiai' nebt^' aria a 
tt'e to bt^et euul gfari/i/ an. 

love, tbe 
only by Ibo argu- 
nient of a little 
whisk. Every teach- 
er knows that there 
are boys who froni 
innate waywarduesg 
or defect of home, 
tmiuiug will not re- 
spoud to tbe ordin- 
ary motion of the 
school room. Tbe 
delicacy wbich re- 
giirds t*. uumauly 
and barbarous to flog 
these boys, has no 
last resort but to ex- 
pel them from 
school aud thereby 
depriving them of 
all opportunities for 
education oud im- 
provement, they are 
si'ul back to pitrentn, 

properly, iuslead of 
assisting to remedy 
tbe defects of home 

hardened, to cruel 
indulgence, to tbe 
fatnl, iguuranee of 
guardians. To turn 
many of these boys 
out of school is to 


i^Savc MtvttffA, tA» miUi 


H'lM tchnt Dociimenta — A document pur- 
ported to bo a certiAcate of a marriage at 
Uristol, iu 1701, written aud signed by W. 
1) . ournte of St. James's: Held, that the 
hivudwriting of W. D., might be proved by 
tlio opinion of a witness, formed by com- 
paring it with signatures of W. D., in the or- 
igmal register of St. James's, by which be 
appeared to be the offlciating curate iu I'lU, 
without any proof of bis deoth or search for 
witnesses who may have seen him writ«. Doe. 
d. Jenkius t. Daviea 10 Q. B.. 814; 11 .lur., 
707; UlL. J. Q. B., 218. 

Iu an action charging the plaintiff with 
baviug written a libel on the defendant, to 
which be pleaded justification that tbe plain- 
tiff had written the libel, it appeared that in 
till' libel thus alleged to have been written by 
the plaiutiff, the name of the defendant was 
spelled in a peculiar way : Held, that, inorder 
to prove tliat the plaintiff wrot« that hbel. 
other dooumouts written by bim in which the 
name was so spelled, were receivable. Brooks 
r. l^chbouru, 5 Etch.. 929; 14 Jur.. 1122; 
20 L. J.. Exoh.. fi9. 

H a witness, who is called to disprove the 
signature of the defendaut to an acceptance. 
inU.s that be b->lievds tbe signature U not 

703: \V.. W. audi).. 40.-;. 

A clerk of the post office, nccustomed to in- 
spect franks for tbe detection of forgeries, 
may be exa.iiiued as a witneis to prove that 
the handwriting of au instrument is an imita- 
ted and uot a natural hand, and also to prove 
tbat two writings suspected to be imitated 
hands were written by the same person, (rood- ' 
little d Revett r Brnbam, 4 T. R., 4!)7. I 

Tbe rule that comparison of handwriting is j 
uot evidence, dous not extend so far as to I 
prevent the court or jury from instituting a ' 
oiimparison b«tween twodocuments of which \ 
prima faeie evidence has been given. Grif- i 
fitb c Williams. 1 C. and J., 47. ' 

A jury may judge of a disputed handwri- , 
iug by comparing it with other docuuteuls iu \ 
eviilence for other purposes, and admitted to ' 
he the handwriting of the party. Solita r. ' 
Yarrow. 1 M. and Uob., 133— Teuterden. ' 

Siuce the Statute.— In an action on a bill. ! 
the acceptance being denied and alleged to be 
a forgery, documeutt, such as receipts, ' 
not relevant to the is«ue. but proved to be in 
thii handwriting of tbe defendant, were al- ' 
lowed to be put iu for the purpose of com- 
parison. Birch c. Ridgway, 1 F. and F., 270 
-PoUockl I 

paper, this was allowed to be shown to the 
jury, for the purpose of comparison of hand- 
writing. Cobbett V. Kilmiuister, 4 P. and F., 
4110. —Martin. 

2. Marksmen. 

An instrument executed by a mark may be 
proved from inspection by a person who has 
seen the party so execute instruments. 
George r. Suney. M and M,,;. -Tindal. 

Ordtr in Basicess Colleges- 
It has been well said that order was tbe first 
law of h' aven. Witti 
good order either pnbli 
cial schools will prove an utter failure. It is 
an unquestionable fact that more teachers 
have proven failures through lack of proper 
discipline than from all other causes. All 
other topics have been ably discussed in your 
valuable paper, I propose in this article to 
give some points upon tbe subject of onler 
in scbnols, wbich, I hope may teud to bring 
out further discussion upon this important 
subject and upon wbich depends the welfare 
of every institution of learniug. I have been 
greatly edified upon rending tbe circulars 

a schools tliroughout the land ihare of Vie icork. 

uujust to the parent 
and rninoiis to the 

Our commercial schools have generally the 
hardest class to govern ; their pupils consist 
of young men iu aud beyond their teens, 
many of whom have been debarred from the 
public schools for bad conduct. Ofteu 
the conduct of the sous of wealthy men 
is tbe worst In one of tbe 'leading Chi- 
cago dailies we are told that the faculty of 
Ann Arbor College, Mich., bad to have the 
aid of the police force of the village to pre- 
serve order in ihe institution, and that the 
son of a millionore was the most unruly of all 
the student". The question of good discip- 
line is doubtless at the present time, as it has 
always beeu of paramount importance to the 
success of every school and one that has sev- 
erely taxed the brains and ingenuity of 
our most apt scholars and best teachers. A 
few suggestions from one who has spent the 
best years of his life in the hamebs, I hope 
will not come amiss. Much friction and many 
perplexities can be avoided if we will use the 
potential instead of the imperative mood in 
our intercourse with students, ask them in a 
gentle manner to do things, and always treat 
them more like men and women who are your 
equal, having rights to be respected. Be- 
come well acquainted with their parents and 
see to it that any questionable conduct ia 
duly reported to them, and remember that 
Ihe great art of commanding i» to take a fair 

PublUhrd MoDlblr at S1.00per Year. 
D. T. AME8. EDiTom *so i'bop«i«to», 

1 Study and ri'scarcli. Wr 




terly lD«<lv*Dce. No devuUon rrom the »bo»* 
. KcBdlog in»lt«, 30 cenU per Hue. 

. hopt lo mikellie Jopnn*L ioiDl*rMtlng»nd 

aold rltli» bit Bub^iriptloD or % good word ; bat 

:e,*'wr will *«nd ft co'tif or ottber tb« Lords 
ireo will be sent wllb (ho Writ oupy of tlie JoUB 

g t'j we win mall to ei 

of penmBDHblp «vor pubiiBht>d, tIb. : 

Tb» Funlly HMord 18i 

3 8pf olmcn Hbeeta ol EngrOBilng «aobl ll 

C'ODRdoD'i Normal Syatem of Letter 

ward the \a 

DUiUcatloDB deafgrod for The Pe»mam'( 

Ant JocBH*!. should 
publlMll'tn. aos Broadw 



rdetiigm-d foriD>er- 


mIttBUcoa Hbould b 

" "iDOlO 

206 Br 

t-offlce order or by 
ed lu letter la not 





bsorlptleoB to Tbk Pbnu* 
rsforBoyof our ptiblicatlu 
promptly attended to by the 


St. (Ftwt 8t..l 
London. England, 


Alphahola. . . 

' ' ll'. M. 


■aj New Y'Tk. V. 8. A. 

very dlBttnctly. 


Ib Expertism of Handwriting a Science? 

TliL' jibovL' qiit'stiou WHS lately asked and 
iiu answer Holirited by n corvcspoDdcDt of 
the JoiniNAL. ticieuce, tis dctlnetl by Web- 
ster i8 " the comprehension nndundt-rstand- 
lug of truth or fuels by the mind." "any 
art or species of knowledge." Judged by 
titose deflititioos there can he very Utile 
doubt but that the knowledge and under- 
stnnding of handwriting whicli nm be ac- 
<iuircd l)y an acute mind, from long and 
CAFeful study and observation, may amount 
to a science. 

That the writing of all ndults has certain 
characteristic tiiid distinguishing features 
liy which it is as readily and ccrtnioly 
recogi.ized as are the writers by their 
presence, is an obvious fact. The writing 
of no two persons can be identical. A per- 
son can no more hesitate or fail to recognize 
his own writing than lie could his house, 
clothing or most Inlimale friends and asso- 
ciates. Indeed, we believe that one is no more 
liable to a mistaken identity of a familiar 
baudwriting, than he is of a pcntuu with 
whom ho is equally familiar. Now in view 
of the fact that writing is not identical, and 
that It does possess certain recognizable and 
distinguishable chanKrleristics. docs it not 
certainly follow that there must be a phil- 
osophy of bandwriling and why may not 
its phenomena he ascertained and demoo- 
stmtcd OS clearly and certainly as the 
phenomcuQ in auy other department of hu- 

many of the rules of mechnnicol science ap. 
ply lo its construe! ion. It is also ao art, 
and many of the rules observed in the 
varied deparlnienis of art are applicahle to 
the teaching, study and practice of writing, 
and are we to believe that such rules when 
applied lo writing are any more difficult lo 
understand, or more uncertain in their re- 
sults than when applied in any other de- 
partment of human labor or discovery ? 

The hand and pen may be said to consti- 
tute a machine for writing. The machine 
at first transcribes imperfectly and with 
great difficulty letters and writing in imita- 
of a copy. At the outset all the powers 
of the mind are required to watch and guide 
its operations, but as these are repeated the 
machine acquires facility and accuracy in 
nl until at length it becomes as 
omatic, and "goes it alone." all 
the forms and C'-mbinationsof writing are 
repeated by the baud (influenced of 
e by the circumstar.ces of the writer) 
from the sheer force of. habit, requiring no 
effort of the mind which has grad- 
ually transferred its lab r of operating the 
machine to the furnishing of matter which 
>w transcribes. AM the peculiar forma- 
of letters and their combinations are 
thus, by the force of habit, unconsciously 
made and repeated, it is true, not exactly in 
and form, but with the same peculiar 
t,haract£ri?tic9 that identities all as the same, 
they differ as may different kernels of the 
LDie kind of grain, in size and form, but 
hich are none the less identical. 
The pen being held in a certain position 
and moved under a certain degree of pres- 
re produces a peculiar quality of line, 
-cngth and location of shade, while habit 
iparls peculiar forms, proportions, slope, 
d combinations, of letters, makes peculiar 
rns, slops, rests, crosses of t's dots lo i's 
itial and terminal lines, punctuation, and 
the whole multitude of excentricities that 
characlerize and give personal identity to 
handwriti.ig. most of which habits and 
characteristics are unobserved hy the writer 
and being unconsciously repeated, it be- 
comes utterly impossible, that they should 
be all, or even any great proportion of them, 
avoided at the will of the writer. He may 
easily change his writing in its general ap- 
pearance by reversing its slope using a 
widely diflferent pen and ink -indeed he may 
write in a dozen different ways— yet in spite 
of all his cfTort the major part of theme 
chanical and habitual chararteristics will 
remain, and the genuineness cf the willing 
will be scarcely less apparent to ihi- vye of 
a skillful expert than would be the dis- 
guised features of the writer to his intimate 
friends, the distinguishing features in each 
case remain and cannot be successfully con- 
cealed or avoided. 

That all or most of these peculiar dis- 
tinguishing and habitual chanicterisllcs of 
writing can be discovered, noted and suc- 
cessfully applied by experts in the compari- 
son and identification of handwriting we 
most fully helieve. aud that under favorable 
circumstances this is done with well nigh 
the certainty of a mathematical demonstia- 

The degree of certainty, and value of a 
conclusion reached by an expert regarding 
handwriting must of course vary with the 
circumstances Under which he acta. 

Perhaps the most difficult and unsatisfac- 
tory of all cases iu which the expert is 
called is where simply a skillfully executed 
signature Isciillcd Into ijuestion. Often this 
class of forgeries are perpetrated by persons 
who ate themselves ei perts as skillful and 
experienced as those who are called upon 
to detect them. All the knowledge and 
methods known to Ibc expert are employed, 
not alone iu executing the forgery, but in 
the use of safe-guards against deteolioii aud 
pioof. In many such cases it Is (*ifflcult, 
and in sonic well nigh impossible, for the 
most skilled expert to determine beyond 
grave doubts regarding their genuineness. 
Yet, however skillful a forger may be it is 
rare that he will not overlook somu point 
or habit in the genuine upon which he will 
fail, and which will be apparent to the 
really skilled expert. This class of expert 
work Is difficult because of the generally 
limited amount of \rriting brought into 

.iii.-tinii from which be can make compari- 
son, and upon which base an npinitm. 

In disguised and Bimulaled writing there 
IS usually a greater bulk of material, there- 
by presenting a much better opportunity 
for studying the habits and characteristics 
of the writers: in such cases tt really skilled 
expert will rarely fail, not only to reach a 
decisive and satisfactory conclusion, but to 
so amply justify the same by facts and rea- 
son as to convince courts and juries of the 
scientific nature and real value of expert re- 
search and testimony. 

"Practice Makes Perfect " 

Though a trite saying that ■'practice makes 
perfect." dally observation proves it to be a 
very false one, for as a rule those persons 
who practice -writing most are the very 

It is only when one practices studiously 
and with care that marked improvement 
follows. Writing is often taught and prac- 
ticed as if it were to be learned entirely by 
imitation, when in fact progress and success 
is much more the result of proper study of 
the construction of letters aud their correct 
combinations into writing, and a careful 
criticism by the pupil of rach exercise after 
it has been written and before its repetition, 
in order that the errors may be discovered 
and avoided instead of being repeated in 
the next efforL Many persons who write 
badly never understand why it Is that their 
writing is unsatisfactory and awkward. 
They simply know it is so, and, not know- 
ing why, they can make no intelligent effort 
for its improvement. A fault to be concct- 
ed must first be discovered, and then the 
proper remedy may be sought and appli' d. 
The physician must first understand the 
disease of his patient, before he can apply 
the proper remedy. Should he first give 
the prescription and then study the disease, 
he might he equally hopeful for success 
with the pupil who seeks to become a skill- 
ful writer by Imitating without studying 
his copy. "Practice makes perfect" if per- 
feetiou is aimed at while practicing. 

Expert Testimony in Courts Regarding 


On the 2Gll! and follnwiii.; p„ges of the 


llie dig. 

mcnccd In the February number of the laws 
and rulings of the several court.s in this 
country and Eugland, relative to Ihe use 
and admission therein cf expert tes'imony 
regarding the genuineness of handwriting. 
If we mistake not this digest will he found 
of great value for reference, not alone to 
siudpiits of law, bu* to many old prac- 
titioners who may have causes to try when - 
in the genuineuess of handwriting is in- 
volved. We also call attention to editorials 
bearing upon the subject of expertism of 
handwriting in the December. February, 
aud present Issue of the Journal. Single 
copies mailed for ten cents. The three 
copies containing the complete digest for 

25 cents. 

A New Departure. 

.John C. Moss, the inventor of the Moss 
process of pholo engraving has disposed of 
his interest in the Photo-engraving Com- 
pany. 07 Park Place. New York, and has es- 
lablishedthe Moss Engraving Company. 535 
Ptarl street, where he Is now prepaied to 
execute all orders for photo-engraved plates. 
His motto is "the best work at low prices." 

Mr. Moss retains for himself all inven- 
tions and Improvements made since May 
1872. by ihe use of which he feels n8<iured 
that he can do better wr)rk at less cost, than 
by his former process. Specimens of en- 
graving by bis new process may be seen In 
the Portrait of John D. Williams, and the 
specimens copied from the Williams and 
Packard's Gems on oJier pagesof this issue. 

Lessons in Flourishing. 

We have been obliged to riefer the first 
lesson of the course, announced for this 
number of the JounNAL, until the May 
is^ue. We shall spare no pains lo make the 
course of instruction and the exercises as 
Interesting and practical as possible. 

Binders for the Jonrnal. 

We are now prepared to supply subscrib- 
ers, by return of mall, with a convenient 
file and binder for the Jouknm., for $1.75. 
It Is what every subscriber should have. 

Writing in Public Schools. 

.1. M. Slohan. special teacher of writing 
.n the public schools of Creslon, Iowa, 
sends specimens of his own writing, that 
ten by pupils in several of the primary 
schools, and three of the high school de- 
pa-lment. which evince no ordinary degree 
of excellence in this ustially neglected but 
important branch of a public school educa- 
tion. Professor Mehan seems lobe giving 
a verv satisfactory aud conclusive demon- 
stration of the wisdom of employing a 
special and skilled teacher of writing in the 
public sciiools of our cities and large vil- 

AUing's Inks. 

We call attention lo the lulvertisement on 
our last page of the above inks. We have 
received specimens of fourteen diflferent 
(lualitles, and various colors of these inks, 

Ith which we are well pleased so far os 
Ihe limited time for their trial enables us to 
judge. We certainly recommend our read- 
ers to give them a trial. Of their special 
merits we shall be able to speak more fully 
and warraulably In a fu ure issue. 

Acknowledgmr nt. 

We are indebted and hereby express our 
thanks to HamiIloiiPouicroy.E!-q.,14fi Broad- 
way, "MuUihI Life" Law Department, 
for kindly fumisbiug material and rendering 
able and valuable assislauce in Ihe piepara- 
lion of the digest, comuieuced in February 
and ending with the present is^ue. of laws 
and rulings uf com Is loucbing the admission 
of expert testimony regarding handwriting 
iu courts of law. 

Ames' Compkudium. 


Hereafter lliis woiU will be mailed on 
receipt of $4.50. It is uuivorsally ecu- 
ceded lo be the most comprehensive and 
piaclical guide, iu every ctepiirtment of ar- 
lisiii and displayed pen work ever pub- 
lished. No penman seeking to excel in 
ornamental peniuauship can afford lo be 

without it. 

Pfcnmen's Cards. 

We tnkc pUasurc in culling the attention 
of nurlti-ailers to the new advertisement of 
the N. E. Card Compiiny of Woonsocket. 
R. I. They carry as large, if not the largest 
variety of cards in the market. The stock 
is first class and prices veiy reasonable. All 
in want of goods in their line t^hould send 
for sHinples. 

Hymen- ai. 

ns all good pcmeu should .lo, included tlic 
sanctum of ye editor in his honey-moon ex 
cursion. Long life and double blessedness 

to the new lli ui. ^ 

Awards for Improvement. 
Owing to the taitliness of competitors lor 
the prizes announced at the beginning of 
Mr. Kelley's lessons, in sending their im- 
proved specimens, we are unable to publish 
our report in the present Issue- but shall 
do so in the May number. Specimens will 
be received until the 20lh inst. 


The eletrotype plate of Mr. Kelley's spcci- 
men, In our last Issue, in spite of all our 
efEt.rls, was entirely unsatisfactory. 

The King of Clubs, 
this time comes from C. K. Uruer, Pougli 
keepsle, N. Y. and numbers fifty. The 
best yet. Who can do belter 1 

MIbs a. C. lirackett, in the Neio „..»,- 
Jimrnnl of fSdn ration, complains that ih"-' 
public schools are mismanaged by men who 
do not belong to the profession ; and that 
wise and skilled specialists should be chosen 
for the school work and left unimpeded by 
amateur interference. She says also: "With 
our system of departmental schools evtry- 
thing is at loose er.d8. The thrt-nd, which is 
one thread, is shown to the pupil a- many dir- 
ferentbits with no connectiou ; and wl'^' 
wonder that he makes such rapid and Bsto"- 
ishing progress, and graduates with pt""- 
ceotage of 1»7 and unable to write a 
decent lelter. or to read a stanza of poetry, 
or a paragraph of prose without blundenng 
a dozen times I " 

Fenmanihip as an Art. 

To ooe who hu given toy attention to the 
hiirtory of pcDUiantibip. by f»r the ino«t iitrik- 
ing fact appeant in lb« rapidity wilh whi'^h it 
hw* developed from 

of the penm: 

wonder less 

p«Dmaniibip i 

Then. too. 

I himself, ve are inclined to 
t the marvellous progress of 
these modern days. 

iks, the piiper, the pen 


hold<erR have been studied i 
ifully. by talented m< 

iU own. lo Ibf pri*eDt "ketch. I propose to 
di'srribe penmanHbip an au art ; at some 
future lime, it may b« my privilege to treat 
of it as a scieoco. 

Am may be seen, from the hiKtory of pcn- 
mnniihip. there arc certain conditiooB which 
are necessary for the 
dovelopment of an 
art ; nod until theHfi 

8peuc(>r would have 
failid to aceonipliHh 

aroestly and 

any other 

iiary of olhir | productions of moderp science. Each has 

t and science of h^en made a npecialty, and the marvellous 

degreefi of improvement which have been ac- 

qwircd in the cose of each, seems to preclude 

all Decessily of farther study in this direc- 


n these thingn are the mere begin- 
i BcientiBc knowledge of the means 

' minatioD of that series of c^/i^#afj< which is 
related to the iitlvsQced penmanship of t<^ 
day as the corner-stone of St. Paul's to the 
CApstoue of that most magnificent cathedral. 
Everj- scientific t. athir of peumaoship drills 
bis I upiU in the fundamental forms of letters 
before he proceeds to their combiuation. 
Thus, we B<^e that in the first element of 
art-growth peumanship is moi-it excellently 

The second condition nndcr which an art 
develops is, faithful culture on the part of its 
votaries. No man ever elevated biniself or 
his art by entering upon its duties with half 

nanship a 

1 gni 


laya of quill 
Hlub " end "pale- 
M>«" ink. At that 
me, it wan Himply 


»ible for fine 
I be produced. 
imiiiiHhip hud 

siduity could have 

iidiT which ony urt 

■kuowU'dgoof the 
tim by which it is 

1 il8 initial ue- 
sity goes fur to es- 
lisii their propo- 
on. This ni-oeNsi- 
in fact, fonuK tbe 
r<H"rds tbo Orsl re- 
iliiifi'metit of art- 
yiowth? I scarcely 

uiidii«nc» of proft'Ks- 
iomil peuntei). Look 
at tho iudiiHtries 
which fiud thi'irsole 

> the 

iou nud produc- 
of pouwcu'sHiip' 





a mere trad^. without feeling 
ttorest and devotion therefor, 
to recoDsidcr his intent. There aro many 
other fields where be may find work con- 
geuiat to his taste — professiiius, trades, voca- 
tions; but to wed an art for which oue foels 
no true devotion, is, to say the least, a haz- 
ardous esperimeut. 

Oue more comlition of art development, I 
must be permitted to consider, before leaving 
the subject: it is U'metinrx»~tt somewhat 
prosaic requiremcDt you will say; hut none 
the less pertinent for that reason. It is 
uoticeable that nil arts, botvever ethereal and 
"fine," stoop lo the 
lips of maukiud, and 
shape their creations 
largely in accordance 
with the whispers of 
popular taste. Every 
generation ba^ left its 
peculiiir imprint upon 
literature, music, 
painting and sculp- 
ture. However baso 
a motive this kind of 

it is nevertheless un- 
deuiably a condition 
of art growth. Hap- 
py, then, is the artist 
who tiuds mankind in 
a pure and healthful 
and iiibtructive mood; 
it is a glad era for bis 
art, when such a dis- 
position is to he met 

T h e popularity 
whirh penmanship 
enjoys, at the present 
day. ia, then, to be 
attributed, partly, to 
i ts timeliuess. It 
in sft-t the demands, 
■ thf disposition of the 

wliichisfttouce prac- 




o //if c/i/ic^l/i/tii/i/e/ rlii itlri r i / ifHicti / >t //if ill 
fl/y'llrfffi/fci r/yr,fl ff>,f/fif7fji l/l ^FBESUHSti *WgX€I3X,l^ 

fjffff/fTJz/f 7 7,/ :::^,,:;7i' /f 7 


J/fy //f,lJ„U^^fu. 
ity / ,ini ill //irti/ 

<yO/u j/. f f/ y J//</ „,, ^' / ' '<■' ' '^ f..„ . u,u //Uf/,.>,y,>ff,ui^ 


and child throughout 
christeudom, is in it. 
self a marvel of scien- 
tific design and ac< 
curacy. A few gener- 
atiouH ago, all theiu> 
gt'uuily in the world 
could not have pro- 
duced such au iustru- 
meut as the careless 
school boy now buys 
for n oi'ut. And when 
we come to consider 
the modern dinmoud- 
poiutcd gold pen, 
with all it« niceties of 
gnidn and constructioi 

actually, to tbesubtle peculiarities of each pt 
(iou's chamctt^-r and stvle. so that the vctera'j 
pi>nman required to cbauRe his grade and kiud 
of instrument would feel as clumsy as David in 
the armor of Saul ; when we take iut-> ac- 
count the delicate adjustment and exquisite 
consistency which fit the firat-clai^ gold pen 
to be the life-longcompauiou and sympathi 
of I 

^ y^^Jf»r.>.^fr.f/y/Ji/^f//f,.fJ.iYUr^%nJ.ui/d^ ^ ^ 

The above cut was photo-engraved by the Pboto-Electbotvpe Co., 20 Cliff street. New York, from resolntions engrossed at 
the office of the Penuan's Abt Jodbsai« for the Board of Aldermen of New York. The ongiua' was on parchment paper 17x22 
inches in size, mounted on white satin, bound with blue satin, aud rolled up on an ebony baton. The cut is inserted in the 
Journal as a specimen of engrossing and lettering, every variety of which is promptly executed at the office of the Joobnal. 

Thu utilitarian ele- 
ment must be grati- 
fi d, as well as the 
tPsthetic. Penman- 
Hbip combines, in the 

(hese seemingly an- 
tagonistic qudities. 
It is both an iuhtru- 
nieut of exceeding 
pntctical vnlu'-, aud u 
thing of joy and 
beauty in itself. 

To tbat sordid and 
narrow prejudice 
which persists in de- 
nying to penmanship 



art, I subject the pre- 
ceding briefly-stated 
facts. It will, I think, 
be seen by all, that 
in the prime condi- 
tions of art and art- 
growtb. penmanship 
presents an harmon- 
ious tonformity, not 
to be excelled by any 
other system of 

We tave never seen 
a more exquisite 
piece of penmanship 
than that which ap- 
peared in the Febru- 
ary number of the 
Penman's Abt Joob- 
XAL. — Gcycr'a S(a~ 

, adapting themselves, I of expression to he employed in the art of 
penmanship. There is a mon> fundamental 
knowledge still, embodied in what are called 
the "rudiments" of the art It was soon 
discovered by the pioneers of penmanship, 
that a certain code and (groundwork was 
necessary for the success of the new art — a 
scientific basis upon which to build the ele- 
gant structure which they proposed. The 

a heart. That divine 
glows upon the maiiter's 
spired page of the poet, 
and no less possible, in t 

u of lettere, and the everfaitbful tool ' result of their deliberations was, the deter- i young ; 

.■iithusiasm which 
^nvas and the io- 
i no less essential, 

■ owing to the fact 
tbat her children have absorbed this high 
spirit instinct in herself, that penmanship 
. has mode such gratifying progress in the 
present age. I should strongly urge any 

who contemplates taking up 

Back Nnmberi. 

We still have remaining a few of all the 
back numbers of the Jouhnal since and 
inclusive of tlie September number, 1877, 
ticriUynecen up to mlum€ four, which will be 
sent wilh either the "Lord's Prayer" or 
" Eagle " as a premium for tl.50; both pre- 
miums and the "Centennial Picture of 
Progreas" for $2.00. 


J. fl. Croiifie. Merophis, N. Y., writeo b 
Tery bpiiuliful IflU-r, in which be incloses 
HvTcral very graceful speciniena of card 

A L. Gilbert. Penman at th« Spenccrinn 
Hitinncm College, Milwaukiv. Wio., writes n 
lett^T which iH a model for businens writing. 
It vxhibitM eimplicity, ease and Deatnebs. 

An elegantly wi-itten letter incHsing uftnieH 
for a club of itubHcribers to the Jod&nal, has 
been received from A. B. Capp, teaebir of 
penmanNhip, at H(-ald*s BusinegB College, 
San FranciHco, CilI. 

Mr«. Mollie D. Scott. Monroe, N. C. who 
dettiies to " nhow ub what a rebel can do," 
HeudH UH a specimen of drnwiug, fioiirisbiug 
and lettering, wbieb is creditable ; the niNtie 
lettering cRpecinlly in good. Sbe also writes 
a bnndnomH hand. 

J. R. McFnrren is teachicg writing clasaes 
at Michigan, (Mo.) and vicinity. He reports 
that be is having a gnitifyiiie success. He 
t4-acheB the Speucerian sytitem, and bas an 
txperieuce as teacher of over thirty years. 
The Bpceimens of copy wriling which he in- 
closes to the JorBNAi. are very creditahle. 

teacher of writing iu Miller's Comuieroiftl 
College. ID timt city, writes an easy nud 
grucefiil hand. A hp< cimen Ket of cnpitali 
execiiled on a nnihcnlar movement uiny bi 
seen in Iho ilhistrntion on another page 

F. .1. Pope, Clmrlotte, Vt, incloses s. veri 
cred'tabtu specimei s of nrittng and Hon: nf the Nash 

and Piii.iK' Svbw.-i-. 

A most <-l<'giuit specimen of letter writing 
coni.-H fnm. W. H H.itrii k. tt-.i. 1.. r of wriliny 
at Sadl-r'H. ]{ry ml mid Siratlou B.i.u.eht, Uahiuiure. Ind. 

P. II. Hn dm, who is trncbing writing at 
Uuiou Stnr. Ky., siudsa puckiige of r-pti:i 
uiuns of off baud writing, which are rarely 
excell d in tbeir aecuracy, ea!>e and ^aci- of 

H. C. Clnrk. Principal of the PoU^ville, 

Ptt. Husinr-- f'nil- -•. , itiflnsi-s pliotographs of 
two ori'l't I. . ... 1.., ,.^ iif drawing, flour- 
ishing Ml I , ut<td by Jauies C. 
Kane, \v I I \.iiiuy in that iusti 
tiition :\li l\ .1,. uiii.s ,( very handsome 

Irving E. Dole, formerly connected with 
the Speucerian Htisiness College. Clev. land. 
()■, is now teaching penmanship a1 FtKUL^b's 
BiisinesM Colhge. IJostton, Mass. Speeimeus 
of his writing and lloiirishiug which we have 
seen, indicate ibnt he is a penman of more 
than ordinary skill. 

F. F. Judd. teacher of writing at Jenuiug's 
Seminary, Aurora. 111., sends a paeknge of 
Well executed specimens of copy writing. 
The Anrora Beacon " iu a review of the in- 
stitution pays a handsome compliment to 
the efficiency of the book keeping and peu- 
mauHliip department in charge of Mr. Judd. 

F. B. Davis, lately with E. K. Bryan in the 
Columbus (O.) Business College, is now 
teaching writing in Ciidy & Walworth's Col- 
lege, Vuiou Square iu this city. Mr. Davis 
has lately completed a course of iDStructiou 
in practical writing under the tuition of 
Messrs. Soule ic Flickinger, Pbihidelphia. 
and iu an accomplished writer. May he earn 
many laurels in his new field. 

N. It. Luce nunouQces the opening on 
March 1.'., of "Luce's" Spenceriau Writing 
College at ITniou City. Pa. Mr. Lnce was for 
a long tune pupil of P. R Spencer, st^uior. 
at the Log Seminary in Geneva, O. He is a 
skilled and enthusiastic waster of the art. 
Pupils who place themselves under his tui- 
tion may be assured that ibey will receive 
skillful and f -itl ful instruction. 

artistic ponmausbip and pen-drawing. _ 
ly executed by Profebssr J. M. BeniHb, of the 
Island City Commercial College. It embraces 
the Lord's prayer, and must be seen to be 

appreciated Professors .To h. Benisb and 
Hnnter, are doing noble service in educating 
the youths of Galveston and Texas. 

F. W. H. Wies-hahn has aKsociated with 
him in the St. Louis Instiniteof Pen Art. Mr. 
W. H. Courey, who is also a i^killful pen ar- 
tist. Mr. Wiesehahn purposes in future to 
devote a portion of bis time to mercantile 
pursuits. The St. Louis Olobf Democrat 
pays the following high compliment to a 
recent specimen of Mr, Wiesehnbu's work : 
" At Mr. B. E. Thonasen's estabUshment. No 
COS Olive street, is to be seen a remarkably 
fine specimen of the art of pen writing, atd 
the art of framing and gilding. The subject 
is the tetitimouial of esteem presented not 
long since by the officer- and employes of the , 
Missouri Pacific Railroad, to Mr. Oliver Gnr- 
rison on his retirement from the position of 
Vice-President of the road. Speaking of the 
pen work, the heading of the testimonial is 
designed in the present fashionable Easllake 
the b^dy is a drawing i.f one 

the document is all of the modern ord 
the script is old English modernized. The 
arrangement and execution of the whole 
possess a high order of merit as a work of 
art, and is marked by a proper disposition of 
light and shade, which gives a very pi 
effer' " -'^ • ' .'---. 

Omaha. March 8. I8S0. 
Editor Prnman'* Art Journal : 

Noticing that you aie devoting a portion of 
your valuable space to the subject of book- 
keeping. I wish to submit to the readers of 
theJounNAL a transaction, and the common 
method of disposing of it by means of a j<mr 
ual entry. Sold to L Bingham, merchan- 
dise amouQt-'ng to $2,500. 

The following is the entry a^. taught by 
many text books on the subject of book- 
keeping, and by very many of our leading 
educators : 


T. D. King hai nssumed charge of the 
enmaushipdepai'lmeLit nf ihe Knauss Uusi- 
e^s College. Easton, Pa. Mr. Kit g is an 
ccom jltubed writer and is highly coinpli- 
lented by the p-ess. as a skillful and suc- 
.-hsful t..-a.-b.r. W. H. Zonnigkin has the 
.-n.Tdl ihurt,'enf the Colleee. 

This entry I pronounce, wrong and im- 
practicable. Who claims otherwise? Let ub 
hear from you.' Very truly yours, 

Geo, R. Ratbbdn, 
Prin. G. W. B. College. 

Answei-s to Piobli m III. 
We have received but three solutions to 
Problem III, which was given in the Febni 
ary number. The first of these is tha'- fur- 
nished by Mr Cbftrl.->i E Sprague, of ibe 
Union Dime Savings Bank in this city. It is 
an elaborate philosophical and thoroughly 
practical solution. We regret that our" 
this month will not permit the pii'-liuation i 
full of Mr. S|)rague'» wtirk for tb- benefil of 
huch of our readers n-i feel an iiitertst in 
this department. The solution is given uii 
der two distinct plans of nperatirn, t acb fur- 
nishing the same result. Inif by » different 
process. First h^ giv< s u-* a complete " sta'e- 
ment of conditions " in which each cnndiiion 

thf , 

rk is I 

statement Mr. Fink says : "I find on a care- 
ful examination of Ibis problem, that W. A. 
\damR of Chicago expends ^12,28'. more 
than he rict-ives. and, as he mak<~s no invest- 
ment. I credit him with that m* capitAl stock. 
Upon closiuK the business I find that W. A. 
\dams of Chicago, has made $5.8311. and 
J C We^t of Houston las lost fl.02."i. After 
adjusting tlieir ai^couuta and exchanging 
houses I fiud that W. A Adams owes J. C. 
West * 1 1,785. 

The third solution comes from Edwin P. 
Collins, stud.nt of O. D. B. Coll. ge, Rich- 
mond. Ya. This solution gives as the 
amount owing by \V. A. Adams to J. C. West 
$14 472 33 and the pnfits to be, at 
Clhcago Bouriu $t, 329 117 and at Houston 
House $.-,.-.2. 

The results given b\ the three respondents 
all differ each from the other, but we wilt re- 
s rv our review of the problem for the next 
number of the Jouknal. 


EdVor of the Penman's Art Journal : 
A. ffw week-i ago a s rie< of articles ap- 

pean d in the Arm-rfcan Gror^r claiming to " the advertisements* of fraudulent 


led," Ac 

York ; those of 
&c. The V 
I the brain;" in every line of 

Ihe most iniioi-ent-Iookiug "Ad." Ijc cou'd 
see the serpent in nil its hidiousness. His 
articles w- re des'giied to yiiard the ynulb of 
the country ngainst going to New York.— to 
SHve ihem from the " ki. arts set for the Uii- 

MV Packard replied to one of bis articbs. 
and one or two more foUowt-d by ■ ach, but 
the defender of youth has since retired to 
priviite lir«— at least we lec no more of his 

It i- no doubt true that the city dailies are 
used fr queiitly by humbugs of various sorts, 
but not to th^ ex eut of the weeklies. It 
would Mr. Packard, who a 'ems to 
bo inmcHi.t .Abigiiil binisi If to ki oa- how 
many frauds there are in i-mh weekly papi-rs 
..r !,ir._'. i-irculalin.i hs the Sun ; if lie thiuks 





P. R. Spencer, principal of the Spenceriau 
Business College, Ch-velrtud. O.. says : 'Busi- 
ness with ua is booming." Serves him right. 
ItV no more than he deserves, 

A. J. Rider, i?bo with Win. B. Allen, ha" 
for some time past conducted the Capital 
City Business College, Trenton. N. J,, has 
reoenily purchased Mr. AUenV interest in the 
college, which will be conducted by Professor 
Hider as.sisted by Thos. Stewart; who is one 
of the best writers in the country. 

B ok-kefpin? Department. 

A former student of the Miiyhew Business 
College fmra Kentucky, has recently applied 
o bis late teacher. Professor Maybew, of De- 
troit, for a solution of the following problem 
which has been going the rounds of the 
Southern press : 

" An agent wis put in charge of a store 
belonging to the town, and at the end of his 
services received the sum stated below as 
recompense for bis duties. The asset* fur< 
uisheil him. and the receipts and expeudi. 
tures during his term of servic, are as stated. 
Did the town make or lose during the agent's 
iuoumbency, and how much? 

Readers interested in cracking this South- 
ern nut may try iheir hand at it aud compare 
results with those which Prof-essor Mayhew 
will furnish for the next issue. 

formed. Following this stati-m.'nt are two 
presentations, and termed respectivi-ly "No. 
l"and "No 2." Presentation No. 1. ia a 
neatly gotten up columnar form in which the 
accounts necessary to be opened are shown 
by independent columuB. These accounts 
are tbos- of the two partnere iind the two 
houses, each account having a d--bit and 
credit column ; there are eight colunius made 
for ri-presenting the four a 'Count-*. The va- 
rious entries ore mad-^ at the side according 
to the statement of conditioDS to which refer- 
ence is made by the cnrrespoiidiiig iiuaibi r 
being placed opposite ai.d the proper amount 
carried over into the column representing the 
account affected. At the ilose the columns 
are balanced up and the required results 
shown through the balanc- s. which also 
><erve to prove the corr-ctu-s .)f the work. 
The second, or PrfSi-ulaliou N". 2 is made up 
of two parts, Ibe first being a plain sta;ement 
of the partners' account* according to the 
conditions nam-d, ai d (he second part sched- 
ules showing the operations of the two branch 
houses. These schedules are mark, d ■•A" 
aud " B * and present tli« n-sult- or 
the profits andlossei of the separate coo 
cerns According to his solution Mr Sprague 
furnishes uswiih the followirg resulis ; Prof- 
its of the Chicago hocse S.l.ilHSl.ilo ; profits 
of the Houa-onbou*- $2,181 iiO; amountd-j 
by West to Adam, in a final settlement S14.- 
647.33 : 

The second solution is one furnishf-d by 
John L, Fisk of the MiddKtown City High- 
School. After giving a very neatlj made-up 

they are all and fair, let him read Ihe 
" Huiiib I ; Coliiin 1 " any weik. wherein fully 
two-thirds of the entire number of advertis- 
ers two weeks before are exposed one way or 
rtumher. I don't know that the Sun Ib 
alwa>'« com ct -u its estimate of men ; it has 
alwiiys seemerl to me to take everybody for 
a rascal iimil be has proved himself other- 
wise, and tins pr of must be of the very best 

Y«iii will say no d'uibt, that such a paper 
must lir H poor one for boiest advertisers to 
use. So it is at pnsent, but if the publishers 
will ke' i> on until humbugs are tTxiudeA en- 
tirely from it. then it will be more reliable : 
when tb" advertising clerk and editors work 
together 10 keep out that class of advertise- 

Mr. Packar ' once asked me when I edited 
the Guzttte as a monthly, some years ago, to 
Kive my read' rs a few hints on advertising, 
riiis. 1 ihougbt at the time, was ironical - 
one of Pai-biird's jokrs; -specially so then, 
OS I bail, not huig before, advi-rtised to an 
■ xtent ynn-.r i)i..i. n^v iibiliiy to meet de- 
malld^s lull i.,r ..I,,,,-, ftftt-r advertising 
vcryiinu ■ ■ I tiy. Iihink Imaysjiy 

Corr 'tl; I I : I I ; L|M rsforsehoolswho^e 
patron, u- \- 1- I iitn l^ l.x^nl. are the rehgi- 
misan.l ^e.■lll,l^ «.-. kli-s of high cost. The 
Ytntth't Compiinion, of Boston, with its 
Kifi.illH), i-* H good poper-lh*- VI ry best. 
Scrihner H Jft/nt/ily and Mt. Niehiltta are aUo 
amom.' t he fir-t. These are good because 
ki-pl r.niiptirat t. Iff free from humbugs ; tbty 
want lo i.i ow wlat th.y are Hdveiti~ing. 

F(.r M'beol~, drnwii g h si ct oual palronage. 
I would >.ay thf p pers in the neighborhood 
of the ciiy or town where the school is 
loca ed lire ibe b. st : if you d-siie to extenJ 
the nd*ertisinj;, tike the towns that border 
u this radius, ciilnr^iiuf^ u| 

e it reaches all the 

p«Din«!0 of tbc country ; it in equal for '.hat 
purpoM to any ei({ht or tea of tb^ regular 

I bdteTe thai Mr. Packnnl was hon*-*! in 
stiftd'-kting that hiuta re«pecting adrt-rtiviiig 
woul'l be of TRlun; but wh> do«.< bn not give 
thrm bim»ietf ? I kno* of do oue who iifidf-r 
HtaidH the MiVn/-^ b«tt<>r than he doeH. If he 
doca uol OHO the prexs (|iiit- HO niiicli lod»y 
aa io rarlier yMirn, it i« bcoauM be i" no 
thoroughly eatabtished that he doea not deeiu 
it no D''t;eMKary : but fvcii uow, h littit? niorc 
"tfriatera' ink" would. I iningioe, do him uu 

Sadler, of tbe Baltimore College, ih no 
novice in adwrtiHiug. The wilf^ of hit little 
book, tbe "BuiiotfM Calculator," provem 

Aiy one advertifiiitg largely iu new-paperw. 
if bo k<-ep hii cyuM opi'ti. will aooii lenru 
wliii.-h are the bt-it pnyiug one«. Mr, Sadler 
bni iiH>>ilth ' pait yeiiriiorni< of (he paprra run 
oiug my ndtertiiteiiieiita, and I ootice other 
bcIiooIm have exprriuieulcd with them. He 
will no doubt ugreo with uie in mying thut 
the following lint, besicleH thOHe already 
naiued, in the boat for a general udvertiser : 

' ■":::; 


LMir Co 


I Ouliea r^rpubir MoiUhly I 

Tbo ciruululioUH uniucd ure the publislierti' 
own OHtimatOH, not thoBu of adveitiniug 
ngoiita, and I believe they are moru nearly 
correct thai given iu the " I). rectory." 

This letter will, I hope, nerve two purposes : 
it will cauoel ill pan niy promise to write 
Rometbing for tbe Journal wbicb a preHs of 
bnaincHB has hiih rto prevented, and be of 
rttat iutoreHt to niniiy who want to know the 
bi-Mt niodiumu of advertiBiug. I bave tried 
uiaay pnpurH ; bodio have brought but very 
few reliirim, wbile those nbuvc have /wim/. 

1 wimM nlHo f-(iy f . Ix-giuuerB in advertii*- 
iugthm i( \.M, r,ii, .i.. your busiuesa direct 
with 111. imlilivii, I, ,1 will he better than 
ptitn.niyihf,--.!, u,h,riis...g agent; it secures 
tbe iidviiisir iditorjiil fuvora iiOiUQtinieii,Alul 

r poKi 

If ituy other adverti-er oun add other 
papeni lo this littl, 1 shall be gltid to hear 
from him through your coIuu.ub. 

G. A. Ga^kbll. 

■ I 
Friend Ambh : The enclosed letter nud 
tifleate will not only awiire you that I 
growing old, but enables me to emphi 
the fact that I wait once a perambulating 
writing master or its our friend Hi 
would nay a " writiug iraiup." You will see 
that thin letter wan writtnu nearly thirty-Qve 
years ago. and that in the opinion of the 
writer, who was a veraoious Democratic edi- 
tor iu those days of aute-civil-service-re 
— plea^iu dout print that anti civil Her%'ic 
form— I was a good deal of a chap, diflf 
from thu ordinary tramp iu that I irmU my 
oipn jt;>fr/iHf H,i .' and was sueu •'at the work." 
iild have taught 

This work w iinivtumlly concedtd bj the prtss professional penmen uikI 
icially to be the moit compiehensivc praclical and uitihlic guide lo omiiuivn 
nslup ever publi^tbcd Sent postpaid to any addicts od rcrcipt of $4 >0, 
itnium fur a club of twelve subscribers to the Jouhnai.. 

The above cut represents the title page of tbe work, whicli is 11 \ 14 in si/t 



n :e2 s o Xj TT a? IO ic s 

ptn) lor la>liuitiniiti baring nn ficilltlw for di'lcs 
mnHdrai tally and ■aiUfadloD giunntmd. Bucloce 

List of Penme >'s Supplies Hailed for 
24cts. in Po^taefe Stamps : 


t the " s; 

writing before tin- Spi 

fore be hod bi', i, i 

neighborhood- m . 
eutbroodof dl.sii]M' i'l 

tern" in vogne. or make kuown tbo st- 
of my "inimitable art." I only send you 
this letter that you may not henceforth rauk 
me with the Busiueas College aristocrats who 
have nothing iu commoo with the poor 
writing tramp. 

Yours, fmternally, 

S. S. Packard. 

PiKBTON, Ohio, Nov. H. 18<.5. 
It ts with much pleasure that I hereby bear 
testimony to tbe excellent qualificotiou of a 
friend. Mr. Silas S. Packard baa been for 
the post two WHfks imparting instruction to 
a class, in his imitable art of Penmanship iu 
IhiB place, of which elass my son has been 
one. and I can cheerfully and truly certify 
that his improvement bos been more rapid 
than I have over known it to b« under any 
other teacher, and be hoa hitherto bad st-v- 

the spec 

That Mr. Packanl „ ^^^ »uf ^ ,„.v.ib 

which he exhibita I know to be a fact, for I 
have Dad the pleasure of heeiug him do the 
work, and one of his efforts n-w m my po>- 
seiKion I think is the most beautif uUp. ci- 
ineu of penmanship which I have ever seen. 

Mr. Packard is iu everj- lespect, worthy of 

public conlideuce and patronage, and I sin- 

e.-rely wish it may be extended to him iu 

whatever couimuuitjr his lot may be catit. 

Sauckl P]kc 

B^tar PUcAfnian, PiXtton, Ohio. 

Forged Disgui«d & Atuim mousWriliug 

(o-C. n^nCNNELLs' 3« w". 
Ageiits wuDteil, SunipicBiiud t 

GoiigfPM St , CblMBo. 


"l'v,u,';'„;'« i"„'i.^orrt"'"'a 


MARIuNV LLE, UooudAga C 

, SWIFT.' ^"^ '"'"'•' 

P A C 1< A Ji n ' 8 



Accounts, with Arithmetical Problems. 


Hm. oTr'SA'o 





S. !^ 





V. Nr» 









of BOiid 



nalW lo 






fl.I3t '^ 






Jugt fuM 





', by mAll, Si'. Liberal terms fur Arnt lutro- 

liiglier Ktsdi-a of |iubllc ind private ecbools, Kud 
"'~'- "■id H. B. BuYAKT, Chicago. Price, by 

IviflOD, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., 


- , ""IS^Ml^^^^gife'' "J. 




Superior Mi"£ lite 


iBf <'ap> Inn .Mnrktnst Indollblp, NiBmp> 
Jnpnii. Hiyroffrniibic, ^ruipnthviic^ 
;»lili Kllvrr. Wbil« and TrnnHfcr 


Allmg's Japan, Ink, 

AUiig's Qold, Silver and White Inks, 



aa II ivrltCB lilack, flown freely. postieasCB 





lu a thriving Cooimercial Center, and 
City of 75,000 inhab tants 

Leitefing lab I el! 


duces th" n)0<-baQical difflcnily lu exPouHog 
varyiuR from iji^ Incbee 

Id helKhl dnwn ta M '"ol". 1* 

The Analytical Alphabet 
As a Self-Instructor, 

•. V. McKbe, Oberlin, > 

IAN, Deaiisville, ^ 

Useful Instruments 

S Series of f 



(3J.>k:--.-< TVotv I'l-.x-.-SK.) 

535 PEARL STREET, co . ELM, 

JOHN C. MOSS, Supt. 

X K W Y O li K 


d»r the luiiirovedproccB receutly iiiveuted by blm, uhu-li is giiallt .uiie.iono Ibo old. Tho Ine. .re 
ry much deepur aud the cobt ot production niuoli Iosh. 


A.XOTHJ±:Pl l.DI'lIOlSr! 

The Complete Accountant. 


at pliiioBupbiBing. dryly ami 

The Counting House Edition 

Retail, Wholesale. Farming, Commission Lumbering, 
Manufacturing, Railroading, Sleambo-ting and Bankino 

The High School Edition 



P. of. of Conamoruii 




cliidluB Hold 

goud atauip fur 


prlM lie 

S OitltUH 

0. L. VAN 

l,|New york. 




N;:,' ,,;: 










IjS lor 
E. 20 Kcmhle 

■jrisiTiso c 

'->.*"' Vi 

' sauple, a 

by at ih. 
Spcncenai.. iS 

INK-Ai-ollPcllon or over !■ raluable noipM foi 
(toclndtiig Arnold'* iVritintt Fluid). Blaok'po.fmiirt- 
li.ks, D ftwin* aud llIuinlnatl.iB. aiioh m Qohl sVl 
ver. t;arbuu, <mA ind'a luka; iuk« for ■ 

s'lSrKf sr^eri!sr;r«"'^„?r.!:'« I 

who"'Sllwtt^°'**'*tT' '"*'''"""'*''' "'"'*'^- ^"^ ' 
WELLS SWIFT? i^Xn^.Ouo^'^^^ ^i%i 



...HM. Avor 

OTk"rK «rb? 

uHlt' i lor ru iDg 

Dt require ibe edge of 
uetautiy tuBieuea at u 

It bas uo equal. Tbe 
r my own paiterua end 


[«^DLKB, Buibury, Uaas. 


n lUbraiicbea of peQmauBbip by mall. Send for 

H. W. IflBBIi:, 
^^f 20 Kemble Street, 

,^p.e.u,.n.,e,.o,.„^„,;.e.ebiu.i. 1 , J > ^ Hm^ UYi^m 

'~ ••■'•■"■.» ■'"■.-•■■.v.- .», 1 ^Luio, r-^r(,JGWAX, "^ * 
A^i.iferj.l'-.Jd-pSb,.. i/*^'VV ^^^j^JducUAGEiic. 

uest Known. EsTABUSHED.ia24. 


r Byor.i 

mail an rteHpl of JS CV/im. ' 
IvUon, BUikrman. Taylor Jt Co. 
139 mndl40 Grand t>t.,!i.t. 



FTit>listL©cL MIoxittLly-, at 205 Bi-oa.d.-o<7-a,3r, for *1.00 jier "Z-eai-. 
" BnUrtd lU the Putt OJfct «/ *ot For*, JT. T., at teanteUliUM matUr." 

D. T. AMES, Editor and Proprieto 

NEW YORK, MAY, 1880. 

VOL. IV. NO. 5. 


Couosel given as Expert nn HnndffrltiDfir. 


n-lBON. BLAKKHAN. TAVIJIK & CX).. Now Ywli. 



r (Yipy-Bwl 
L'l. Now Tor 


p. of. H. W. VIA -KIN'OEB. r'tMinim. 
No. 30 Uouib TUiilb Strocl, Pliliidulplitii, Ponn. 


ITit.. ].l.l Vm. 

.K»U1,S. 1. 

,. w:l.o..vs. 



""• .s 



«Anv * 

irNli.N «gi 



J. H. BARI^OH', 

S0'> Broadway. 


I HAYIIKW, LL. D., PMcaiii 



inPNON, Jr., 

IVTIKU <"0. 


The " Spectator" Answered. 

CaDY & WAUVnlM.lV IJlM\Ks> ('..I.l.HOK. I 

Xkw YoitK, .\pril 30, tK80. )" 
Eiiitors Ptntmm'# Ait Journal: 

Sirs— li seonis to mo that ihc ftrticle re- 
ffired to iu ihe MaMi numlier of the JorKN'Ai, 
uiuliT the title ' • Superlative Nonsense. " 
nu-rits n more exloiideii iintiee lliaii you gave 
il. It furnisher a text— n }food many of 
them— and I hope n good many tearhcnt will 
ijive the results of their experience on the 
various |>olnt8 nientioniHl. If people believe 
the statements there made they should not 
take writing lessons. If the author of the 
article in question lias the bottom facts, the 
prevailing s}*stcD)s of penmanship are all 
wp>ng: the taking of h«!kn)s a mistake, and 
the writing "master" a fraud. But if we 
can accomplisli in a few niontlis wliat it takes 
years to do without systematic training under 
a. professional writing teacher, the verdict 
must be iu favor of the nTiting school as op- 

j)iisc(I i<} tiif piiiii <,f leaniing by copying 

For convenience of reference the parts of ' 
Uiu article reviewed are marked alphabetic- 
ally; if you mark the whole for the waste 
basket no ofTense will be taken by 

Yours, very truly, 

C. E. Cadt. 

tude, angle and slope, wliich the very irrita- 
tion of the pupil ought to convince the teach- 
ers are, from some personal pecuharities 


(«)•••••• Everybody, we shall 

be told, is taught, and some few people write 
well, and miiwiiiieiitly to teach people to 
write w<ii iiiii'it i)L- pnssible. Still, wc have 
this iilllc bil (if ivUluiice in favor of hesita- 
ticm. Xobdily ivlt s;iw anybody who wrote 
a tiioruugblj good hiiiid, and who had been 
regularly taught to do so. 

(b) Good handwritings exist, undoubtedly, 

print, IT . ; . . ■ |. ; |., . 

up the |i..,',. ; ;. ,.,j , I- 

they tail, ih^'s iiL'ui- ill :■■■> M ■ I, !. I 

day for six months louianu-. ■ ; 

they did, it would be easi. i i . i , 

lives, and they would lenrn i 

hility as the greatest, or. i^nnp^ /n. ih, n, 

useful, quality that writing tmi <iispliiy— 

' "" 'mprovenient, if our experience c 

< ipt in the 

the possessors of tin.' 
acquired it tlin>iiL;i; 
jority of cas(N i^ i 
• • * Thc\ ■.■.. ■ 
most rudiineiKaiv -■ 
don't know how Hit- 

^c) * • • • • i^iii the professional 
writing masters arc all dominated by two 
ideas, which are radically false. 

((*)••• They all thmk that "copper- 
plate writing," the special hand of writing 
maaters and bank clerks, is good wTiiing, 
which it is not. being devoid of character, far 
t^H) regular in form, and, from the multiplicity 
of fine upstnikes, not easy to read; and they 
all believe that certain mechanical motions, if 
fully taught, will produce clear writing. 


rtitl t 

nd tlie 

i : Mm !■ L:oiiit WTlling, to 
l-.M- iiliku. iiiid llie effort to 
nly spoils their natural capa- 

make til 

(y^ • • • . * T^j, difficulty of teach- 
ing a grown man to write decently is almost 
inconceivable— he seems never to s'ee what Is 

Cff) * • • * • Still, all persons not de- 
formed or crippled in the lumd, or dufirient 

rynig to secure ii cirtnin re-suli. 

(A) The unhappy child, who is almost 
always, we admit ncccssarilv, taught too early, 
is instructed to hold himself or herself in' a 
particular attitude, wbieli i~ -nm iii l>. rin- 
wrong one for five sight-; iu i. i iii. j i ; . , ,u 
titude depending on the ]<:_ I i i ! iii\ 
hold the pen mi l ;. r ; [,, 

and strength of the rliihrs linj;ers. and would 
Ik; infinitely better if left to liis or her own in- 
stinct. Above lUl, there is a perpetual worry 
about the "resting" of the hand, though the 
easiest position varies with every child, and 
though no two men with much writing to do 

at the fingers quite alike. 

(i") The pupil is then taught to make lines 

a certain direction, and to copy characters 

large that they have no resemblance to 

writing at all. and to care particularly about 

up Htrokesand down stmkes. and all manner 

linutiae, which, if they art- of any value 

at all, will soon come of themselves. 

(X-) • • • - • • i,et the boy hold his 
_ *n as he likes, and make his strokes as he 
likefi. and write at the pace he likes— hurry, 
urse being discouraged — but insist stren- 
uously and jwraistently lliat his o^y shall be 
legible, shall be clean.'and sliall approach the 
good c<)py set iK-fon- him. •••••• 

He will make n muddle at first, but he will 
make a passable imitation of his copy, 
and ultimately develop a characteristic and 
strong luuid, which may be either g(K>d or 
bad, but will not be either meaningless, unde- 
cided or illegible. 

• • • Confidence will not have been 
destroyed by worrying little rules about atti- 

(«) A "thoroughly good hand" must be 
legible and easily written- that is, smoothly 
imd gracefully written. Every i-eputable 
commercial school in this coimtry sends out 
nund)ers of students each year who have been 
"regulariy taught" such a style. 

(b) There ard plenty of young men who 
write a good hand, and who admit that they 
were taught it— taught it in the same sense 
they were taught arithmetic, grammar, &c. 
This teaching was systematic, thorough and 
complete, exactly as other teaching is com- 
plete, according to the intelUgence of both 
teacher and pupil, and the time given. 

(c) If " professional writing masters are all 
dominated by two ideas" they are simply mrw- 
ters and not temhtrn. I think the statement 
cannot be proved. 

(d) " Copperplate ^vriting, the special hand- 
writing of writing masters and bank clerks." 
Which? Wliat 't How ? Copperplate is intended 
to be. and generally is very exact, following the 
system adopted. The teacher's ropy is wide- 
ly different, being leas exact, for obvious rea- 
sons, and more graceful because of a more or 
jeas rapid execution, while that of the clerk is 
unlike cither, being modified, first by speed, 
and, second by the personality of the writer. 
In copperplate, pereonality \» sjicrificed to sys- 
tem; in the clerky hand no thought is given 
to system, while the tcicher follows a system 
largely modified by tiis personal peculiarities. 

To say that wilting teaclicre call these var- 
ious kinds of writing gootl is indeed superla- 
I tive nonsense ; they call them good for what 
i they are worth, the same as all horses are 
called good. A cart horse is go<Kl in his sphere, 
so is a racer; change places with them and 
each is goixl for nothing. Teachere say that 
j copperplate is good for children because of its 
exactness of form, the formation of tetters 
being the first step in leamiiig to write ; but 
it is doubtful if a teacher ever kept a pupil 
on such a style of writing after this end was 

It is not the fine up-strokes that render the 
writing difficult to read so much as it is the 
heavy down strokes which give the written 
page a si)otled appearance. Teachers prcfi-r 
pens of moderatt- fineness because by their 
wse pupils more readily learn to make shape- 
ly lettcre. These pens do not make lines so 
fine as to l»e illegible. When the letters arv 
fairly well formed and suitably spaced, shade 
sparingly used or entirely left out. the ^vriting 
will not be very illegible even with inaccura- 
cies of slope. The truth or error of this 
statement can l>e easily determined by imy one 
who will take the pains to try. 

"Mechanical motions I" What molions are 
there but mechanical motions ? If by these 
words is meant writing mechanically, without 
thoughtfulness, we go outside the argument. 
No teacher believes that any great skill in 

writing can be attained without the same 
thought and application that is given to other 

(e.) Two people or two thousand people 
write exactly alike in the same way that they 
talk alike, or walk alike, no more so and no 
less. It is just as reasonable to claim that 
each person should be taught the nudtiplica- 
tiontableina peculiar manner as that he 
should he taught «Titing in some special fash- 
ion. The intelligent teacher humors or takes 
a<lvnntage of the idios}^lc^lcies of his pupils 
in writing the same as in all other studies. 
The pen must be held in essentially the same 
way, in whatever hand, to produce any special 
mark, the position being varied by the person, 
ality nf the writer, the same as the organs of 
speech vary in different individuals when pro- 
duciiig the same somid. 

(f.) The difficulty of teaching a grown 
man to write decently is not almost incon- 
ceivable. Maturity does not disqualify for 
writing. A man's matured judgment is more 
than an offset for any real or apparent stiff- 
ness of muscle ; he sees what is wanted in 
form, movement, style &c., much quicker thati 
a boy. The perceptions, memory, and taste, 
are all in his favor. 

(j.) Of covirse teachere enforce a certain 
method, and they do it to secure a certain re- 
sult. Is a definite result better secured in 
anything without method, than with it ? 
(/(.) The best attitude for the vision is not 
ly the best to secure good writing, 
ision a very steep or up- 
right desk is best, whilefor writing one slight- 
ly inclined or entirely flat is preferable. A 
compromise is therefore made between the 
two. Writing, the formation and arrange- 
ment of letters, is an arbitrary process, not a 
natural one.and the height of the seat must 
be regulated to suit the pupil, and the desk to 
both. The tools with which to work must 
also be adapted to the conditions. The pen 
nmst he held at a fitting angle and at a cer- 
tain distance from the point, the fingers, arm, 
wrist, body, and even the feet by the assist- 
ance they lend in hoULing the b(jdy firm, must 
he "arbitrarily" fixed to do this arbitrary 
thing called writing, if the best results would 
be secured. This is all done with the same 
worry tliat attaches to the learning of the 
multiplication table and fractions. Would 
it be advisable to leave them out of arith- 
metic betavise they worry the pupil ? There 
is a beat way and a way which is not best ; 
if the best known way causes worry, then let 

((.) Since letters are made up of lines, and 
since these lines must have certain directions 
to take the form of letters, it would be rather 
difficult to teach writing without making 
lines and " that in a certain direction." 

Writing is made up of minutiie of up 
strokes and down strokes, of lines having a 
variety <»f slope, spacing, joinings by turns 
and angles. &c. These niinutlo; are what 
constituU- all writing. giKxI. ba<l or indifferent. 
Writing not being natural but an acquisition, 
the minutia; will no more come to a person 
voluntarily than will the minutia; of music 
or meclianics ; as vrell leave notes out of mu- 
sic, or form out of mechanics as to neglect 

Writing is writing if it is six feet high, and 
to a large style, many teachers of long ex- 
perience have succeeded in doing their best 
work by teaching n large style first. 
(*.> "Let the .mpil hold his pen as he 


likM" lind he will probnbly roll his band W 
the rigbt and maki- sftw-lt-cib on t- very down 
Btroke. He will wiso bold tbe end of bis 
thumb near tbe end *>f his first flnger, thus 
losing nearly all command of the pen. and re- 
quiring a vice-like grip to bold it even mod- 
erately firm. These poinU are well-known 
to writing teachers. Boys are not acute 
obBervcrs of form, and not one in ten is an 
inventor; hence, to allow one to "make hia 
strokes as he like*" is to allow him to do bad 

To "insist that his copy shall be legible" 
is to insist that his letters shall conform some- 
what to the established standard, and this 
very few persons are capable of doing with- 
out careful attention to minutifp. Certainly, 
"he will make a muddle" first, last and 
always in nearly every instance. 

Students who arc carefully taught "develop 
a characteristic hand," strong or weak as the 
individualis strong or weak ; and "meaning- 
leas, undecided or illegible;" or the opposite, 
juat m their other performances are. 

(/.) "Worrying little rules about attitude, 
angle and elope" cause tbe same kind of 
Irritation that long division does, that moods 

each struggling on by himself to reach suc- 
cess, have intuitively worked to one ultimate 
end— (A< fini»h£d teork. 

Many passing through every phase of stu- 
dentship and of art under difficulties, are 
to-day. far more than what you will find in 
the limits of their profession. 

There has been rivalry. hostUily, often 
bitterness, jealousy and hence all sorts of 
antagonism. Systems have battled systems, 
methods warred against methods, and. very 
often, the outside world has arrayed its forces 
against the craft, but we see by the result 
that pluck, perseverance and spirit h»vi> 
umphed, and they always will. 

■"We have what I call the loffic ofmtr profe*. 
sion. By that we are never to be wholly 
united in either system or method. Let us 
then accept this fact ; but we may be friends, 
and we may hold to each other tbe relation 
always of liberal minded, generous i 
Farther, in any petty artistic rivalry w( 
use manly and houest weapons. Yes, ii 
each can always accredit bis neighbor with 
more than he can rightly claim, and still lose 
nothing, but be the stronger for the allow- 

The Way to Success. 

As a teacher 
as be is able to^assist^olbers. 
truly said that 

valuable in proportion 

Some one has 
the art of interestmg lies 
?S8." and in nothing does 
e force than in tbe art of 
bal one and one make two 
tbe true way to teach, but 
demonstrate the fact by some original illus- 
tration is far more effective and makes the 
student eager for another thought. The live 
teacher is one who not only rwilizes this truth, 
but in bis contact with pupils presents his 
ideas in such an interesting and telling man- 
ner that the student's mind is aroused and in- 
terested to a degree sufficient to catcb and 
fasten the thought which the teacher is pre- 
senting. The mind of tlie average pupil is 
dull or in repose, and must he aroused from its 
lethargy into a quicker action either by 
vigorous ^vill force on the part of the pupil 
by apparent enthusiasm on the part of the 
teacher. To enthuse a student and keep his 
mind in vigorous action is the highest work a 
teacher can do. The highest success then lies 

less grows tbe cook who serves the same old 
things. With life in the teachers there is 
life in tbe school; but with the same old 
methods in use students soon tire as we do of 
a continued hill of fare. In the various 
branches taught in all schtwls. tliere are a 
multitude of works published affording a 
wide range of ideas upon each topic taught, 
and while each author would have one believe 
as the preacher, in his, the only right way, 
tbe teacher who does his whole duty to himself 
and bis pupils, can well afford to be indepen- 
dent enough to gather truth from every 
quarter he can find it. We do not value a 
physician less for graduating from both the 
allopathic and homcropathic schools, and we 
honor him the more if he is independent 
enough to be eclectic in bis treatment. With 
tbe one idea doctor, 'tis always calomel, cas- 
tor oil or something vile ; but with tbe ec- 
lectic, or right of choice, as potent, but more 
pleasant means are pursued. With the one 
idea teacher his one cvplanation is always 
given— if it works, well and good, but if not. 
no other is given. One idea men are those 
whose range of thought is bounded by the 
books they teach, and in peumansbip by tbe 

4M^"^"^3^'^ '"^ ^%^^~^W^- ■^^^^' i%'^'-i ft 

The- above Old English Alpbubet! 

rustic, representatiiig one half of a page of Ames' t'oinpendium, and is Pboto-engravcd direct from c 
and ink copy by the Photo-Electrotype Company, 20 C'lilT Street, New York. 

and tenses do, or that accidentals in music 
do. Different forms of notes irritate and 
cause the student of music any amount of 
worry, but they must be miistercd, neverthe- 
less. The same is true of tbe lechnicjililies of 

(m.) The ability to read manuscript well 
would be a most substantial accomplishment, 
and a branch that might be easily introduced 
into schools with great advantage. 

If the positions here? taken are WTong I 
tnwt that some one will point out the errors. 

Our Profession. 

Our profession in America dates from about 
1888. In Europe there la no such profession. 
Commercial institutions here go behiiul this 
point a little. The profession as a profession 
has been recognized here about this length of 

Since the above date it has not only taught 
the penmanship of the country, but has been 
tbe right hand of commercial institutions and 
developed a new fe-ature of art itself ; we 
uiight say that it has commenced a national 
two-fold work, and almost completed it in 
these tliirty or forty years. 

Ornamental pen art and penmansltip spring- 
ing from almost nothing have passed through 
all periods of development. They are now 
nationalized and utilized, and arc in all re- 
spects both scientific and artistic. 

The class of men who have done this great 
work, generally, but poorly paid, less com- 
mended, often opposed, and almost always 

It is ecjually possible to underrate or over- 
rate perxons or nysterm. The dictum of tbe 
people, the choice of schools or the sentiment 
of the press may be as foolish as unjust, and 
neither bear very strongly the impress of 
wisdom or good policy. About one-sixth of 
the public school monies should go to support 
this art. And outside as well as inside of tbe 
profession there should be always a liberal 
effort to use the be»t talent available to sus- 
tain this branch. 

Penmen need not beyond reason exalt their 
art, but determinedly insist upon its legiti- 
mate claims and general weal. 

Those who choose the busincs.s as a profes- 
sion, if rigbt in heart, whether eminent or 
not, being liberal and manly, should have the 
support of their craft in all legitimate ways. 

Each rightly must feel the propriety of a 
steady united effort to build up and sustain 
bis chosen avocation. If this is tl* right 
view, why not seek to make the members of 
our profession in all sections acquainted with 
each other, and to give or accept benejUa as 
opportunities offer, judging in charity of 
what is not of our tchool and continually aim- 
ing to exalt tbe whole. 

This liberality is not inconsistent with a 
proper support of merit anywhere. To our 
authors let us he liberal, and hope these will 
be so wiyi each other. 

It seems to me that such a course is for 
every one the best, and if persevered in will 
make our profession, whether as the basis of a 
living or not, every way attractive and desira- 
ble among the professions of our country. 

in keeping up the greatest interest; and to 
this end should the earnest teacher ever aim. 
To come into the class every morning with a ! 
dozen new thoughts and illustrations is to 
make tbe exercise interesting, and mtb minds 
animated the students readily catch and see 
the drift of every illustration, and are better 
prepared to think for themselves than had the 
exercise been dull and their minds in a state 
of half repose. If then, so much depends upon 
the efforts of tbe teacher, he must, if he would 
win great success, be constantly studying for 
new methods of illustration and ever avoid 
old ones ; turn himself into an actor and make 
use of any proper illustration that may flash 
into tbe mind to convey an idea. What a 
glorious actor Henry Ward Beecher would 
have made is often remarked, with his acting 
and constant originality of thought ; what a 
great teacher, orin other words a great preocher 
he has always been. To grow in strength and 
ability as be has done, la to constantly tax 
one's mind in developing new ideas, and such 
ideas are always backed with enthusiasm. With 
what enthusiasm does a boy show his new 
boots as compared with an exhibit of his old 
shoes. New illustrations arc always vivid, 
while old ones are always tame. Ames baa 
risen grandly in his skill by creating new de- 
signs and putting new thoughts and, hence, 
animation in every new piece he executes. 
So, to grow in teacliing one must constantly in- 
vent, or otherwise settle down into what may 
be culled a dead teacher. How quickly do 
we tire of tbe hotel wliere tbe same old meal 
I Blares us in the face each day, and how care- 

syateni some one has proposed for them. To 
follow any author solely is to be a tcaclier of 
no enthusiasm or origmality, but to reach out 
and become familiar with the works of ail 
authors, and be independent enough to fasten 
upon and use that theory which one is con- 
vinced is the best, is to become a live, ever in- 
teresting and enthusiastic teacher, whose suc- 
cess will be tbe highest and whose power for 
good will ever increase as he investigates and 
grows liberal. 

oi;n cRArr. 

Odd b» one tbe yeoro nro spo Ulng, flying, 

The ctwng ful recoriln Uuisheo odd by one; 
One by one our crnfl «re going, dying. 

talin bo tholr bleej., and holy bo iLelr rfal. 

Should any reader fail to find tbe JotJBS^ 
OS interesting or attractive as he thinks 
should be, let him ask himself if be camiol i 
some way contribute to its improvement. 


She hmgbtMme book* « 
And praelterd.Dhlblw 

Juta Mtoo ftie fCKcbMl Uio g<»l d 
Adj mtou nor wilitDjtallcrM. 

EHb upltal aMumnl the look 

Wiib ewwe on 

Epislokrr tf AffiR. 
aba (wrrMpORtU with tautj 

flocktf'Bfair iDlalona. 
And uka, vrhila abo n Kfoo 

llialr uuroaarvad opinion 

nor golden pi>D and boldor, 

la nngera amall and Upci 

Inacrlbe a ooi*, oorray-tlr n 

Wiih KlIdM n 

e Puhloa li 

OaBkell on Advertising. 
Eftitar* Prnmm'n Art JuiirnM: 

If there l8 ttiiy one thing in which our 
mutiml friend Oaskcll excels— beyond hin 
BUporicir pennmuBhip nnd his euMimc faitli in 
printer's ink — it is in his modesty ; and for 
fear lie miiy think tliis "one of Pockiird's 
jokes," I will «iy I am in dead eameat, as 
douhllcae lie is when lie styles nie "innocent 
Abigail himdclf." By the way, I can under- 
stand tlic "innocent" part of tlii» chtirnctcr- 
ijiation, but wlio or wliat "Abipiil himself" 
may be is a conundrum Ihiit fetches me. 
But to return to Gaskell's modesty. I did 
ask him to give some hints on advertising, 
and I did it because I wanted them for my 
own use, and for the benefit of our fraternity. 
I recognized then, as now, thnt Oaskell is one 
of the most courageous, persistent, and, lis I 
believe, skillful iidvcrtisere in tlie country. 
Whether he is one of the most successful is n 
quej>tion which I should like toimderatand, 
but don't. Successful I mean, in the way of 
making his advertising pay, for that is the 
real test of advertising skill. Whatever may 
have been Giuskcll's experience in the past, 
and he candidly, and as I think, inmcccsaarily, 
admita that at one time he did advertise ' ' to 
an extent greater than his ability to meet de- 
mands readily"— we must conclude either that 
he has an cxhaustless bank account, or, that 
Romobody is paying for his advertising. My 
candid impression is that there are thousands 
and tens of thousands of young men and 
boys all over tlio country who are innocently 
combining to keep those beautifully illustrated 
advertising pages going month after month 
in Scrlbner's Monthly, St. Nicholas, and the 
religious weeklies; and tbiit Guskell knows 
just how to keep this stream flowing into his 
reservoir. Those of us who have been struck 
by the audacity of this New Hampshire Bon- 
Dcr, and who have made inquiries as to the 
cost of such displays as he keeps up, know 
that it la no twopenny affair ; nnd for r)ne 1 
am very curious to know what Qaskcll thinks 
of himself and his methods. And here is 
where I And his extreme modesty incon- 
veiiieul. If in his article on advertising he 
had given us some figures that would gidde 
us in our expenditures, it would have been 
gratifying to say the least. But I not only 
recognize OaskoH's modesty in not holding 
himself up as a model of courageous ad- 
vertisers, which he well might do — I dis- 
cern it in his very methods. There is very 
littl« in his displays that is obnoxious to a re- 
lined sense of propriety. lie is in no sense a 
"blow-hard." There is no unwrtnin sound 
in what he saj-s, but he does not swagger or 
froth at tlic mouth. He strikes heavy blows, 
and keep» at it, and I really hope he will reap 
the reward of his honest labor. 


Skillfull Black-Board Writing. 
Within a few months our spacious blnck- 
boards have reflected the man-elous skill 
of several eminent WTilers ainspicious 
among whom an.' L. D. Smith, of Hartford, 
Conn.; H. 0. Spencer, of Washington. D. C, 
and A. H. Hi"*n»", Boston, Mass. 

BusineBfi Colleges. 

Business colleges, like law schooUs sprang 
from a long felt and general necessity for 
pccial abilities demanded by the increasing 
ntricacics of commerce, and the general in- 
telligence of mankind. They cannot supply 
the place of cither primary, claseical or other 
professional institutions, nor have all other 
schools supp]ie<I the place of true business 
colleges or made them leas necessary, except 
in preparing pupUs therefor. Kxjwrience has 
fully demonstrated thiit the limited course of 
penmanship and lHx>k-keeping as at first in- 
tHHluced to prepare boys for an apprentice- 
ship in the counting-houst-, and lut still used 
in the business departments of literary insti- 
tutions and sonic so-called business colleges, 
is superficial and defective even when it does 
not mislead the pupil to his permanent 
injury. Their teachere generally are much 
like the dancing master, who was mason, 
carpenter, smith, doctor and lawyer, and did 
not object to rcoding sermons on Sunday, 
provided he got lioardlng free, and the mem- 
bers of the church would duly patronize his 

The science of accomils is so ultimately 
connected with commercial law and is de- 
pendent upon other sciences and departments 
of business for its reasons and explanations 
that it cannot be successfully taught as an 
insulated theorj*, nor in connection with such 
speculations as disconnect the reasonings and 
illustrations that are essential to the due at- 
tainment of all practical branches. 

In this course the most comprehensive and 
practical teacher finds continual use for such 
facts and illustrations as will awaken the rea- 
soning powers of pupils, and remove their 
uncertainties, by showingthc connections and 
applications of facta as they arise. In no 
department of education can this be more 
readily or certainly done by lectures and 
recitations than in the business course, where 
books, courts' and business houses are con- 
tinually furnishing problems for solution. 

If any faculty had the abilities to teach all 
of the sciences and* professions (as iitteuipted 
by some), and should its pupils faithfully 
attempt to master the entire course, the most 
faithfid among them would become only 
pedantic ineHicients. 

Were we all perfect beings, the Bible and 
all other laws would be useless, and there 
could be no need of any science ; but we are 
so far therefrom that no man has ever be- 
come complete master of any branch, and no 
faculty has ever shown superior efficiency in 
all of the sciences. 

The business man who would now advise 
the young and inexperienced to engage in 
commerce without a thorough, practical study 
of the branches pertaining thereto, is the 
brother of the lawj-er who would advise the 
young disciple of Kent and Blnckstonc to 
cast them aside and lose no time in prepara- 
tory studies or attending lectures, but to at 
once open an office, and study the Statute as 
the only essential. 

It is true that some eminent jurists never 
attended lectures on law or any other science, 
is not too tnie that they do not know the 
parts of speech in the English language ; and 
it is probably tnie that some of them spent 
little time in what is known as preparation for 
"lulnuBsion to the bar," which has been the 
end of many brilliant anticipations, and the 
burial of many embryo Taney's, Marshall's 
and Mansfield's. 

■When these men, whom we love to honor as 
jurists, were young and preparing for the bar 
with the best lights within their reach, the 
utility of a special course of lectures on their 
chosen profession was so little known, and so 
few had duly used such advantages, that 
there were few occasions for estimating their 
value; but as time passed and they came in 
contact and measured abilities with such as 
duly used these advantages, and found them 
not only able to comprehend the old laws with 
marked facility, but also able to thoroughly 
sift the principles of the new ones, with con- 
stitutional test and astonishing acumen, they 
discovered the defects of iheir own former 
course, and saw many of their companii 
sink into hopeless lethargy and obsciuity. 
Those who had the ability and energy 
duly meet the crisis, were like brave men 

When these r 
requirrd spnt-inl 

piiirinjr the l)rpache8 of a fort that was con- 
tinually assailed and was the only protection 
for themselves and their families. Success 
cannot be attributed to defects nor to the dan- 
gers that surrounded them, but to manly 
efforts which were superior thereto. Had such 
men been able to assume the aggressive, with 
the facilities within the reach of the rising 
generation, we might liave had at least an 
American Blackstone instead of but one Web- 
ster and one Kent. It is also true that but 
few of the eminent merchants and financiere 
of the past were thorough nccountanta, if they 
had any general knowledge of business not 
derived fmm their own practicid experience, 
in which they witnessed the ruin of at least 
forty-nine fiftieths of all the traders, mer- 
chants and financiers with whom they were 
acquainted. Notwithstanding the fact that 
they were better informed in the general prin- 
ciples of business than were their competitors, 
they were forced to spend the better part of 
their lives in learning to get started. Although 
the foundation of Girard's fortune was the 
$.']0,000 accidentally left on his stiip, for 
which no claimant appeared, and that of As- 
tor's was made in the fur trade with the In- 
dians, each of them, like Longworth, had 
reached his thirtieth birth-day before able to 
save $1,000. 

had reached positions that 
liii'R in which they were 
ii'-t tniined therein, they 
I'lH'iicid and comprehen- 
iiiiii;in nature, and of the 
abilities necessary, which enabled them to 
make exactly the right selections for assist- 
ants, who seldom had occasion for changing. 
Had the experience of Wasliiugton, Franklin, 
Adams. ^Vstor, Girard, Stewart, Vanderbilt 
and other eminent business men made them 
enemies of education, or even the lukewarm 
friends of technical schools, we might possi- 
bly hope to learn wisdom from the accidents 
of the uneduaited and the special meditations 
that have occosionaly led to fortunate results. 
There are reasons why many graduates of 
business colleges are little worthy of posi- 
tions that require ability : 1st. As in every 
new calling or recent discovery, many who 
arp conducting such institutions or are the 
chief teachers therein (for the supposed honor 
of the assumed name of Professor) are so very 
deficient in every department of literature, 
that though able to execute a few flour- 
ishes that astonish the uninitiated, they 
would gladly accept third-class certificates 
for a country school; and are unable to 
comprehend the connections of the most sim- 
ple facts of what they regard as an insulated 
specialty. And as they have had no experi- 
ence in any business that required ability and 
could not obtain such employment on any 
terms, they arc often too conceited and to indo- 
lent to learn. When it is a well known and 
indisputable fact that there is no other science 
in which the actual practical experience of the 
teacher is so very essential to the pupil, we 
might wonder how one can teach the science 
of accounts who never closed a comphcated 
set of books, and knows nothing of Black- 
stone, Kent, Pareons or the laws r)f evidence, 
without winch no accountant can know the 
value of his records. 2nd. The pupils of busi- 
ness colleges often bear a good comparison with 
many who have graduated at the best class- 
ical, law and medical colleges and have their 
8hee[i-skins in their hands, but can never 
gel the wool out of their heads. 

A very large part of those who have attended 
business colleges had been marked failures in 
all their former efforts, and witnessing the easy 
success of others, they thus sought easy placoe 
at high wages, regardless of their natural abil- 
ities or requirements and habits. But it is 
well known that the business course has placed 
many such on the high road to success and 
" you can't almost always tell " what good 
teaching may accomplish. 

Thomas J. Bbyakt. 

Compensation of Experts. 

It is proper for the district attorney to 
procure the attendance of skilled witnesses in 
appropriate cases for a special compensation? 

"A witness meets the requirements of a 
subptena if he appears in court when re- 
quired to testify, and gives proper impromptu 
answers to such questions as arc then put to 
him. He^cannot be required by virtue of the 

subprena to examine the case, to use his skill 
and knowledge to fonn an opinion, nor to 
attend, hear and considerthe testimony given. 
m as to I>e quallifietl to give a deliberate 
opinion on a question of science arising upon 
such testimony; hence a professional witness, 
called as an exi>ert, may be paid for his time, 
ser\'ice8 and expenses; and the question what 
amount is paid cannot, in the absence of any- 
thing to show ba<l faith, affect the regularity 
of the trial, though it may, iHThaps, affect 
his credit with the jury." People c. Mont- 
gomery, Abtmtt's Practice Reports, New 
Series, vol. 13, p. 207; (Court of Oyer and Ter- 
miner of Monroe county, 1877). 

Again upon certiorari to review, in the 
Supreme Court, General Term, January, 
1872; "Where there is a disagreement in 
the testimony of scientific witnesses, it is not 
error to refuse to charge that the opinions of 
those who had not had praf4ieal experience 
on the subject, should be disregarded. The 
judge may submit the respective credit of 
such witnesses to the jury." People r. Mont- 
gomery, 13 Abb. Pr. Rep'ta., N. 8. vol. 13. 
p. 307. 

A Commendable Example. 
LiMAViLLK, Onio, April 27, 1880. 
Editors Penman'* Art JmimaX : 

Dkak Sirs: — Thus far I have been a sub- 
scriber to your valuable journal from its in- 
ception, and now I certainly would not be 
without it for any consideration. There is no 
paper I lake that I read with so much plea- 
sure and profit as I do the Art JotJBNAL. I 
took up writing when I was nearly thirty years 
old, for I thought it would be a great help to 
the school-room as teaching is my pro- 
1. I spent one month iu Cleveland 
under Prof. Spencer, and the rest of it I did at 
home between times, never losing any time 
on account of my writing, so, I feel that I 
have accomplished something in these three 
yeara and a half that I have been at it, and 
that right at home under my roof. As sup- 
posed, it has been a great help and incentive 
in the school-room. Not only in teaching 
writing in the regular order but in a great 
many ways. Good figures on the board, 
writing out propositions in grammar, and 
drawings in geometry, &c., when performed 
with care and executed artistically, as they 
can and will be under a careful teacher, have 
a wonderful effect on the mind of the student 
iu cultivating taste, order, beauty, &c. I en- 
close you a specimen of my writing previous 
to taking lessons in order that you may better 
see what I have done at odd moments. I 
mean to continue my efforts without abate- 
ment, until I have reached, at least, a degree 
of proficiency that will command respect. I 
have brought up my writing from 7J to 10 — 
the liighest given— at our county examinations 
which has been a considerable gain and no 
small pleasure. Wishing you the success that 
you richly deserve and that the .Jouksal fully 
merits. I am, fratemal!_y yours, 

W. H. Bkltz, 
Prin. LimaviUe Normal School. 
[The present writing of Mr. Beltz is not 
only higlily creditable to hiiiiBelf but would 
do honor to many of our irpea'al teachere of 
writing. If teac^hers generally, whose duty it 
is to teach writing in our public schools would 
follow the example of Mr. Beltz. it would not 
be long before a perfect revolution would be 
wrought in this regard, and instead of writ- 
ing being as it is now, most miserably taught 
by indifferent and poorly qualified teachere to 
indifferent pupils — there would soon be awak- 
ened an enthusiasm, which would result in se- 
curing to every pupil in our public schools, a 
least a gcxid lej^ble hand-writing.] 

St. C11ARI.K8, Illinois,! 
March 4, 1880. {" 
Edi'tora Penmnn'H Art Journai: 

Dear Sirs — Accept my congratulations lor 
the assured success of the JorK.VAi.. It is 
refreshing to see an original article in a pen- 
man's journal, because it has been a thing u 
8*» rare occurrence in former attempts at fi- 
nishing a class paper of this kind. Therefore 
send it along for 1880. The copy you sent 
me pleases some of my pupils, and I may 
give you a new subscriber now and then. 
More anon. Very respectfully, 

H. RoLpn. 

Show the JoiTBSAi. to your friends and aak 
them to subscribe. 


il, Incloslnfi $1.00 

,t apoclmoDB or ponin&n- 

^ f3 w. 
1 r wowi 

Flour Lablng 


for $2. 

for »5. 
TbP JonwiL win be iBsuM M nearly oa )».H.lblo on 

Romlttdsccs ihquld be by posl-nlUce onl<'r or by rog- 
iBtcreil letter. UoDoy luctoKd In loiter Is ni>l sout at 
our rlBk. Address 

20S Broadway, New York. 

Siibiortptlom loTiM pKNM*n'ii AiT.ionniiAL nr ordera 
Tor nny of oar publlciitionB, will bfl received mad promptly 
Utoudodtoby tho 

llBouvorloSt (FlootSt.J, 
London, England, 
nt tbii following rntM : 

TtioJoii|tiiAi.,onc yoar. poit-pald Oi. Od. 

Amos' Compondlum of OruameBtnl Penmon- 

Bhlp £Hi. Od. 

" ■■ ■' by book poat, 1 5a. 3d. 

AtphibcH li, Od. 

" ■' bybookpoit, 8*. Od, 

tho ndditloDal poRitgo) may bo remitted dlrooOy to ub 
In Briitllwh or U. 8. money, ud will rocelvo prompt 



ContributionB to the Journal. 

We earnestly desire (litit Ilie coluiniis of the 
.IiiiTUNAL sluiuUl relied llie beat skill iinil ttil- 
ent of tile entire professiou of peniiiuuship in 
Aiiicricfi. Aeeonlingly wc bave frequently 
extended iiivitiilions to all, for contributions, 
cither of readiiiR matter to its columns or of 
art to embellish its pages, yet the names of 
comparatively few have hitherto appeared 
in the Journal as iia contributors. 

Thia we know in many instances is not for 
want of ability, for wc have personal knowl- 
edge of many able and skillful icachere of 
writing and justly-fanicd pen artists, who 
have never as yet introduced tliemgelves to 
the readers of the Joirxai- They arc bright 
lights lud midcra bushel. Month after month 
many columns of the. Ioubnal have been filled 
with our own edittirial effusions, and its pages 
illustrated with specimens from our pen. 
where should have glowed the varied gems 
of thought and art fn>m the many rccog- 
niTied mastera of our profession. We again 
ri'peat our invitation, and earnestly wish that 
it might be heeded by all who are interosled 
in mtuntaining a thonnighly good penman's 
paper, and besides, they would thereby greaU 
ly relieve us from the somewhat irksome ne- 
cessity of constantly "blowing our own 
horn" and from the monthly rummaging of 
our over-taxed cranium, to discover some- 
thing new for an illustration. 

A Rare Case for Experts 
On April 6th. Johnson C. Whiltaker. a 
colored cailet at the United Slates MibtJirT,- 
Academj-, West Point. N. Y., was fount! ly- 
ing imconscious on the floor of his room, 
with his bands bound and his feet tied 
to his bed, » small portion of hie left ear 
had l>e(;n cut 
and his right 

left hand and one ^J^A^yi fi 
of his toes 

day previous, 
Whittaker found 

sealed i 

dressed to him- 
self, which read 
as follows : 


SL-NDAT.Apr. 4. 

Mr. Wliitlaker: 

You will be fix- 
ed ; better keep 

A Fkiesd. 
This note, thus 
far, has apparent- 
ly furnished the 
only tangible clew 
to the mystery 
involved in this 
outrage. Five 
experts on hand- 
writing have been 
cjilled (Mr. Gay- 
Icr, of the 

Hand- Writing. 
ha.-* been presented in the form of sworn 
stiiteiiKnts to the court of inquiry. All have 
therein deaiguated with more or leas conchi- 
siveneas, some numA^r of the pieces of writing 
as being identified with the note of warning. 
As the numbers upon the different writings 
were changed af- 
^' ter each examina- 
tion no one. but 
the Recorder of 
the Court, (who 
has a key to the 
numbers) has any 
knowledge of the 
persons whom 
these numbers re- 
present, or how 
far the experts 
have coincided 
with each other 
in their conclu- 
sions. This on the 

mile of the note of wHrning t 
Cadet Whittaker. 

o Envelope containing the Not 

and DanielT. 
Ames, of New 
York ; W. E. Ha- 
gan. of Troy, N. 
Y.. and Alberts. 

watched with no 

ordinary degree 

' a of interest by all 


the entire 

C/^^^ out tl: 

Sovithwortli, oi \J I / ' Ifi 

whole is one of 
the most interest- 
ing and will be 
one of the moat 

which expert la- 
bor and testimony 
has ever been call- 

pare the WTiting 
on the note of 
warning, with 
that of the S4(! 
cadets in the 
Academy.and en- 
deavor to iden- 


of these writings 
with the note of 
warning, Specin 
cadets and in si 
mens from each, making 
pieces of writing, 

hands of the different experts for 
The result of all of these 

There has been 
a suspicion that 
cadet Whittaker 
perpetrated the 
outrage upon him- 
self, and is the au- 
thor of the note 
of warning- That 
our readers may 
form some judg- 
ment for them- 
selves regard- 
ing the matter, 
we give, here- 
with, a fac simile 
written by all of the I of the note of waming, and a letter writen 
two speci- by Mr. Whittaker. Owing to our peculiar re- 
11 over 800 dif- lations to the case as one of the witnesses, it 
placed in the | was no^ proper for us at thia time to ex- 

i letter 

1 by Cadet Whittaker. 

opinion, but in a future 
shall do so with a 

A Penman's Convention. 
It has been suggested by several penmen of 
distinction that there be a convention com- 
posed exclusively of penman, to convene at 
sonic place in Chicago, the week previous to 
the "Commercialteachera'and Penman's Con- 
vention," which would be diuing the third 
week of July. We think if this could be ac- 
complished it would be an excellent thing. 
Such an arrangement would not interfere in 
the least with the present association or its 
convention, as it would he expected that all 
who composed the first would go into the sec- 
ond convention all the better prepared to do 
good work therein. It will be seen, by Mr. 
Hinman's communication in another column 
on this subject, that there are already some 
pledges for such a convention. Let us hear 
fnim others. Should there he a prompt and 
spirited response, warranting us in so doing, 
wc will take the liberty to announce such a 
gathering, naming the day and place of meet- 
ing. We make this announcement because of 
the shortness of time intervening, which will 
admit of no delay in the matter. We should 
not, however, feel warranted in taking such 
action without a positive pledge in advance of 
a verj- large proportion of the professional 
penman to attend and support such a meeting. 

Writing In the Public Schools. 
At the Business College Teachers' and Pen- 
men's Convention held at Cleveland, O., last 
August, a conuiiittce was appointed to pre- 

> the 

1880, a plan for instruction in writing best 
adapted to teachers' institutes ; also to report 
some plan by which the penmen of this asso- 
ciation who are williug to assist these insti- 
tutes may become known to the State Super- 
intendent of PubUc Education of the States 
wherein the penmen reside; and that the 
State Superintendents may notify such pen- 
men as to the time and place of meeting of 
the institutes, and thereby bring about a co- 
operation between the schools of English edu- 
cation and representatives of the association. 

Conmiittee appointed. Frank Goodman, 
H. C. Spencer and D. T. Ames. 

As yet we have no knowledge as to how 
the committee will report upon the above 
resolution, but we certainly think that there 
should be some action taken which will not 
only place the proprietors of business col- 
leges and teachers of writing in better accord, 
but shall enable our really skillful instructors 
in writing, to make their skill and influence 
felt by the teachers, and, through them to 
have an influence upon the pupils in our 
public schools. We are pleased to note that 
the chairman of the committee, Mr. Good- 
man, has anticipated the action of the con- 
vention, by doing considerable work in the 
teachers' institutes of Tennessee, for which 
he is highly complimented by the iState Su- 
perintendent in his annual report of public 
schools for 1880. 

If you have any light on tlie teaching 
r practice of writing, let it shine through the 
olumns of the JontNAL. 

Lessons in Flourishing. 

In this issue of the Jocrnai 
a course of lessons in Hourisliing. which will 
be. to some extent, a repetition of the exer- 
cises and instructions given nearly two years 
since through the JontsAi^ yet we shall add 
many new exercisen^and practical hmts to the 
leanier dtiring the course. 

To those of our readers who may endeavor 
to profit by this course, wc woidd suggest that 
they strive to master as thoroughly as pos- 
sible the lesson and exercise of each month, 
which will be simple and progressive, and suf- 
ficiently comprehensive to embrace all the 
elements and many practical specimens of 
flourishing. Although off -band flourishing is to 
be viewed more in the light of an accomplisli- 
ment than as a necessary and profitable 
branch of the penman's art, yet it is by no 
means to be ignored by any one aspiring to 
the master)' of the art of fine penmanship; as 
a ready and graceful ornament to lettering, 
and professional pen work, as well as a means 
for attract! ngTitiblic attention, by teachere of 
writing it is of great value ; its practice will 
also tend to impart freedom and grace of 
t practical writing. 

"Too Much for the Money" 
says Mr. Ailing, and probably he is right. A 
bull of the prhiter made bis Hdvertisement of 
inks in the last month's Jouhnal read gold or 
silver inks sent for fifty-five cents and white 
ink for twenty cents per quart. Fifty-five 
cents "a quart" for gold! that would tm- 
doubtedly make a lively business for Mr. 
Ailing, but he generously declines to receive it 
on that basis, and asks the printer to cause 
his advertisement to read one-half ounce bot- 
tle of either gold or silver ink sent for fifty- 
five cents, the same quantity of white ink 
twenty cents. Mr. Ailing is putting up a full 
line of inks, which are fast winning public 
favor, and which are certainly worthy of a 
trial. See his advertisement in another 

The New Dress for the Journal. 
"A thing of beauty is a joy forever." From 
the outset 'wfe^ll^ve endeavored to present to 
our readers a paper creditable to its publish- 
ers and the profession it represents, and while 
we have furnished the best of paper and paid 
the price of good letter press work we have, 
in a measure, failed in our endeavor owing to 
the misatisfactory condition of the type that 
was used. But we are now able to present 
the Journal to its readers in a new dress, 
and we are determined, if it is in ourpower, to 
maintain the JoiiHNALin the front rank of the 
class papers of the day. 

With this number we shall discontinue the 
book-keeping column. Wc fijid that neither 
the proper space in the Journal nor a sufficient 
amount of our time to render it properly in- 
teresting, can be devoted to that subject. 
For several numbers past we have been una- 
ble to find space in the Jovhnal for all our 
matter relating to penmanship, while our own 
time has been so fully occupied that we could 
find no time to consider problems of book- 

King Of Clubs. 

The largest single club of subscribers re- 
ceived during the past month nimibers i/u'r- 
tfen and comes from Prof. G. W. Michael of 
Valparaiso, lud. Mr. Michael reports that 
there is an imusually large attendance at his 

A club of twelve subscribers comes from 
M. H. Barrenger, proprietor of the Lawrence 
(KanJ Business College. 

The Convention. 
How about the convention ? Is it not about 
time the spirit was moving. We have heard 
nothing from the committee or officers. We 
tnist that those parties who have the direction 
of the matter will neglect no reasonable effort 
to insure a full and complete success of the 
next convention, which is to lake place at 
Chicago during the last week in July. 

Where is the Album of Pen Art? 
We have seen but one copy since Dece 
her. Is it resting from its wearv' laljors, 
have we been ' ' skipped ''" Which ? 


How to Prepare India Izik. 
I'rocare a Mick of ink of flne (juaUly, and 
a nlopin)? tray of pomclain or »late, (the bit- 
lor in the bt-iil). At the lower end of the nlope 
should Ik a well to contain and give depth to 
the ink ; pour into the tray, rain water suffi- 
cient to make the desired qiianlityof ink, and 
grind the slick of ink into the water upon the 
sloping tKilUjtn of the tray until it becomes of 
the d(4iircd degree of blacknniw, when it is 
really for ujic. It should Ih; thus frcjiJily 
ground earh flay that it is used ; by utaDdiog 
over night it pn^ipitnles or clmuges bo tliat 
when it iMncomes dry ujnm tin- pa|MT it crocks 
and is ewily removed liy the nibber. Many 
inexperienced persons seek to prepare the ink 
by shaking and dissolving it in water. ; it can. 
not in this manner Iw siiffleiently pulverized 
t<. flow readily and give » solid black line. A 
v(;ry delicjitc and pleasing effect is imparled 
to lettering and drawing by flnil using a light 
shade of ink, and re-touching the shaded por- 
tions with a blacker shade of ink ; this, how- 
ever, will not do for work designed for repro- 
duction IIS this recguires clear, strong, black 
lines, and the pencil Iinc« should be carefully 
removed with a sponge rubber. 

Bents two small works, ont- ciuiiUd. M..- 
take« in Teaching," and the other, "How to 
Scairc and Retain Attention in the School- 
n>om." These books should be not only pc»- 
sessned. but read and studied by every 
teacher in the world, and there are few 
parenlR who would not find in them many 
important and valuable su^estions for the 
home training and instruction of their child- 
ren. We feel assured that no teacher or 
parent can invest fifty cents to better advan- 
tage than by sending for either, or one dollar 
for lK>tb of these books. They treat impor- 
tant flubjects in an interesting ami effective 

White's School Series of Industrial 

This series of drawing-books has been ex- 
tended into (1 full and complclu course cover- 
ing every gmde of Prhhary, Grammar and 
High Hrjiijul. A distinctive feature of this 
course is the device of using dots as guide- 
points, which Mr. WHiitc intr<Kluced so 
successfully in his Art Studifn, and which has 

slrumtnlal scricft, with a leacliur's manual 
for each series. This courw of drawing is 
prepared by practical artists and teachers of 
ilrawing. andappcamto l>e iH-cuHarly adapted 
In the wantK of all clo.'ws of st-hools. 

Awarda for Improvement In Writing. 

In accordance w*ith the announcement made 
in the Joikxai, at the commencement of 
Mr. Kelley'B course of writing lessons in April. 
1870, the specimens sent at the l>eginning 
and at the termination of the course have 
been submitted to Professor J. H. Barlow, 
who. afli'r careful examination, reports that 
T. E. Silvers of Webster cily, Iowa is en- 
titled lo the first premiuni — viz. ; a copy of 
Ames' C'ompendium, or Williams and Pack- 
ard's (Jems, as he may choose ; that 11. P. 
Moore of Lowell, Mass., is entitled to the 
second premiuni — a copy of Williams and 
Packard's Guide : and that M. E. Hussey of 
London, Ont.. is entitled to the third premium 
— a copy of the Spencerian Key. In thiweport 
we fully concur. 

The premiums named are subject to the or- 
der of the parties to whom they are awarded. 

most [HTfect models, can afford to l»e without 
this work, and eaiH-cially No. 3. Either part 
sent from the office of the Jofrsal for 60 da. 

The Penman's Art Journal. 

D. T. Ames, cdilor and publisher. 205 

Among the locals of tlie Napa (Cal. ) CUtMic 

Hi. II. vv >ii|.i..iiijia recently received for 
111' ' . ! I 1 1 I'iiriment are an excellent 
pii ' N ! i!i Jiiid are among the neat- 
's;! nMi ii.Liiu- -I diplomas we have ever 

Seen, 1 lit- ln.'ji(liii!: IS ornamented by beauti- 
fully nourished English text letters, arranged 
in graceful ciu-ves, encircling a picture of our 



^l/'/i4ertt/f/,r<< //( /J// r /// ,n'<'' jf'A. 


///, r^/,,, 

.../ A//.. 

J, Oj Bluiiali'a yxf^t ^ut^ ^^rchiuMia fitrui^^A* iniri»4iu?st-. 

(S^i^'U^dy (S^fiUC^O, 

I is Photo-Engraved fmni our own pi-n and ink copy, (size of original 18 by 23 inches) by the Moss Engraving Co., 635 Pearl Street, cor. Elm, and is presented 
as a specimen of dcsipiing aiul lettering, for diplomas, certificates &c. Orders for anything in this line of pen work, or engraving, 
promptly executed at the office of this Journal. Specimen certificates or diplomas sent on receipt of 25c. 

Back Numbers. 
Wf still hrtvr rxuKiiiiiiif: a few ..f all llu- 
hack nuuilH-rs of the JfURs.M. since and in- 
clusive of the SeplemV>er numlwr. 1877, in all 
thirty-two numlters, which will Ih- sent with 
wfA^-r the "Lord's l*rayer" or "Eagle" as a 
premium for$d.OO: both premiums and the 
"Centennial Picture of Progress" for $2.50. 

Book Notices. 
W. J. Gage* Co.. Tnmnlo. Onlurio. have 

been elalKiraled in the pn-senl course, so as to 
become a most valuable and practical feat. 

The course is compn'hensive and practical. 
The Primary Vourw eompri»e* primary draw- 
ing cards, drawing slate, dictation exercises. 
drawing l>ooks. drawing chart and a teacher's 

The Grammar Cour»e compritfs free-hand 
drawing aud design, geometrical, [wrspeclive. 
mcKlel and object drawing and a teacher's 

reccuily published among their educational , The High School C'vurm eompriM* i 

Part Three of the New Spencerian Com- 
has been n-ceived from the publishers. It is 
fully in keeping with its predecessors. The 
degree of laste and skill displayed both by 
the artists and engravers in the production of 
these works bos never before been efjualled, 
upon any similar work in the worid. No. 3 
is devoted chiefly lo Roman. Text, and Script 
lettering, and is in every respect admirable. It 
is quite beyond our power for ad veree criticism. 
No person having to do with lettering, either 
as penman, artist or sign painter, desiring the 

buildings and grounds. The whole was de- 
signed and executed by Prof. D. T. Ames, of 
New York city, wboprohably ha<« no superior 
as a pen artist. Everv graduate has cause to 
feel proud of his di'ploma. not only as a 
diploma, but as a flne piece of workman. 

The Columns of the Journal 

are open for. andrxjniinunicalions are solicited 
from the pens of al. practical penmen up<m 
any department of penmanship. Let us have 
the concentrated light of all the lu 
the profession. 


e is a , 
writer and ^cucrves succese *-c^ 

W Q hmcrson performs the duties of 
clerk in tht Bankof Oreston Iowa and teach 
cs wntini? to quite large clnsses (lulside of 
hnnkini; hours 

W II Kitfo Intel} lififliatimt bookkeeper 
II ) 1 I r-t; li >p(ralor for the Saginaw 
M I \i I Jiipanv liaa recently taken 

I I k keeper and payinoater 

I li Mining Company at Ish 

1 \l I Mr Kitlo 18 a verv rapid 


an attract I' 
I D Ra> 18 teaching writing at Ryei 

Ir iitid \Mili Willi imii li TiioK 111 111 irdimiry 
facility and style 

J W Swank the famed pcmnau of the U 
8 Treasury Department at Waslungton D 
C favors us with a sptcimtn of his dtx 
tenty in the form of a beautifully written 
letter For real ease and grace we have rarely 
seen It r\rellrd 

\ 1 I III I t It r with ''tveral 

I tl\ wrifUn cards 

I h in L Madarasz 

I 1 \ Citj (N J ) 

A handsome uud rcproiluced in fac simtle 
from pen and ink has been received from 
Wiesehahan & Currj proprietors of tlie 
Wieaehahn Institution of pen art, at bt 
Louis Mo 

C N Crandall teacher of writing in the 
Public Schools of Valparaiso lud sends a 
skillfully extcuttd apcdmen of flourishing 
in form of a lion the lettenng upon tht sheet 
is also creditable 

Several very fine specimens of flourishing 

Mil \ special teacher of ^v^tlng 

I I 1 of AlvJon Ohio sends to 

I iuiniV)er of specimens of 

\ \H under her charge whose 

1 10 16 years These speci 

ptnnii 1 I I Miiingthanisusual 

a our I 111 t the specimens 

•cnip, 1 1 lo both pupil 

ndteiiil \ I n II )f these spcci 

aens would < luiim iiiim *fehool boards who 
n^leet or reluv to pntvide special teachers of 

The above cut represents the correct attitude of the bodj as well as the position of the 
hand and pen while in the act of flourishing 
It Mill III oil er\Lti lint tin hind tniri pen is reversed so as to impart the shade to the 
instead of the downw ard or inward stroke as in the 

1 i( tical and not touch it the left hand resting upon 
I itioii whieh must be alwajs m harmony with the 
ill M ri tifld bitnofii the thumb and first and fore 
hilt il ut tw iiK ]i< Irtiiii the point of the pen 
)ii!i I rum II iil\ I lulii iii-,le and is held consid 
< 1 ii| I 111 iin I I lit t till holder about midway 
ti I t I II n i iiii [ I I up 111 the fourth the 

II I I lint of the 

iiiu the hand 

I I tli(_ shoulder 

1 lung will be found to 

I I \\ hat dancing is for 

I II I I I II IK s hindwntm^ Its 

I I II i| III I I] I III I 111(1 as a separate accom 

IliumI, i>ns,ui« 
nger is bent at thi 
f tlip sffoiid tm-rei 


Thcfollowing exercises shoiUdbe carcfull\ prutimi i nidicited one by shadiiigthe right 
upward curve and the other the left until tht \ (in U nnuU rupidl> ind with great pre 
cisioii having special care to make the width of the hide d lines and the spaces between 
them uniform and with the proper graduation of shade Upon the successful mastery of 
these two exercises will greatly dejignar'the ultimate success of the entire course of practice 

education and one of the founders of the 
Brj ant & strattoL chain of colleges 

A J Taj lor principal of the Rochester 
(N "i ) Business College informs us that ha is 
enjoying a full tide of prospenty — serves him 

The Ohio Troff^ Journal p i\ i 
comphment to the Columbus Bu i 
conducted l>y F K Bryan u I i i 
own afHinintmee withMr Br\ I I li 

N "V h mug chirrjc of spccnl hnnches It ] number is debarred from r 

art, still as the challenges, if I remember cor- 
rectly, included a trial of skill in all depart- 
ments of pen art, their appearance in your 
paper would disclose to amateurs the names 
of those who were in their own opinions, at 
least, the champion penman of America a few 

Who will favor ue with an article on this 
sul)ject. J. D. H. 

Albant, April 15th, 1880. 
Editor Penman's Art Journal: 

Dbak Sir. — I noticed in the last number of 
the JoDBNAL, an article upon "Order in Busi- 
ness Colleges." Many of the writer's ideas 
meet my hearty approval ; for no school, col- 
lege or even community, can long maintain a 
successful existence if it lacks that primary 
element of success— order. Burke says : 
Good order is the foundation of all good 
things " But there are in all communities 
and m all schools, persons who do not follow 
a strict line of order; or, if you please persons 
who are disorderly; and the great problem, 
to many instructors— an unsolveel one — is 
what to do with the disorderly student. How 
shall we control him so as to bring out the 
better man ? How shall we proceed, in order 
that the rough block may be changed into the 
polished shaft ? How shall one , who is un- 
cultured and has no love for culture be taught 
to conform himself to the routine of school 
work' These are questions that are being 
constantly asked, but yet no definite answer 
IS given. I think no one can answer them, as 
each individual case calls for different treat- 
ment one needing the master, the other the 
gentle leader. But it is not possible to com- 
bine thfse flenicnls, iind may not the leader 
still b( the tirni nnist-r y 

//( fUr (jiTiriimint of the schoolroom, a 
quick pcrrtpu'on, a owl head, an unruffled tem- 
per and a /cnowledge of men, and human na- 
ture are essential requisites of success for the 
teacher, and of good order for the school. 

But the article in question, says: "Our 
commercial schools liave generally the hardest 
class to govern, their pupils consist of young 
men in and beyond their teens, many of whom 
have been debarred from the public schools, 
for bad conduct." 
; Is this a fact ? Are 

not all city schools 
hard to govern ? 
Why is the com. 
mercial more so 
than others ? Are 
our business col- 
leges a retreat for 
the unruly? Here 
we beg to differ 
with Prof. Russell. 
Since my connec- 
tion with the Al- 
bany college, (Sep- 
tember, 1878), I 
have had under my 
care over four hun- 
dred students. It 
can not be said 
that any (w« of that 

wnting of their unwnsdom 

Unm A PuiiiiMihip 
of over 100 000 in this 
id has opened at N »s 23 
nie the Jersey Citj bus 

The B C I Catalogue of II B Br\ants 
Chicago Bunness CtiUefee for 1880 has been re 
cei\ed It IS gotten up m fine artistic taste 
The courit if ')tud\ and methods for ronduc 
ting tht vL \ t nl II ili( iirrii iilnm irt 

compn li I 1 1 rill 111 iiin 

positimi II III li Mr lir\ 

somel> mud iij 111 I will 

one hundred tn V nl a Idi 

be secured a n ( 1 <1 I hn 

read\ ui_ . i 1 I i i Mr i 

Who Were the Champions 

April 14 1880 
Fditor Penman » Art Journal 

Several years ago in the da\8 of the Weet- 
ern Penman a number of challenges were 
published by penmen of considerable notori 
ety and acknowledged skill 

But few if any have complete files of the 
journals in which the challenges appeared 
and I for one w ould be glad to have some 
one who is familiar with the historj of the 
challenges write up the matter for the benefit 
of the fraternity 

The question Who is the best penman in 
the tmted States is often asked and fre 
quentlj finds its way into print Of course 
no one can correctlj answer this question 
wnthout restnctmg the champion s supenonty 
to some particular department of calhgraphic 

TIk re is a stat.-ni< nt in the P' n>n.,n\'. Jam-. 
nat that should be corrected It sounds 
as though our commercial colleges were com- 
posed of an unruly class, and if that is so, 
people will jiot patronise them." And the 
student is right. When I glance over our 
school and find seated, side by side, the mar- 
ried man, the young man, and the hoy in his 
teens their bright faces, manly forms, and 
gentlemanly deportment, banish forever the 
thought that this is an unruly class of pupils. 
No the students in our business colleges gen- 
erally are as gentlemanly and as well l)i^- 
haved as in other colleges. There is Jtist aji 
much manhood among them, and as m/ucli of 
the gentleman as you will find in any kind of 

I have not, probably, had as long experience 
as Prof. Russell, but the years I have passed 
in the schoolroom have taught me that per- 
haps a little more of the "potential " and le-ss 
of the ' iinpe-nitive " is a good suggestion ; but. 
as I have already said, some students need 
t he master, and some the gentle leader. 
Finallv, I would say that the co-operal ion of 
parents has been of great help to me. When 
the pu"ent is interested the student will he, 
and w hen parents and teachers join hands, 
then look for results. Yours truly, 

C. E. Caehabt, 
Principal, Folsom's Business College. 

BEr.i.KviLr.B, Onl., April 10. 1880. 
I crack that Houtbeni nul (tiwn in the lut 
JwHjiAL as followi : 

Oaiiia from Bale of liqiiore. $1,689.00 

Salary of agent 8.500.00 

I>o«t«town tSll.OO 

I worked it by dotihlt entry IxJok-keepiDg 
I'l.l found Ibe nul easy to cTBck. 

J. W. Joirsfws. 
PrcBt. Ontario Biwlncas College. 

MiDDl.BTowN. Conn.. April. Ifl. 1880. 

The cnclijwd is the nnawer to the Southern 
pn)tih'm. I um a. Ktudcnt in the Middldown 
r-ily high school, of which Profesaor Thos. 
Emmetlc in the in«tnietor. John L. Fhhk. 

Mr. Pisk funiiiilicfl a very nejilly iirmnged 
formula of thin Bohitlon and bIiowb u loss to 

The next re«pon»p Is from Mr. Orlando 
Hieveiifl, n Btudcut of Dnrling'H imainesa col- 
lege. lUx-henler, Minn., wliich i» u well-gotten 
up exhibit, nhowing n complete solution, and 
giving iw the result $81 1 net loss liy the town. 

From Altay. N. Y., April 28, 1880. comes 
a "cnick at the Southern nut by un old 

It IK evident thot to begin the year tlic 
luwet* were : 

Cash $«.217 

Liquor* 6,454 $8,971 

Then cash on hand 8.317 

Rfcd. from sales 10,297 13,514 

Cash paid for liquors 5,9i)l 

salary 2.500 8,491 

Cash on hand at close of year 5,023 

Liquore on hand " " 3,137 

Aasetsat end of year 8,160 

" beginning of year . ... 8,971 

Showing a nel loss of $811 

Yours, respectfully, 


Omaha, April 28, 1880. 
In Ihc aoullirni problem I (iiid the town 
lost $811.00 Obo. It. Uatubun. 

RioHMoND. Va.. April 29, 1880. 
I present you herewith the kernel of the 
"Southern nut" 
AMcts on taking cliarge : 

Codi $3,217 

Liquors 5,754 8.971 

ABaeta at eud of services : 

Cash 6,023 

LIquor« 8,137 8,100 

Town lost $811 

John S. Douol&s, 
Student, O. D. Buslneaa College. 
A reply also comes from Mr. F. M. Clay, n 
Btudenl at Spniguo's law ajid business college. 
Norwalk. 0.. saying: "The town has a loss 
of $811.00 and the present worth is $8,160." 
The reply is accompanied by a solution of 
the problem worked under respective ledger 
titles or aeeomits. 

Omaua. April 19. 1S80. 
The disagreemenl on the Chicago-Houston 
pi^iblem has caused me to investigate it, and 
my work has resulted in a veriflcalion of Mr. 
Spmgue's flgurcs. It appears to mo that the 
shortest and plainest method of showing the 
Tt-sultti is by performing the operations under 
ledger accounts. To tiiid the gains and los- 
ses, open a merchandise account with eaeJi 
house luid to save space, tlm)W all expenses 
into those accounts, then close oacb with the 
partners' names instead of oi>cning a proUt 
and loss account. 

These t-R-o , with the respective accounts of 
West and Adams are all that would ttppeor 
nece«tsar>' to open. * • • - • • 
Here follows the solulton and allowing as a 
rtsult that the amount due froni West to 
Adanui is $14,647.33. 

If there is any question al)out these results 
it would seem to hingv on the inventory in 
the hands of Adams. This, it would ap- 
IH'ar at first, as In-Iouging to West in case be 
paid Adams the amoiuit due, but I civnsider 
the $1024 as comprising a portion of Adam's 
Cbiwgo gidu. Obo. R. Ratuudx, 

IMn, G. W. Buiiincss College. 

This work is universally conceded by the press, professional penmen, and 
genemlly, to be the moat comprehensive, practical, and artistic guide to ornamental pen- 
numship ever Siiil, postpaid, to any address on receipt of $4,50, or as a 
premium for Ji 'lull ..i uvri^i sMl>-^<TiIicrs to Ibe Joi'hsau 

The iil)n\. ml r- pi, >rnis ilir lilk- pnge of the work, wliicb is 11 x 14 in size. 




Accounts. Willi Aril liniet foal rniblems, 





Reversible Writing Bool(s. 

Halifax, N. S.. April 21. 
EdiU/ra Penman's A rt Journnl : 

Mr. Geo. R. Ratbbun in the April number 
of your interesting paper invites or rather 
challenges correspondence in favor of what 
he alleges is a conunon method of disposing 
of u certain business transaction. Altbougli 
the list in oppo. 
Bition to one who bo boldly steps into the 
arena, yet I woidd be glad to see this and 
like aubjects discussed. I take the lilierty. 
therefore, of observing that it would 
proper for Mr. R. to show what is " wrong 
in an entry which he says is ' ' taught by 
text-books and by very many of our leading! 
educators." Surely if this is so, be has ■.< 
sufficient number of opponents to deinolisli 
without waiting for any 
forward and bear the brunt of biB onslauirh 
It appears to mc that since in the tmnsaelii 
given a note for $800. to which we look f' 
the payment of that sum, was received, il 
account of bills receivable bei 
$800. and that as cash rcetived iiii iiildilimi mI 
$1200 it is only right tn , hr., iu,,i ..,.11,1 

for that sum; also, sin. ^ 1 i; ■ 1 i'\ 

this transaction becanir n .1 , 1 1 

$500. as he certainly ilni :m,i i; ^^ m; ■: i.. 
correct to charge that sum lo ln^ jmuuiii. 
and, lastly, that as merchaudisu funusUtd 
the means by which you obtained your 
claims against these accounts, amounting in 
all to $3.'i00, it is proper to give the account 
merchandise cn-dit to that extent? 
I shall be pleosed to bear in due 
brolbe " " " 



bkodwnilBgr Ttte o&ly Sowk-olwMlni 
countrr. or ' "-'' 

Omaha, April 29. 1880. 
EdWrr PfnmtttC* Art Jintrnfil: 

Have received a number of letters, stut 
that my pronounced wrong 
reft o7n: I submit the following 
correct journal entry : 



1.. BiiijrliJiin 

Very tnilv youre. 


'Oeu. K. Rath 


Prill. G. W. Busin 

'S8 College. 



ftecjniiueDded by leading pcDmrn as superior to any 
yet piuJDc«d. 

tiix-o tlieiu a Trinl. 

Scot by mall, [1 

Bend Btkmii fttr pricM he/c 


Forird, Diigulsvd anil inonymous Wriiioi 

ll.ving luiJ ov<.r U.irly y.-w^' eiiKTIonce. I mm pr 




Superior Writing Inks 


WrlllnK. Cnpring. M«rkln((, Indrllblr, 
HtamplnK. Jnpan, Mtylogrnphlc, 


Alling's Japan Ink, 

grMlor'conllDUlly tlum'ltidlo Ink. 

The most rapid nnd olnQurnU? flourUlicN c«n bo cxc- 

culMl thercvrilh, WlUiout brunktog tho pvrrccl Dow of 

lok. It is unrlvalloi for OrDnmoiilAl ri^uinnDHlilp, C^ril. 

Uoalc, Coairiut and DjK|>1ay Wrltliift- 

AUing's Gold, Silver &. White Inks, 

Plow frooly, rcndoring the I'glitpst etrokcfl perfectly 




tally icNi.ts Itii uiiluii ul liu^i. 


Japan iDk, per pint buttle by Expreiu.. $t on 

Gold or t^llvor Ink, H ounoo bottle by Exprciit . . bb 
Doop Black Ink, po'qunrt •■ " On 

" 'ioi. " ' " '■ ' " .'.'.'.'. 20 
Addrosa FRK». D. ALI.IN€S, 

4-3t. Ink Manufoctaror, RocbcsU-r. N. Y. 

J II. BARL.OW, Dcc^rntlvu Artlit ouU I'ou- 
. m<in,iu5Br<iu.lwuy: Iiistructloa glvoii iirVrAwmg, 
Wator CMlor and Ull Painting. AlBu skotobini; Troin 
Naluro Objocie, UtnUEcapoa, or the Human Figuru. Mr. 
B. bus an luimonso oolteciion of UrUmal Studios from 
Nature In oil. scaooa In tbo vlolulty of Now York. 
Darlow s prize Contonulal Pen Plotoni fnr snie. lliu 

price, ta.Uii. 

VISITINU CARDd wrtltonund Hont by roaiUt u.h 
lowiograiea per dui.: I'ln'ii Spoucorluii, '^6 . . .,r. 
I-J iUffuront iioslgua.rnG'Sliullosor pen work. J < M-m- 
p6n-fliuriBnod,$l. Somplo. V6 conm. B. K Ki:i i I V 

^T^ , J- >^SpaaB^ '*'5atr> 

LADIES OR GENTLEUEN d<«triiig o ouabtly wriliuu 
cards abould vduU 2S r.v„u fur 1 dozou to C. B. 
RUNNKLI,'* 341 W. n.inr.'JM a«.. Cbic.go. Afonts 


ft of copy Blips,! 

XIVTV — *" recolpea for all colore (liiniiiij 
111 iV. Bllvor, while, )ado1lbli>| multod Tor 
Suiupi ukun. W. SW1£T, Uarlouvlile, i 

LOOKI Euroka wrttton cards : 
Vluunatiod 10 colors .16 coots. Oo 

A. E. DEWHURSr, Now Hartford ,"x.' 

>';her of pcumauablp. 
. UORELAND.Sbclblu 


yea-B. la at preeeui diiuugAgod, 

Lilt of Penmin's Snp|ilies Mailed ht U eeuh 
In Postage Sliinps: 

Ad agent wanted In evory city. Sample 
floarldilDg, aomoitiing eltigant and m«Bt 
18 oe:iU. Address U MADAltASZ.'wItl 

Spoclmou nf 
>rly. 3< eta. 

"j^uKRicAN sn 

ClrcalATS vithbtgbuie 


J. W. SCHKltUERHOBN. A M., Socretary 



I facility for tho raDid and 


Ktbbc*N CoiuTHe of iiiwtruclion in 

■at on appllcuilon, 


give particular n 

Sp ■ 

t«.OQ. For tblB 

subject little o 

mall Bpccimeni of our writing i 

givo a Spcci 

pundooco wUh very poor 



iOk himself acquiring a skill grallfying In I 

Penman's Companion, 


tribe most simple coostructton but durable and vorj 
iBoful to tho peunian. Maple Blade M inches long will; 
iiKvabio bi-ad. ]i works nicely ou tbo edge of a Urlsto: 

r..rk 'equally well on a board. It h»s n Boe Male alTrg 
111- ln«Me ofinehMd by which uniform ruling can b. 
nu.lo hy simply idaciog a mark on lb«. edg- of iLt 

Photo and Piioto-Lithographs 

.IJJrcu plainlj, 

H. W. Kibbe, 

-Vo. 7 UOBART ST., 

&-12I. ITTICA, N. V, 

4|hH:l:l:l.|.i:4Q )^ 

n Series of 


Tlie nVCoss lEicLgD 


ISrO. 535 Pe.A.RX. SXRBS T, OOHIO'ER, EX.2u£, 

JobB C. Moss, SBpt. New York. 

Ur. JonM C. Moss, having diBinsed of all bis interest in K\vt PHoio-& Co., 67 Park Place, hat 
he improved proc<-es rec«ntly invontod by him, which Is greatly superior to the old. Tho liDis are very mucb 





since September 1st an entire edition 

fictlou in ••very inslaacc, but hna rccoiveil ilie hig iji i.rutai- Imm all. It omits ikll attempts at phtlusopbiaing 
dryly ami abstractly, and has nu spaei- fix Bii|>eriliit ■lisiiifeBnnis uq luplca foroigo lo iLn subjfcl. 


Con-aiDS 3.6 png.e. devolod to 

Retail, Wholesale, Farming, Commission Lumbering, Manu- 
facturing, RailPoading, Steannboating and Banking. 

™°""'™'"" °'f//£' HIGH SCHOOL EDITION 

roiiMlns 'G4 nagps, devoted lo the rudiments, and Retail and Wholesale Merchandising P'cclfloly tho thing for 
Nui mil ami H gUScbnois, and Comroorclul Dopartmonls. Retail, tl.fiO; sample for i-xiimiDatiori, 73 ci;uts. 




Common School Book-keeping. 

Pmbraciag Single and Eoublt Entry, aa<i adapted to In 
dividual and class insfuctlon In schools and acade 
mica. By 9. S Packard and H. B. BavAKT. Price 

Counting House Book-keepiug. 

Kuctug the Theorj 

colleges, the blgbei 

Ivison, Biakeman, Taylor & Co., 

138 & 140 Urandii 


ispccialty of dcstgDiag and pxi-rutliig 



Nos. 164 anil 1G6 Main Street, 



Sest Known. Established.is24. 




FTx"bl±ata-eca. I>a:oJXtl3.1y, at 205 Broaci-wray-, fox* Sl-OO i)©!? Teaix:'. 
" EnUfred at tAa Pott Office of yew Tork, N. T., (u tee&nd-dau matter." 

NEW YORK, JUNE, 1880. 

VOL. IV. NO. 6. 


Counxel ^Weo a« Expert on Handwrltloir> 

11. I«HATTi;CK, 

Agsnl 8p*ooorlua Copy Boo 
TAYLOR k 00., Ni 
ic to Any Ad(lr»s. 

>i^E:'roN i 




ix.klyn , N. Y. 


XV, H. SADLER, PrcaldoE 

s CblU'gfl, Ualtlmord 


CEon«E nnoiiE, 




A Penman's Convention. 

Till- following iirlicK- wiui i»n'ptin-<l and 
hiuKicii Id Ihc rmnpimlor (or the May JoDlt- 
NAi., bill by 80U1P oversight, and much to our 
t-hn^riu, in making up thu paper it was omit- 
ti'tl. The only aint'iuls wv can now nialti' is 
to bUM thv printer, und sincerely apologiw 
to Mr. Iliumtm mid other intcrt-sted parties. 
008 WAtHltNOi-oN St., Boston,) 
April 34, 1880. > 
KtUtor Penman'M AH Journal: 

Ukah Sir.— As you are well aware, then* 
lias long been a ilesire on the part of many 
earnetit friends of penmanship to come to- 
gether for a full and free diflcuasion of nil 
tupira rvlating to the art. As such a meeting 
has never Iwen held, and as great good must 
come to lUl particiiwnl*. why not have, as 
you say, a "Simon purv penman's conven- 
tion" iu Chicago— say. for three daj-s l>eforv 
the n'gular bualncss 0()l!ege teacher's meet- 
ing. Such a meeting would naturally incmiso 
the atteudiuice o( the later one, besides, re- 
liive il of the necessity of devoting any at- 
li-ution to omiuuental iH-nmanship and much 
Uiat is of uo interest to any hut penman. 

The elegant rooms of the Metropolitan busi- 
ness college, Professor O. M. Powers assures 
me will be gladly tendered for such an occa- 
sion, and that no pains will be spared to pro- 
vide every facility desired. I have reqpived 
positive assurances from a number of penmen 
east, west and south, that they are ripe for 
such a gathering, and, upon its anuomicement 
will work for its success. Wliy not start 
the boom, and have the double attraction of 
two conventions at Chicago? 

Frank Goodman. O. M. Powers and myself 
can be counted on to do active work in bring- 
ing about the convention and also represent 
the east, west and south. I cannot but think 
that the enterprise will meet with favor and 
vim, but, as yon have the mouthpiece in the 
JoiiitNAi^ very much will depend upon the 
position you assume whether the "boom" is 
started at once, or made to appear as though 
enough would not favor il to succeed. Even 
though twenty were to come together it 
would be a success. Fraternally, in haste 
A. H. HiNMAS. 

ventures, rather than the moderate and con- 
servative tields of educational enterprise. lie 
was not content to look only upon success 
achieved, but even sought for the underlying 
causes. He had much of what might be mis- 
taken for idle curiosity; but it was never mere 
curiosity, and was anything else than idlf. A 
story is told of him which, if not true, lie 
never took the trouble to deny, and which is 
so characteristsc of him that it deserves to be 
true. While traveling on foot during one of 
liis predatory exclusions, be cume upon a doc- 
tor's sign, consisting of a high pole sur- 
mounted by a brazen mortar. A sudden im- 
pulse siczed him to know wliether the mortar 
was a real one or only n painted block of 
wood. He might have iiuiuired; but this he 
disdained to do, and in a jiffy his shoes and 
stockings were off and he climbed the pole, as 
he lind hundred ot times climbed the limbless 
trunks of trees, and satisfied his curiosity. 
He was thus enabled to pursue his journey 
with his mind forever at ease concerning doc- 

very few persons could have n 
all, and one which retiuired n 
personal integrity, but a rare 

^coniplished at 
It only faith in 
knowledge of 

HI NK'i D ftiUVnOV. 

Henry D. Stratton. 

Henry Dwight Stratton was born in 
Aniherst, Loraui County, Ohio, August 9th, 
1824, and died in New York, March 20th, 
1867. He had a fair common school e<luca- 
lion, such as is generally acquired in the 
country districts. His chief (lualities, shown 
in boyhood and employed in maturer life, 
wert- a restless energj- and persistence in 
whatever occupied his thoughts, an inde- 
pendence of action, and an ambition to be 
at the head, whatever the cost. To use his 
own expression, he never could be content o 
"play second fiddle." His choice of life oc- 
cupation was not at all forcsttadowed in his 
youth. He hwl no ovemitiiig predilections 
for educational pursuits, and no special at- 
tainments which seemed likely to direct him 
into this channel of labor. He had more of a 
speculative turn of mind ; a genius for acqui- 
sition which is apt to court large business 

Tliis trait of character was variously mani- 
fested in his maturer life. He aimed ever to 
read the acts of men by getting at their mo- 
tives, and no one was more ready to for^ve 
and forget wrong acts when no wrong intent 
was apparent. In this wide development of 
generous feeling he sometimes suffered in 
giving men credit for honest purposes where 
he should have been a little more wary; but 
it never seemed to embitter him against the 
world. He always contended that there were 
a great many more good than bad men, and 
in the long run it was safe to consider men 
honest unless they gave positive evidence of 
being otherwise. In fact, had he been over 
suspicious of other men's motives, it would 
have been impossible for him to have pro- 
jected and carried forward the immense en- 
terprise he had ou hand. The establishing <»f 
furty-four separate and distinct institutions in 
as many of the most prominent cities of the 
United States and Canada was a task such as 

The foUomng extracts from a sketch pre- 
pared by the writer for Paekar^a Monthly, in 
1868. will be in place here: 

"The great point in Mr. Stratton's charac- 
ter was ponderosity ; the putting of his whole 
force of mind and means upon whatever pro- 
ject he had ou hand. His motto was 'suc- 
cess,' and the more difficult the achievement 
of wliatever end he IkuI in view the more en- 
thusiastic was lie in his efforts and the more 
self-assured iis to the tinal result. Neither 
was he satisfied with a half victory. Nothing 
less than a complete rout of the enemy, 
' horse, foot, and dragon,' was worthy of be- 
ing called a triumph. He was, however, no 
great believer in 'hard knocks.' He always 
preferred that kind of strategy which would 
cause the least shedding of blood and leave 
the combatants in the best frame of mind for 
future co-operntion, He esteemed that no 
victory wlikli Itft hU r nntostimt an enemy, 
and he not iinhr,[iii nrh made his warmest 
and most si. :i,ii,(-,i III, 111- 1.| those with whom 
he had liilli il m -i ^nl-ly. In fixing up 
matters ut aiilFV. ihi. tliu basis which he 
always professed to seek was that which 
should 'serve nmtual interests.' In driving 
a bargain, however, he always looked out for 
the main chance. And geneniUy hud it in his 
own favor; butlu-wn^ iimrr ilian generous 
in construing the I<m.i ,.\ , .Muimct. In 
fact, it generally api i ilmi Uiniain pur- 
pose in securing tbr IhnI .ntl ui :, liurj,'ain woa 
that he might have tin.' pkiistiiL— jiuasibly the 
advantage— of conceding points, thus doing 
better than he agreed. 

"As a leader he was most effective, because 
be never seemed to lead ; but rather to walk 
abreast with those whose actions he con- 
trolled. He had an abundance of humor and 
a happy way of escaping from blunders, how- 

I bo 
f it." 

At the same time he was dignified and im- 
pressive in appearance and action, standing 
six feet tiiree iu his stockings, having a well- 
modeled head squarely set on broad shoulders, 
H heavy shock of dark brown hair, full flow- 
ing beard, a prominent nose, and the clearest, 
deepest of blue eyes, which never lacked ex- 
pression, and always looked one squarely in 
tlie face. His very attitude was that of can- 
dor, and his earnest, self-possession never 
failed to secure for him at all times and with 
all men ready recognition. 

It is idle to speculate upon what might have 
been the history of the schools he helped to 
plant had he lived to perfect the plans he had 
in view. His purjiose from the first was to 
perfect a system of practical education which 
should be applicable to all parts of the coun- 
try, and should everywhere supply a demand 
which wt»s not being met by the public and 
private schools iu vogue. His ideas were ex- 
pansive, and doubtless, in some respects, 
extravagant ; and the very uidependence 
which he sought to cultivate iu the local part- 
ners with whom be associated was destined 
sooner or later to assert itself in the practical 
personal control of the separate schools. 

It must t>e underatood that this rapid sketch 
of Mr, Stratton's characteristics does not aim 
at anything higher than a rapid sketch. It 
would be inopportune to attempt, in this con- 
nection, any record of his life-work, beyond 
the merest reference to bis methods. 

In this work he did not stand alone, and 
any account which should fail to give a proper 
measure of praise to his necessary and efficient 
co-workers would be unjust and weak. 

The particular claim wliich Mr. Stratton 
has to a place in this galaxy is founded upon 




the fact of hiB bsving been a profcsMonal pen- 
man. This fflct may be new to moat readers 
of the JouESAL, as well as to many who knew 
him pcwonally and well, ll is, neverthelesB, 
h fact, and I am hajipy to know tliat his own 
rfimembraticen of his achievements as a 
" Writing Miwler " were among the pleasant 
things of hia life. It is also fair to preaume 
tliat he was a faithful and efficient teacher, 
although we have no records of his triumphs, 
and no satisfactory "specimens" of his chi- 
rfjgrapliic skill. Whether there may be any 
relics of his achievements in this line in the 
outlying regions of Boston I don't know; hut 
the frequency with which the veteran Spencer 
was wont to allude to " Strotton's Boston X,'' 
and the use he made of it, as an "awful 
warning" to devout studenta, suggests tliat 
there was an individuality about this part of 
his profe&tional work quite consistent with the 
outgo of his whole life. It is well to remem- 
ber, also, that whatever may have been the 
result of Mr. Stratton's personal work in the 
chirographic field, the writing masters of his 
day never hud a more consistent, tolerant, en- 
thusiastic helper than in him. He was a most 
excellent critic of writing, and uo man more 
thoroughly appreciated the importance of pen- 
manship as a branch of business education. 

In fact, it is doubtful whether any man of 
his time did so much to encourage the profes- 
sion of UTiting masters, or the promulgation 
of good writing. • 

Teaching Writing in Public Schools. 

We copy the following from the late an- 
nual report of the Superintendent of Public 
lustruction for the State of Tennessee : 

"The neglect of penmanship in the public 
schools is well known and often referred to, 
without practical suggestions as to the 

est pupils iktid ninying thoiii iiloii-;! with prac- 
tice in Bpelling, reading, and composition 
from the very heeinning to the close of their 
school course. II has Ihi- merit of being 
easily undtTStiinil. nnH can hr ri';i{lily adapted 

which Uv 


suthricnt attniticm giveu to writing in our 
district schools, which should be remedied at 
once, and principally in tlie following man- 

" Teach the child to write in nenpt the 
wiirds at it learns to spell and read, for spell- 
inii, reiniiiig, and writing should proceed to- 
gether, ,\Vlien a word is taught to the eye it 

joint, so as not to be too near a perpendicular 
position. T/u'« m also the proper prmtion for 
fioMfrtg thr pfn 


sc-- ' ■■ ■ I..1- lull h pupil and teacher. 

Ill \\ I I iioanl, tlic teacher should 

will, h , , . I- on a slip of paper for 
r:ii I. ! \ In . Miii-rsbould instruct the 
iln.i I > ipital, and point to it on 

ilir 1. 1,1,1 i; . -ll n\ liow to connect letters 
at lirsi III slmn wonis of two, three, and four 
letters. Then, as the child begins to read, 
leach him how to epace the words, aud so con- 
tinue until he is fivmtliar with ihc forms of 
the letters, use of capitals, and spacing of 


I iT reading. If 
svtd out uulil 
i-ii or is large 
, lie will have 

■■ Aiiv 1 Iwlii tiii>ugli to occupy a desk 
i^ iil<n l.iii;i iimii-.'iiio write with penaudink. 
lu wliIllil; «iiU piiuil und without a desk, 
tin- !i;iiui \v:i-; iiulined to turn over on the 
right side. This must be remedied now, and 
that by having the second joint of the thumb 
incline very close to the paper ; also by re- 
membering to have the peu-bolder to drop 
hetoic the knuckle joint of the first fingi 
This will cjmse the pen to slide more smoothly 
over the paper, malung it less liable to stick 
in the pLiper and spatter the ink. 

rest on the top of the paper to keep it from 
moving. This position also places the weight 
of the l)ody on the left arm. which leaves the 
right arm free for use, with only ita own 
weight on the desk— the right arm. just in 
advance of the en>ow. ruling on the edge of 
the desk, the wrist off the paper, the hand 
sliding on the third and fourth fingers. 

"The capitals and small lettere should each 
be practiced separately, and particular atten- 
tion piiiti to the shade of each, for in writing 
with pencil no attention was given to the 
shading of letters. 

" After the pupil has learned to shade the 
letlerfl and to properiy join them into words, 
and these into sentences, then the Spencerian 
(;opy Book No. 4J, or the same grade of any 
other system, can be used to advantage. 

"Here the study of the principles and 
analysis of the letters might be introduced, as 
a full analysis of all the letters is printed on 
the coversof the copy-book and can easily be 
learned bv any one. 

"All the writing, whether of examinaticm 
or composition papers, from tion or 

otherwise, should now be done with pen 
and ink and carefully exammed by the 
teacher, and this work should be taken into 
consideration while leaching the pupil his 
grade on penmanship each month." 

Penmanship in Public Schools. 

JSdftt/rv Pcnman'a Art Joitmal: 

Hoping a few additional thoughts on this 
subject will be of interest to your readers. I 
submit the followiiii.' .iiflieulties to the suc- 
cessful teaching ni ibi^ bmncli. and some at 
least of the means of overcoming said dittlcul- 
ties. The first and greatest dilHculty in my 

lation is the poor penmanship of grade 
teachers. I hold it to be especially the 
difflcully in the lower grades where, from the 
tynthetic nature of the young child, correct 
copy is iifdispensable, and the copy of the 
grade teacher is used by the pupil all day ex- 
cept for the twenty minutes devoted to the 
writing lesson. My method here is to work 

as near as possible getting a good posi- 
tion assiduously on form. Fix on the mind 
of the pupil as nc-arly as possible a correct 

or rather mental picture of the letter. 
Teach him to criticise the penmanship of 
others as well as his own. Find the faults of 
the teacher, and without letting pupil or 
teacher know it fortify against them. Seek 
the assistance of the teacher, and give fre- 

t reviews covering the ground gone over. 

le next difficulty is the insufficient time 
given to the subject in public schools ; this is 
more apparent in grammar and high schools 
than in primary schools, where a short lesson 
is preferable. The teacher must labor to 
create a wholesome emulation that care may 
be cjirried into all written work, and practice 
and study may be continued out of school. 
Care nmst be taken to give the pupil a clear 
and definite idea of foi'in and a thoroughly 
well grounded movement to be carried into 
all his written work, that it may all conduce 
to his improvement in penmanship. Give 
frequent reviews in analysis and measurement 
of hight, width and distance between letters, 
words and sentences. Also, the develojiment 
of a spirit of criticism, especially self-criti- 

Another difficulty to be met in the higher 
grades of our public schools is the once pop- 
ular, but now fast disolving, idea that it is of 
but little consequence how we write. It is no 
use asserting this to he foolish, it is hardly 
worth while to even contradict it. 

Besides if this is not contradicted in words 
pupils not behig called to hack their opinion 
am more gracefully back down fron a posi- 
tion which they are not called upon to sus- 
tain. The best remedy for this dilBculty is 
continued effort and kind attention on the 
part of the teacher as well as his example of 
good penmanship. This difficulty can only 
he successfully met by teachers who are cul- 
tured, who make bragadocio uo part of their 
profession and who arc gentlemen enough, at 
least, not to condemn others that they may 
shine "alone in their glory." Some oi our 
pcunieu have too great a habit of boasting, 
for the g<KKi of the cause. Show your pupil 
that because you arc a penman it does not 
ily follow you are a boor. But this 
be done in deeds and not in words. 
Yours respectfully, 

J. M. Mboax. 

■Gfiskell on Advertising." 
Edi("r.^'s Art Journal: 

Mr. Packard has taken occasion to speak 
very kindly of me in your last issue, as is liis 
habit with others, and this affords me au op- 
portunity of saying a few words more respect- 
ing advertising wliich may or may not in- 
terest your readers. 

An extensive advertiser, even if he is a suc- 
cessful one, is not by any means the most en- 
viable of mortals. He is subject to annoy- 
ances of which none but advertisers know 
anythiug whatever. During an advertising 
experience now of seven yciu^, it is a matter 
of consequence to me that, while doing a 
large business, my relations with those cor^ 
responding with me have been in general sat- 
isfactory, and with all my publishers excep- 
tionally pleasant. At times drafts to the 
anmunt of thousands have been presented for 
immediate payment, yet not one has ever gone 
to protest for lack of funds, and but two 
for any cause. Of these two one was 
drawn ahead of time, the other overdrawn. 
This is no small thing to say. If any one 
doubts it, let him attempt advertising on a 
large scale, if bis capital is not all ready cash 
with a large " surplus." But the annoyances 
have not come from that direction. Hundreds 
of letters mailed to my address have never 
reached me. So many were lost last year that 
detectives and every means possible were em- 
ployed to ferret out the cause of these irreg- 
ularities. One man, a postal clerk on the 
Troy and Albany line, was detected by special 
agents of the Post-office department, who had 
secreted themselves in the partitioned portion 
of the car, separating Manchester packages, 
and was arrested. In his possession, as the 
result of that single steal, were found thirteen 
of my letters. He is now serving out his sen- 
tence in a Massachusetts prison. Others have 
been aiTcsted in other parts of the country, 
and, though none of my letters were found 
upon them, yet they were doubtless among 
the depredators. 

The loss occasioned by these robberies has 
been considerable, but the annoyance has 
been greater. Publishers taking any interest 
whatever in their subscribers' affairs, and 
there are more such than we are apt to credit, 
write me frequently and sometimes sharply. 
The correspondence column was a medium 
for frequent complaint. 

I would suggest to all who use the mails, 
whether they advertise much or little, or none 
at all, that they preserve all complaining lel- 
ters and send fvUl particulars of each promptly 
to the CniEF Speciai. .Voent vf the Pout-office 
departn,.,,! ^V -m -., i , ,n, D. C. The Post- 
mastLT-L'' : I ii . Ml a determination to 

exainiii' :: li.i - and to remedy them. 

Ourpcsial M^ini, I- ii..\\ si» completely organ- 
ized and systematized that losses can be 
traced. My own mail has been so well pro- 
tected that now it is seldom that I hear of a 
letter going astray. 

An advertiser receiving money in ordinary 
letters from all parts will become accustomed 
to all sorts of missives and all sorts of epithets. 
He may expect no more freedom from can- 
and worry in this than in any other business ; 
and if he is not completely worn out, it will 
be owing to more than usual stamina. If 
those sending money by mail would take tin- 
precaution to buy a money-order or "register," 
they would secure absolute safety. Money- 
orders, if lost, can he duplicated without cost 
to the sender, and registered letters are sel- 
dom stolen. But I have always held that a 
dollar or so in an ordinary letter should he 
perfectly safe, and, if properly addressed, 
should reach its destination ; and this too our 
much abused "administration" is determined 
upon- G. A. G.\SKEu.. 

Jerwy City BiiMneat Cullrge, Junei, 1880. 

My First Public Exhibition. 

DritiNG the war with Mexico. I fomul my- 
self quiu-lered in one of the many convents in 
the City of Puebla. Being on extra duty of a 
business nature, I was permitted to stroll 
about the city, visiting the churches and 
cathedral and watchmg the varied groups of 
natives as they were assembled in the grand 
Plaza for trade or pleasure. Seated on a three 
legged stool, under the shade of a banana 
canopy, with a hoard across his knees, I be- 
held an "Evangelista," or pubUcletter writer. 

He was a native Mexican, and had received 
more than the avemge education acquired in 
that country. 

Ou the board which served as a desk was 
paper of various kinds, quill pens, and wafera. 
On several of the sheets of paper he had 
flourished headings for bills, receipts, notes, 
and love letters, the latter embolished in fancy 
colors with doves, hearts, and arrows. They 
were really beautiful and skillfully executed. 
He was surrounded by admiring crowds and 
customers who dictated their business cor- 
respondence. At a favorable moment, when 
the trade seemed a little dull. I asked him to 
exchange places with uie, which he politely 
consented to, and I was soon enjoying the 
novelty of giving a free show of my skill in 

Of course I soon had a crowd of the curious 
natives of all classes and colors to ■witness 
what an American soldier could do with a 
pen. Whether it was their admiration for 
my skill or their proverbial politeness, I re- 
ceived their applause, at least, for the various 
productions I threw off, which to them was 
eoth-ely new. I have written in public places 
and with probably more skill for many years 
since, but I do not remember feeling more 
pride or pleasure for my better efforts than I 
did then, while wearing the uniform of au 
American soldier, more than thirty years ago. 

Editors Penman's Art Journal: 

Dear Sir: Lord Byron in his "English 
Bards and Scotch Reviewers," pays the fol- 
lowing very beautiful tribute to his pen, 
which, perhaps, niutiy of your readers have 
never observed. J. W. Swank. 

Very Fine Writing. 
There is on extraordinary form of calli- 
grapic nmiiiii nf wtiieli the chief symptom is 
a desire tu ciniipi-.vs inio llie smallest possible 
space the l'h -iirsi niimlHT nf words. At the 
exhibilion npni,,] ai Hiiss.-ldorf a few days 
iii;<) a L'l-iiMi mail ■.|iii\\< a post-card Upon 

w Inrli 1- ^^I;ll, II !■■, I,,, in I llir wholc of thcfirSt 

11, . . I. . i '.:-.■ 1 1,1^ ssev," while the 
I ' is, "is filled with a 

iiii,Mti|i 1 1 I J [ .ifi which recently 
Look plfiee in III.' Parliament, the 
whole containing ;i;(.niii) wunls I'^.ats of the 
same kind haveofleii. imw. vn, b. i nacliieved 
before, and none, pijliap^ is innic rr-niarka- 
blethan that "rare piii ,■ ut w>\U iirou^'ht to 
poss by Peter Bale.4 m im h^iintaii," in the 
reign of Elizabetli, iinh m.- ■ IimI,. Bible 
written ina vohiiiii ■ i i n .n _ .■ . niv leaves 
as a full-sized edit iMi I, \^\^\ 1111111- miiia wal- 
nut. Pictures, of which all lln' lines and 
shading arc made up of minute hand-i>vriting, 

ious . and in St. John's College. Oxford, is 

prc-tTVid a p ^rlrair > if ' 'Ii.irlea I., in wliich the 

'■■■_•' 1 ■ '- I 'ii- -iirn to be, are really 

■lii face alone con- 

I ' I ; , : I'salms, with the 
' ■ - ; iini> i.if prayer besides. 

II , I us of "eurious idleness" 
■ 1 I" say, but at any rate we 

■ ! '. iiMirnts were as subject to the 

iiiiiiia I- Mil leriiB, forPliiiy records that 

t'iccro posessed a Homer, the " Illiad " only, 
that shut up into a hazel nut ; and other wri- 
ters of antiquity record such wonderful but 
preposterous exploits as the iuscribing with 
tffe naked eye a hexametre line of Greek up- 
on the surface nf u single grain of millet.^ 
Frinn thf hnulim TtU-grajih. 

Centre of Gravity of Population. 
In 1840 the centre of gravity of population 

lachian chain, and hear the parallel of thirty 
deuces north latitude. 

In ISSO the centre had moved westward 57 
miles across the mountains, to a point nearly 
south of Parkershurg, Virginia. 

In 1860 it had moved westward 83 miles, 
to a point nearly south of Chilhcothe, O. 

In 1870 it had reached a point near Wil- 
mington, Clinton Co., O., about 45 miles 
northeast of Cincinnati. 

In no case had it widely depiirted from the 
thirty-ninth parallel. 

A hne drawn from Lake Erie, at the north- 
eastern corner of Ohio to Pensacola. Fla., 
would divide the population of the United 
States, as it stood in 1870, into two equal 
parts. This line is nearly parallel to the line 
of the Atlantic coast. 

tim«Icir K\.\^.^ 

PctunanabJ p . 

with other branchf-n of pdncn- 
lion. pcnmaniihip (Icnianilii thoroagh eleinrn* 
lary irurtniction. Three tbin^ arc indiapcnsa- 
hU: to th(; fluccuw of a clam in writing : 

1. An enthumafilic teacher, who had a 
pomonal knowlcrfpe of the wibject. 

2. A proper amount of time tn l»e devoted 
U> infitrufrtioD and pnuAice. 

3. A *i>nt(;ni of penmanship, progres^ivf in 
mcth'xl, Himplc In prnctire, exhaustive in 
trcntnieni, and emunded on n Krientific, elc- 
menliiT}- unulysu. 

It ia of atMolulA importance that the teacher 
should Ik- educated in the science of penman- 
ship. If he in alih- to demonstrate the form of 
the lelter*. by determining;, flml, tlieir ele- 
mmliiry piirts ; wrcondly, their principles, or 
eoiiiiKJiiinl imrt*. hy means of which tliey are 
cliiMHitii'd into groiipft, and tlien tlie viirions 
nKMiifinitifinfl and rnmhinatlonH of the scvenil 
piiriH, lir hsm II proiind of 

British goveminenl. a largt: bundle hnHiglil 
into hiB reception-room liy several servants 
proved to be the visiting eard of the Chinese 
Emperor, which, when unrolled, reached over 
ncariv tlie whole floor of that large apartment, 
Thie French nobility shortly Ijefore the 
Frencli Revolution, in making calls used to 
write their name« in a book, especially de- 
gipied for the purpose, which was kept by 
parties. But lliey could not conveniently 
write when dresst'd in calline costume, luid 
besideflwmieof the French ladies wrote verj- 
wretched hands, so that the advent of printed 

'■ or engraved cards was enthusiastically wel- 
comed, and it was not long liefore the fame 
of these cards went far beyond Paris, and 
soon they were used throughout the civilizeil 

, world. Such higli-tlown announcemenst as 
"the visit of the Countess Wonderful." or 
"the Marquis of Emerald has the honor to 
wish yon a happy new year," were inscrilH-d 

case of mjalLs or zemindars, who could no 
write their own name: but it is said that in 
another part of India a Brahmin who was 
highly educated r\««ortetl to a practice very 
like that of the Iconian Sultans whenever it 
was bis intention to make a ver>- generous and 
comprehensive grant, the character of which 
he thought would l»e well typified by the mark 
of the open band. 

The origin of the "mark" with which illit- 
eratea now sign is enveloped in some doubt; 
but it would lie quite wivug to suppose that 
the crosa they now use was employed in very 
eariy times. On the contrary, it is said that 
for many centuries after the dark ages those 
who coiild not afford to wear a ring or keei> a 
signet used to make some special and peculiar 
mark, sutb as mi iirruw head, in which it was 
suppn^i il 111 |.. rli I].- rijlitly, that their auto- 
graph <■■'■■■ 

_ It is«. ., I ■■ 

.iUliophilethat Wil- 

of giv 

id by the effort. 
uii will fascinate 

mI n-^ults have 

;i<-i in rlifsde- 

! . ■ J'uUot 

1 into his up,>er graduH ; thai he found 
beginners to be nio'rc susceptible of receiving 
impri'wiionfl. anrl of nafliningthem, than those 

.ill\ wil 

Slimll e^inls bearing very liirj^i- imiin-s were 
at one time in favor, and when photography 
had been only a short time known, some per- 
scms ciuised their own portrait* to be put on , 
their visitiiTg cards, but not to a aufflcient 
extent to make the circumstance at all a cus- 
tom. — Paper Herald. \ 

"Mary," "Mitn. .: \| . . \ !.. r 

of persons Iinvi' iii..|.|'. .i n m m-i f 

their names and siiriicd wnli rlir lirat syilultic. 
either making a sort of illegible seratcli to rep- 
resent the other letters, or simply omitting 

Ot)od Order. 

Tlie good order maintained in most buei< 
noas collcg«i is evident that incemuit scold- 
ing, titreatening and punishmoni, one way or 
another, are not essential. We believe in 
good (irderand hanl study, and ore willing to do 
our part, says a business college man, but we 
think it can liest be secured by a generous 
treatment of the pupils. The TotttJCt (am- 
pnnion this week draws this beautifiU picture 
of a teacher in Suabia : 

One often wonders as he thinks of the die- 
Qoscs and accidents to which ctiildren are lia- 
ble how so many get safely through, and grow 
up to manhood and womanhood. He may 
wonder still more as he reads of the horrible 
cruellies to which a foreign teacher has sub- 
jected his pupils, how any survived. AEiiro- 
pi'aTi paper gives extracts from the journals 
of a teacher in Suabia, wliosc lending idea of 
education seems to have been flogging, in an 
infinite variety of forms. His school must 
have been as uncotn fort able a place as a pris- 
on of the Inqiiisition. He sums up the vari- 
ous floggings inflicted, with a sense of self- 
approval, as a direct proof of efllcicncy as a 
teacher. The following is the horrible list for 
flfty-one years : 

"91 1,500 canings; 121,000 (loggings; 209,- 
000 imprisonnicuts ; 130,000 tips with the ru- 
ler ; 10,300 boxes on the car ; 32,700 tasks by 

h I ii - I I .; 1 V ision more imperative, 

I U' I ' In r fssentiol points which 
sh'nM.j..\Mii rhr imching of penmanship: 
Knoirhflfff. wliicli embrace* the theory of 
writing ; extcuttmi, which relates to the prac 
tice of it ; and orHietiifn, which applies the the- 
ory to the practice. — A'jieAfl;icP, 

About Visiting Cards. 
The various styles of visilinii eiin 
use dilTer fn>m each other oiil\ sii-li 
popular preference is for pluin 
are g«.'nerally engraved. Alil. 

The above cut ■ 

. Photo-engraved from a design executed by F. M. Johnson, a pupil at the Gem City Business College, 
Quincy. 111., conducted by D. L. Musselmnn. 

suspiTt lli«i a .iiMimiiiiuiUice of their calls 
would be jKjctpUible Ui ladies. X\\v\ fn-- 
quently use cards in such a manner thai the 

r two <i; . 
.dv to seehim, kn. 
longiT welcomr. 

"M.i ill thi^'i-oun. 
.<ii probably iiKist 
' not even" intro- 
1 little oviT one 
luy oiher inveniions. 

bundrvii J I -i.r> .^^■.■•.. 

the pan-iu land <•( 

that now are found all over the clviliz«i 

world. It is related that when Mucarlney 

visited Pekin, as the reprvsentative of the 

Queer Signatures. 

The pmctice of signing as a mode of pviiig | 
formal assent to written contracts or charac- 
tere is probably as old as, and in one sense we 
may say older than, the art of handwriting. 
AiiKiiiiiMl all pinpli- the art of authenticating a 

'i 'Ill ^^.l- II ' inii.lished by the most illit- 

I l>v affixing a stamp with 
II- :-m' carried, or by imita- 

1 Mj !m ii - -Jiining by some other and 
in;.; ' n-i'ifuous auiongst lliesc 

, I' ■ I i.i II . >w TN was that which Gib- 

1"", Inptrdbv Thcodoric. the 

i-'T I _ :, 1 -•! Italy. Ilehadagold 

I'll'' I I i -.h. Ii the first few letters of 

111- i: . , II 1 111- Greek character; and 

\n!m , I ,| . ■ I, , I I.I be signed by him the 
I'll'' ■■ !■ ■■ II and liis majesty, pass- 

iiii: Hi- I" I, :ii rij !iii- paper in the interstices 
of tin- iinial. tniicd l>y thesi- means the royal 
signalun'. which he ctmid never remember in 
any oilier way. 

A still mort- barbarous and ungainly devier 
«;tf that which was in%enled. or at least pni-' 
tiscil. liv the Turkish Sult^ms of Icoiuuin 
*\li.ii itiat town was their capital. They -^ii: 
pl_\ .lippril their hand in the bowl of ink ]■■ 
si-iitiil In them, and laying it flat uix-ii tii- 
pa[»er or (wpyms. left the indelible imprr^- "t 
it in a gigantic and most conspit iiuu-. sii.ipc 
A somewhat similar habit is npurir.i frnm 
India, where laud owner* in the M:iliniiia 
coimtry are. or were until lately, acciistouud 
diji their thumb in the siuidal dye. and by 

them altogether, as did Tlieodorie.— /-<«w/"« 

JohnC. Robinson, who recently died at his 
residence in Williamsburg. L. I., was the 
most noted newspaper proof reader in this 
country. He was employed on the New 
York Triimnfiot a number of years. He 
could read with the grejitesl readiness Kieh- 
ard HildretU's, Horace Greeley's. Vmm\ Gu- 
row8ki'8,Gerrett Smith's ;ii"lMtlt..r n..t,.n..ii«Iy 
wretched chirography. H-i i^ - ' .n ■ i' ^ "ti-n '' " 

happened, would refer ii I: ■ i'" 

would very soon decipher m ' "" m-li' in- 
fore an election, the night editor of the 1 n- 
bunf recieved an editorial manuscript pur- 
porting to have come from Hora 
and written appan-ntly in the latte 


iscript just before 

.ruing; us a i*)rgcr>-. 
ig Koliinson's remarkable 
article to be suppressed. 
y was informed of the 
t dav, he said that he never 
111 lie could not have dis- 
lul-wriling fri 


r 41, 71i0 words 

pressing it r 

the paper leave their s 
uei, or, as m lids case it should pei^aps be ■ 
called, their sign digital. This was in the 

heart ; 700 boys standing on peas ; 600 kneel- 
ing on sharp pieces of wcHid ; 5,000 wearing 
the fool's cap ; 1,700 holding a rod." 

We doubt if the records of tyrants in the 
school roooni can furnish a parallel vase. 

G. A. G. 

Baron Rothschild's Business Alphabet. 
Fririid Aiiui : I send you herewith a copy 
.f Baron Rothschild's rules of business— busi- 
less alphabet. Many of these rules are good, 
and worth a place in the Jocknal if you see 
If not, no offence will be taken. 

C. E, Cady. 

CoDBlilp' vfoii, then decide poBJUvely. 

Dare to do rigtil; r»r lo do wrong. 


Fight life's battle bravolj, manfully. 

Oo uot into the aoclMy ot Ibe tIcIous. 

Hold Integrity sacred. 

R«sp<^t lb«' counwl o 

a kTodly aaluUtlOD. 
he right," 


Single iDSorllon 20 cpnla per line i 


I, iDClQSlDg $1.00 


ft fflOkard'a 

For iwnlTOBuhi 
prieo %l>. 

The J 

d |3 wp will forward the larg' 
28x40 JncUf«. raUill* for $2. 
Id $7 wo will fnrwird a copy o 
Outilo," rPtallB for S3 





i.ible <i 

ItomltlaBcos •hmild bp by poBt-ffllce order or by reg. 
iBtorcd lolt«r. Money iuoloaed Id letter is noi soni ai 
our rlak. Addrcw 


205 Broadway, New York. 

Subicrlpllons lu TiiB Pksman'b Art JoiiRKAL.or order* 
for any of our niiblknlioca, will bo rucoived and prompt'y 
Mlondod ^"^^^'^^TIONAL NEWS COMPANY. 

LoodoD, England, 

TboJot'RNAL one year pod-paid Bb. fld. 

Amos" Oompondium of Ornamoiilal penman- 

•■ Alpbabotd • "- • '•■ ^' 

thcaddlUoaal postage) may bo remitted directly lo us 
Id Enullsh or V. 8. money, and wfU receive prompt 


Were it as easy to avoid mistakes 
complain, there would be Hltlc 
mistakes ; or were aU complaints reasonable 
and courteous, tbey could be l)ome with 
greater patience. It can hardly be possible 
for any fair-minded reader of the Jouhnal to 
preatinie that we would regularly publish a 
paper and then purposely withhold or neglect 
to mail it promptly to ever>' subscrilicr. Yet 
there is not a month that we do not receive 
more or less impertinent and insinuating pos- 
tal cards from parties who, from some cause, 
have failed lo receive thch- paper. One says : 
"If you don't want to send me the paper, re- 
fimd my money." Another asks: "What 
has become of the Jouhnal? Is it another 
fraud?" Another says : "I like the J ou it- 
SAL, but I won't renew my subscription until 
you have sent all that I have paid for. Sev- 
eral of the numbers Ihave never received.'' 
Of course we know just which numbers he 
efers lo, and forward them at once. In sev- 
ral instances we have received postal cards 
regularly, month after month, stating that the 
Journal had not been received. In one of 
these cases we know, and in several we sus- 
pect, the extra papers were handed to a sub- 
scriber whose name or subscription had never 
been sent to us. and the extra premium has 
been secured in the t.ame manner. 

No subscriber can be more anxious to re- 
ceive promptly all his papers or premiums 
than we are that he should. Policy, to say 
nothing of any desire to deal honestly and 
fairly with our patrons, would impel us to that. 
But our readers should bear iu mind that mis- 
takes will occur, of which we are almost daily 
reminded by receiving letters inclosing money, 
minus name or address of the sender, and let- 
ters telling us that we mil find inclosed $1.00 
for the JouKNAi,, when we don't. Otherg will 
write on a postal card, " Will you please 

change my address from — — to ," and 

forget to sign their name, etc. 

There are many causes why papers fail to 
reach their proper destination. Ist, mis- 
direction ; 2d, wrappers are torn off, and 
packages are burst open in the mail bags, 
when, of course, the paper can go no further ; 
,, persons in the Post-office where they are to 
be delivered, through carelessness or a desire 
retain the paper, fail to deliver it. 
These causes, among several thousand sub- 
scribers, operate so as to cause many miscar- 
riages. In all such cases we have unhesitat- 
ingly remailed papers on receipt of a proper 
notice. We are only annoyed or impatient 
when we suspect imposition or receive imper- 
tinent or insinuating notices. 

NEW YORK, JUNE, 1880. 

The Convention. 
The Third Annual Convention of the Busi- 
ness College Teachers' and Penmans' Associa- 
tion will assemble in the hall of the Bryant 
and Stratlon Business College, Chicago. Ill, 
on July 27th. In another colunut will be 
foimd the announcement of the committee of 
arrangements, imd a general invitation is ex- 
tended to all interested in practical education 

to bo present. It is to be hoped that there I ,.j^^, ^^^ pj^^^ f^^ holding the 
will be a large attendance, and we see no rea- ^^^ ^^^j, 
sou why there should not. The West is alive ,ijt.ioiial 
to the claims and vahie of practical education, | ^^^ j„ ^^ 
every city of note and many villages have 
flourishing business colleges, while the West 
has always been a sort of a penman's paradise. 
WliUe we shall not expect, or wish, to have 
Ih-m rlvnl in ntunbers. or the uproar, the 
late Republican Convention held in that city, 
yet "vc trust that the attendance will be suf- 
fl-^ently numerous and enthusiastic to have the 
metropolis of the West feel and take note of 
its presence, and that it will do, as its prede- 
cessors have done, good and effleicnt work 
for the promotion of all the interests repre- 
se itcd. We hold it to be the duty as well as 
interest for every teacher or author in any de- 
partment of practical eduattion to be present 
at that Convention and be prepared to eon- 
tribute to the best of his ability to the interest 
and value of its deliberations. We were 
greatly disapiwinted at the absence of many 
noted principals of and teachers in Western 
schools and colleges from the Convention at 
Cleveland last summer, and we hope that we 
shall, in common with the rest of the associ- 
ation, enjoy the pleasure of their acquaintance 
and presence at Chicago. 

? pvib- 

The Penman's Convention. 
In the May issue of the Journal wi 
lishcd communications from A. H. Hinniaii 
and others, advocating a convention of pen 
men to meet in Chicago a few days previous 
to that of the " Business College and Pen- 
man's Association," which we canicstly advo- 
cated, and stated that should a sufficient 
mnnber of representative penmen pledge 
themselves to be present in such a convention 
would take the liberty of announcing the 

Our Next Uluatratlon i 

will be a fine pen-and-ink portrait of the next 
President of the United StatfS, Hon. James 
Garfield, accompanied with an elaliorate 
and carefully executed specimen of lettering 
and ornamentation. Mr. Garfield was once a 
tniveling writing-master, and while a student 
at WUliams College, dependant upon his own 
resources, he paid his way principally by 
teaching writing classes, and he will un- 
doubtedly lie the first President of the United 
States who has ever graced the ranks of our 
profession. Pemneu.— all together now,— 
three cheers for "Garfield." 

are solicited from the pens of ali practical 
penmen upon any department of penmanship. 
Let us have the concentrated light of all the 
luminaries of the profession. 

Writing in Public Schools. 
Miss Jennie D. P. Case, teacher of writing 
in the public schools of Wooster, Ohio, for- 
wards a package of specimens written by pu- 
pils under her tuition, which are very credit- 
able to pupils and teacher. 

Conclusion of the Whittaker Investiga- 
tion at West Point. 
On May 29th the Court of Inquiry relative 
to the alleged outrage upon Cadet Whittaker, 
at West Point, N. Y., to which reference whs 
made in the last issue of the Jottknai., closed 
its investigation -with an unanimous opinion 
that Whittaker himself perpetrated the out- 
rage, and was the author of the note of warn- 
ing. After a careful review and analysis of 
the testimony, the Court presented the fol- 
lowing coxoLCSloKS and opinion : 

" /''(VsS— The Court is unable to believe that 
such slight wounds as Cadet Whittaker re- 
ceived could have been inflicted by the pereons 
in the manner and under the circumstances 
described by him. 

Second— It does not see why a man with 
his surroundings, and in his condition and 
frame of mind, as shown by his own evi- 
dence, should have submitted to an assault, 
such as is alleged, without summoning assist- 
ance during the assault or immediately there- 

77iird—l% believes that a person tied as he and left as he claims to have been, could 
readily have released himself had he exerted 
himself to do so. 

Fourtfi— From the testimony of the post 
surgeon and others, the Court is compelled to 
believe that Cadet Whittaker was neither 
asleep nor insensible when he was examined 
on the morning of April 6, 1880, but that he 
was feigning. 

yifth— The Court is not able to discover 
any motive that any person other than Cadet 
Whittaker could have had in making such an 
assault ; and there is no evidence whatever 
to warrant the belief that any other person 
did make it. 

Sixt/i~lt believes that the hair clipping, the 
flesh cutting, and the binding could all have 
been accomplished by Cadet Whittaker him- 

our last issue we made a brief statement 
of the genera! facts in this case, refraining 
from any expression of our opinion, from the 
fact of our having been a witness in the case, 
and that the Court of Inquiry had not then 
closed its investigation. It has now done so, 
and its conclusions having been made public, 
we now feel at liberty to give not only, to 
some extent, our own opinion, but a general 
review of the expert labor and testimony in 


but \ 

announce that but 

those already mentioned, making 

■e pledged to be preseii*. As that 

number would hardly suffice for a "large and 

nthusiastic convention," we fort^go making 

the announcement. We trust and hope, how- 

that the time is not far distant when the 

penmen of America will not only be able to 

dignify themselves and their profession by 

annually assembling in a convention, but to 

take effective measures for the advancement 

of penmanship, and for the elevation of the 

standard of its profession. 


e (be 

ry thill 11 

he is not 

e note of warn- 
f Whittaker's 
Court, unten- 
. Ii 1 he experts 
,iiul their pos- 
11.1 doubt that 
)te of warning, 
ignorant of the 

writing is, in id' 
able. Thestv. : 
in handwritiiiL' ■^' ■ 
itive testimony, j.l.ii- 
Cadet Whittaker wr 
and therefore, that 

Sadler's Counting Arithmetic. 
W. H. Sadler. Principal of Sadler's Bryant 
and Strattnn Business College, Baltimore, 
Md., is engaged upon a counting-house aritli- 
mt'tic, which he expects to have reatly for sale 
by Aug. Isl. We are in receipt of the ad- 
vanced pages of the second part of this w<»rk. 
relating to percentage. So far as our limited 
time has enabled us to examine it. we are 
very favorably impressed with the work. It 
appears to treat its subjects in a thorough. 
comprehensive, and practical manner, and we 
think bids fwr to be an exceedingly useful and 
popular work. 

th"e affair. This 
latter conclusion is strengthened by the fact 
that one-half of the sheet of paper on which 
this note is written was found in Cadet Whit- 
taker's possession. 

Opinion— From the strong array of circum- 

' "' ' stimony of the 

nni the conflict- 
tinker, and the 
hick of veracity cvinct'il Ipv him Un certain 
ca-ses during the invLUligalion, iis shown by 
the evidence, the Court is of the opinion that 
the imputation upon the character of Cadet 
Whittaker referred to in the order convening 
the Court, and contained in the official re- 
port of the Commandant of Cadets and the 
post surgeon is fully sustained," 

Upon the receipt of the report by General 
Schofield, as President of the Academy and 
presiding officer of the Post, he ordered the 
immediate arrest of Whittaker. What further 
action will be taken in the matter will depend 
upon the authorities at Washington, to whom 
the report is submitted. 

As we understand the matter. President 
Hayes may now order a court-martial to try 
Whittaker; or, considering his guilt proven, 
onler his dismissal from the Academy, and 
leave further prosecution to the civil autliori- 
ties. Whittaker still protests his 

Anv person interested 
attending, the Conventit 

and desirous of 
t Chicago, who 
and list of 
by addressing ua. 

the case. 

As stated in the conclusion of the Court, 
given in another column, the experts, five in 
number, have, with considerable unanimity, 
identified the note of warning with the writ- 
ing of Whittaker. This was done by select- 
ing pieces of writing distinguished only by 
numbers, from upward of 300 different pieces, 
representing that of all the cadets in the insti- 
tution ; the expert, at the time, having no 
knowledge whatever of the person represented 
by the numbers upon the writings examined, 
or those selected as being identical with the 
note of warning, hence there was no possi- 
l)ility that a feeling of favor or prejudice 
could have influenced his examination or its 

The first expert called was Mr. James Gay- 
lor, superintendent of city delivery in the 
New York Post-office, whose very skillfid 
work in several recent cases in this city, nota- 
bly that of the confidence operator and forger, 
Williamson, has won for him distinguished 
and well-merited favor. After neariy three 
days' time spent in examination and compari- 
son of writing by all the cadets, Mr. Qaylor 
finally selected No. 8 as resembling closely, 
and in his opinion being identical with the 
note of warning. He then called for more 
writing by the author of that number, when 
he was furnished with six additional sheets, a 
further examination and comparison of which 
with the note of warnmg tended only to 
strengthen and confirm his opinion as to its 
identity. No. 8 proved to be Whittaker. 

After Mr. Gaylor, Mr. Joseph E. Paine, 
with the house of A. A. Low & Co., who is 
undoubtedly the most experienced and noted 
expert in New York, was called to examine 
the writing. Mr. Paine'a report was brief, 
and did not identify, positively, any other 
writing with that of the note of warning, 
although afterwanl, in a supplementary ex- 
amination, he identified Whittaker's writing 
with the note. Although our examination 
followed that of Mr. Paine, our report was not 
made until after Mr. J. E. Hagan, of Troy, 
N. Y., had examined and reported on the 
case. His conclusion was very positive as to 
the identification of a certain number (which 
was withheld, though afterward announced 
as Whittakers) with the note of warn- 
ing. Mr Hagan has won a wide-spread and 
enviable reputation for his skillful ua 
microscope in connection with his f 
lions of questioned handwriting. His special 
theory is based upon the alleged fact that 
there is in handwriting a peculiar and char- 
acteristic nerve tremor, which can be distin- 
guished by the aid of the microscope, and 
will appear the same in all the writing exe- 
cuted by the sapie person ; and as this tremor 
is constitutional, as well as being unknown 
and uncontrollable by the writer, no eflort of 
his can either conceal or modify it. It will, 
therefore, according to Mr. Hagan's theory, 
inevitably appear the same in character 
throughout all of a person's writing, and is a 
most conclusive means of determining the 
identity, or want of it, in disputed writing- 
We should judge that this theory would be 
much more applicable to writing executed 
with a pen than pencil, as was the case of the 
note of warning. 

In our own report we designated the writ- 
ing of No. 23 as being more nearly identical 
with the note of warning than any other, 
although some other writings arrested our at- 
tention as presenting resemblances to that m 
the note. Two pieces especially, which re- 
sembled, to a remarkable degree. No. 3:i 
and the note of warning, were mentioned in 
our report as meriting special attention. ^^ *^ 
thought it very probable tliat their author 
might have written the note, simulating the 
mo'st notable peculiarities of the writing of 23 : 
but it is slated by the Recorder that those 
writings were fictitious, having been prepared 
and placed among tlu- others for the porpwe 

; of the 


of dr'«-plion. lleganUne the purpnw of the 
nffiriHlK in plarinjr the«e nclitioiw wrilingn in 
our hands, we have nrrt liccn infonncd ; but 
infer thul it wm from the fact of Mr. Gaylor's 
tiAvinj; inadvtrrtenlly mentioned aa among the 
Mperimena he ha/1 examined, two sheets ii[)on 
which WM written, with pencil, p:irt« of a 
Ht^jry : and the-w- writings, which answered to 
hiH defMTiption of Ihwtehc hwl examined, were 
prr-imn.-ii In nii*lcad M into the l>elief ttiat 
tlicy were tlie name that lie had mentioned in 
liix report, prcvioiwly puhlinhcd. We have no 
Iielief that there was any wrong motive on the 
part of the ofDcialii in thin deeeplion, hut at 
the Rame time it certainly tended to make our 
report more deci«lve on No. 23. as in our 
opinion the flctitiouB writings were next to 
No. 23 in tlieir rewtml>lance to the note of 
Warning, and received that degree of our at- 
tention due to Ihcm aasuch ; whereas, in their 
alisence, some one of tlie genuine writings 
would have lieen recognized us next to No. 28, 
in iu rc«cmhlana- to the note, and might have 
ln-en BO, to a degree entitling it to some 
Nfiefiiil c/mnideratlon in connection with the 
authorship of tlie note. We found, apparent- 
ly, wveral indicatiouB of simulation in the 
note of warning, which w,.- shall hereafter 

The fifth and last expert wiw Mr. A. S. 
Soiithwortli. of Ronton, who is the oldest and 
iiKWl cxperlenred expert in New England. 
.MliT nil cxIeiHted cMiniitiiition, he reported 
l'> tlir (^oiirt tliul Ur round the writing of No. 
•27 ideiidcjd willi that in the note of warning. 
Am we undemland the report, No. 27 was not 
Whittaker, but that of another cadet. After 
hiH report lie was handed other writings, and 
ri'(|iu-Ht<'il to make a second examination, 
when he nporicd that he had changed his 
lirsl (i|)iiii(>n, itml llien reported on anothcrsct 
of wrItingH, whieh. in his opinion, were iden- 
tical with the note of warning, and wliich 
lirovod to be Whittoker's writing. During 
I luH hist exaniinntion he discovered that one 
of the lorn i-ilges of the note (if warning 
iDiitehed the (orn nlfff of uii'iIIki Imlf-shuet 
"f paper, upon which was u hltir written by 
Wliittakcr to Ids niotlier on the nioniing after 
the alleged outrage, detailing to her all the 
particulars of the affair. Thus the paper 
uiwn which the note of warning was written 
wiia positively identified as having belonged 
to Whitlflker. It is proper to state, however, 
that it wna impossible that any of the other 
experts should huvc made this important dis- 
covery, from the fact that none of them liud 
in their possession the paper with which the 
note was matched, at the Recorder said, be- 
ciiuHc its contents would have shown the writ- 
ing to have In-en Whltttkkcr's, a fact which he 
did not wish known. Wehave iiowgiven.lirief- 
ly III wius prnctinil, a summary of tlie reports 
of nil the i\\K-TtK <alU-d in the case. It will be 
i>bsirv«il llml lln\ have all, entirely unknown 
I.. ili.uis<lveH. identltied. with a greater or 
hH.1 degree of positiveness, the writing upon 
the note with thilt of Whittnker. Yet the 
fiui that Mr. Soulhworlh found sufllcient re- 
seniblaiiee in other writing to lead him to first 
idciilify il with lli<' note of warning, and the 
miiny iiuliiaiions noticed in our report of 
niuuiltmidii, leavi'.s room for a doubt in favor 
of Whittnker. 

One of the chief dilHculties encountered by 
the experts In making their examinations whs 
the brevity of tlie note of warning, revealing, 
as it did, but faintly the general writing habit 
of it« author ; and another fact, whieh we 
have not yet seen stated, that greatly in- 
erL'iised the labor and difflculty of identifying, 
not only the note of warning with Whittaker's 
writing, but even the different pieces of his 
writing with each other, %vas the exceeding 
variableness of his writing. We have sehlom 
seen writing so much so. No. 33, which we 
first identified with the note, and selected from 
57 sheets torn from the exercise hooks of as 
many cadets, wna wTitteu with ink in a large, 
bold back-hand, on an easy, swinging move- 
mcnt, while No. 187. another sheet which we 
Identified with the note and No. 33, was sc- 
leetwi from 346 pieces of writing, executed 
in pencil from dictation by each ouo of the 
cadets, after the discovery of the note, and 
\VAS written in a large, sprawling hand, on a 
direct slope, and, in its general appearance, 
w»s very unlike No. 33. or the note of 
^vaming, and so irith each of the other speci- 

mens afterward handed to u*. thi-y dilTcred so 
widely from each other in size, form, 
slope and movement as to really require the 
skill of nn expert to identify one with an- 
other. The following is a condensed state- 
ment, by Mr. Gaylor, of the points of resem- 
blance and difference between the note of 
warning and the writing of his No. 8 and its 

liar, especially when used, 
OS a final letter. But I found no other exam- 
ple of its use in any of the other writings ex- 
amined. In the paper written in ink by 
"No. 8." thin form of "d" is almost invnria- 
tily used, as it is also in the pencil writing in 
the two sentences mentioned. 

I believe this "d" to be in the natural hand 
of the writer of the Whittaker note. 

2. The letter "f" in the words "fixed" 

the resembtun 
letters and Mi' 
very strong. < 

l-(i fni 

led in any of 

such resemblance 

the other writings examined, 

3. The "p" in the words "April" and 
keep." This form of "p" is almost invaria- 
bly used by " No. 8 " in his pen writing, and 
"'onally in his pencil writing. 
The letters W following the figure 
the date — the only instance of their 

Vi li;i 


sed in "April." and 
the word "friend." 
legs" of these letters 

nation." The flourishes with which the let- 
ters begin have a labored appearance, as 
though carefullv inailc fm- ilic purfiose of dis- 
guise. I friiltnl Mil I • 1. 1 iliK cniistriKj.ion 

(i. The <-:M"| ' '/ 
Whittaker's ii:ni,i jh tl, 
velope. They hear a 
used by "No. 8," Imtii 

■ of a very 


0. The small w in the words "will" and 

"awake." They are similar in formation to 

very many written by "No. 8." 

8. The small letter a. In two instances 

loop is made in connecting it with the pre- 

_..■_._! ... . !!S, when there is 

loop. Sucli 

frequent, hut i 

ceding Ic 

such connection, there is 

of the loop by "No. 8" 

)). The capital T in "You." The 

jjeneral formation appears 

in the story written by "No, 8," though in 

one case n loop appears which is not made iu 
the Whittaker note. After an ex- 
under the microscope I am of the 

opinion that the flourish on the latter was 

added after the letter had been formed as 

originally intended. 

the r I 


.'IKS on to specify five 
writings of "No. 8" 
lie found no such 

■[■''"■ 'litTrrent habit 
■ '■■ iiL'inv "4" like 

il/iusih.d in 

of forming itn 

that in the null , .inii ■. : i i m ,,|' ;■, cxccpi 

wlierc the IrMi [ ^ - ! , . i I'hi no f/; nfler 

thedate. Tin 1. tw,. ^ , ,,„i ,„ |,^. ^,^,j_ 

siders to be apparfiitly disL^uiscd. 

Points of resemblance are similarly stated 
with more or less detail in all the reports, and 
substituting other numbers for Mr. Qaylor's 
No. 8, it answers well for all the reports. 

Before proceeding with our comparison, it 
is proper to state that while the reprmluctiou 
of the note is as nearly perfect as was pas- 
sible froui a tracing, it vanes in some re- 
spects from the original, which was faintly 
written with a lead pencil. The accompany- 
ing letter was written with a pencil by 
Whittaker one month after the date of the 
note and after he had been charged with its 
authorship, wliich chargif. if true, afforded 
the strongest motive for a change or disguise 
of his natural hand writing, which we think is 
apparent in the letter when compared with his 
writing prior to the note of warning : and 
while tlien- are many striking resemblances 
between the writing in the letter and note, 
they are by no means so numerous or charac- 
terislic as in most of the other writings of Mr. 
^\Tiiltaker which we have examined. 

To enable our readers to better appreciate 
some of the statements made in this article 
and to examine the matter for themselves, we 
re-msert a copy of the note of warning and a 
letter written by Mr. Wliittaker : 

Superscription to the Note of Warning to 
Cadet Whittaker. 

CL^ru-^iAy . 


miiHf of Note of Warning, 


A /m fimile of a letter 

1 by Cadet Whittaker. 

The C in "Cadet" acconls with Whitta- 
ker's habit as manifested in No. 23 and other 
writings of his. The n's in the note of worn- 
ing vary in form and manner of construction 
according to his habit, wliich is to loop one 
and often both parts of these letters. Com- 
pare a ill " Sunday " with a in "Whittaker," 
in letter, or a in "Whittaker" in note and a 
and g in "investigation " in letter. Compare 
din"Ciidet" and "Sunday" in note with 
same letters in "dear" and " abide " in letter, 
the y in Sunday with y in "my" twice 
in letter, the d in friend_ in letter with d 
in "fixed" in note, the termination of I in 
"will" in note and e in "abide" in letter, 
after e in "make" in note and e in 
"the" in letter, compare / in friend in 
boili letter and note, the variety in slope as 
wi-i\ iu "fixed" and "found" in note, in 
"full," m in "my," ir in "willing." in Whit- 
taker, and elsewhere in letter. We might 
point to a large number of similar favorable 
comparisons, but we leave that to the reader. 
We will say, however, that there are few re- 
semblances between these too pieces of writ- 
ing that compare as favorably in their fidelity 
as do those found in other specimens of 

Yet. after all these close comparisons, there 
are sliil several points not so clear as we 
would wish for a positive conviction of its 
identity with Whittaker's writing. In the 
note of warning are several peculiarities that 
we have no where found in his writing and 
which, so far as we have exanuned, can be 
accounted for only on the groimd of disguise 
or simulation. Some of these are more Hkely 
to result from an effort at disguise, and others 
from simulation. Among the former would 
be the « in "Sunday," the capital stem of 
the n, », the capital y, and the capital stnike 
of them; upon the other hand, we find in 
the note of warning in several instances, a de- 
gree of artistic skill and a knowledge of 
analytic writing, manifested, which is quite 
beyond anything we have yet seen in Whitta- 
ker's writing ; as for iustauce, in the * and 
r in the first Whittaker, in the u in Sl 
day." in the r in "Mr.," in " Whittake; 
"friend," in the entire word " awake." and 
other instances. While the general and m( 
striking forms of the tetters and writing in t 

note are apparently iu accordance 
with Whittaker's general habit, 
there are several things for which 
A^ithin the sco{>e of 
tiou. we find no precedent ; 
instance, by noticing the 
tion to all the final letters in the 
letter, those tenninating on the 
base line strike out with a long 
and nearly horizontal curve, which 
is characteristic of Whittaker's 
writing; but if we refer to the 
note of warning we find a marked 
contradiction to this in the tenni- 
nating lines of t in "Cadet," r in 
"Mr.," the same letter twice in 
"Whittaker," in e in "be," and 
r in "note." It is quite possible 
that upon a more extended exami- 
nation of Wliittakcr's writing all 
these variations may be found to be 
within the scope of his skill and 
habit of writing; but, viewed ac- 
cording to onr present light, they 
are, at least, signs of a more skill- 
ful hand than Whittaker's, simu- 
lating the moat marked character- 
istics of his wTiting, while the 
exceptional forms we have men- 
tioned may be the result of the 
writer's own unconscious habit. To 
determine whether or not this is 
the fact would require a very ex- 
tended and searching examination 
in order to discern the full power of 
Mr. Whittaker in the use of the pen 
and his actual knowledge of analyti- 
cal writing. We are asked, might 
not those forms and variations 
have resulted as well from an 
effort to disguise as from simula- 
tion '{ We answer no ; because an 
effort at disguising writing can 
never impart to the hand skill 
which it has never acquired or 
exercised. Disguised writing is 
usually more stiff and awkward 
than the natural band ; never more 
graceful or perfect. It is tnie that a person 
writing deliberately and with care will betray 
lore fully their analytical knowledge of 
'riting than when writing hurriedly ; and a 
ifiicicntly extended examination and a better 
understanding of Mr. Whittaker's knowledge 
and power for executing writing, might con- 
vince us fully that all the exceptions we have 
mentioned were the reasonable and proper 
result of an unusual care exercised, united 
with an effort to disguise his ordinary hand 
in the note of warning; or it might convince 
us that they are manifestations of skill quite 
beyond the power of Mr. Whittaker to ex- 
ercise, and. therefore, that he could not have 
written the note of warning. 

We would say that while the preponder- 
ence of evidence, as manifested in the writing 
and opinion of experts, is largely against 
Whittaker, yet in view of the fact that Mr. 
Gaylor found several marked peculiarities in 
the note, not in harmony with his No. 8 
and its duplicates, and that Mr. Paine 
did not on his firat examination find any 
one piece of writing sufficiently (conspic- 
uous in its resemblances to the note to war. 
rant an identification, and that Mr. South- 
worth actually found in the writing of another 
cadet resemblance sufllcient to lead him to 
pronounce it identical with the note of warn- 
ing, and the numerous discrepances mentioned 
in our own report and alluded to above, cer- 
tainly, so far as the expert testimony goes, 
leaves ground for a reasonable doubt favor- 
able to Whittaker. The question naturally 
arises, con these doubts he cleared up by the 
experts ? We think that they can. It will 
be borne in mind that, with the exception of 
Mr. Southworlh, all the work of the experts 
has been done, as it were, blindfolded and 
under circumstances prescribed. We think 
that if all the experts engaged in the case 
could come together as a council or board and 
examine their work under such circumstances 
OS they would direct, that they could reach a 
definite conclusion and sustain the same with 
facts and reasons that would be conclusive 
with all unprejudiced minds. 

»iiy tl 



^- ^^s^^m^ ^^^ 

Should an Expert be B«tained. 

We lifTirtily coincide with an opinion re- 
c<mtly exi>r«wf(i by Surrogate Calvin, of this 
city, that in all cases wherein expert testi- 
mony i« rcqiiirwi the cxp<Tt should be cm- 
ployed and paid by the court, and l)e regarded 
as a court offlecr. Tliis would be wise, frtt, 
in that it would tend to the employment of 
none but really skilled and reliable esperta, 
inntcad of, us is now often the case, preten- 
tions humbugs; and, nmmdly, there would 
be less liability of partiality or prejudice in 
favor of the side by which they are employed 
and paid. 

Few judges are more favorably situated 
for observing and jud^ng correctly relative 
to the competency of experts, and the value of 
their testimony, than Surrogate Calvin. The 
frequency with which wills are contested 
before him on the ground of forgery and the 
fierceness with which these contests are 
waged, and largely by expert testimony, has 
thoroughly familiarized him with every 
feature of that species of evidence. His keen 
perception enables him not only U> gauge the 
degree of skill and intelligence of an expert, 
hul also the degree of fairness wilh which his 
testimony is given. 

At pn-sent experts are employed, paid, and, 
■o far HS is possible, influenced by the party in 
whose l)ehalf they are to testify, and fre- 
quently manifest all the energy and strategy 
of an attorney, magnifying and distorting 
facta upcm their side of the ca.'te, while they 
withhold or belittle every fact favorable to the 
odverse side. 

It should be the sole purpose of an expert 
to present impartially, to court or jury, the 
entire tnUh which he may discx>ver concern- 
ing any (jucation about which he is called 
upon to testify as an expert, to the end that 
exact justice may be done. 

No expert should permit himself to he 
Tfiaijied in the sense in wliich an attorney is 
retained, viz., for the purpose of making the 
most of and winning a case, right or ivrong. 

Extreme care and caution should he ex- 
ercised by an expert, that any conclusion that 
he may reach is well founded, as he should 
be ready to show, by clear, strong, and con- 
vincing reasons; but should it at any time or 
in any stage of an investigation appear that 
an important mistake has been made, there 
should not be the slightest hesitancy about 
correcting the same, even though it involve 
an entire change of opinions, and uecesBarily 
of position from one side of the case to the 
other, and subject the witness, as it usually 
does, to all the base, mean, and false insin- 
uations of treachery or mercenary motives, 
which a knavish attorney can imagine or in- 
vent. An expert should never lose sight of 
the fact that his duty is that of an honest, 
impartial investigator ; a judge rather than an 
advocate; and that he is to simply state facts 
as they appear to him, regardless of their 
bearing upon any side of the case; he should 
know no client or antagonist. 

When the services of an expert are sought, 
he should, so far as is possible, avoid know- 
ing the circimifllHuccs or the relations of the 
parly asking his opinion lo the case. The fee 
for the examination and opiniim should, as a 
rule, be paid in advance, and. by an explicit 
understanding, be the same whether the opin- 
ion be favorable or adverse to the party seek- 
ing it. 

The fact that an expert has made an ex- 
amination and given an adverse opinion, 
sliould uot debar him from ^ving testimony 
upon the adverse side of the case should he 
be called upon to do so ; but when such is the 
oise, or when, from the discovery of new 
facts, a previously formed and expressed 
opinion is overthrown and his testimony is 
used by the adverse parly, he should in no 
wise reveal a fact or circumstance bearing 
upon the case which was made known to him 
by Iho opposite parly while in their C()nfi 
dence and service. 

The National Educational Association 
will hold its nineteenth annual session a( 
Chautauqua Lake, N. Y., on July 13. 14, 15, 
and 16. Arrangements have been made with 
neiu-ly all the railroads in the United States 
for large reductions in fare. 

Back Numbers. 

We still have n-mainuig a few of all the 

back numbers of the Jocb-nai. since and in- 

clusive of the September number, 1877, in all, 
thirty-two numbers, which will be sent with 
«(/(i-r the "Lord's Prayer" or "Eagle" sis a 
premium for $2.00; both premiums and the 
"Centennial Pictm-o of Progress" for $2.50. 

How Some Parents Would Teach Writ- 
ing: to Babies. 

Babies should accustom themselves to walk 
tight ropes, n In Blondin. previously to learn- 
ing to creep. Cooks should not follow the 
directions given for dressing a hare, — "First 
catch your hare," as it will be easily enough 
cavight after it is dressed. Be sure to furnish 
your house before it is built, as you may not 
have sufficient funds to do so afterward. If 
you arc to walk a long distance, be sure to 
walk the last half first, as otherwise you may 
be so fatigued as to render its accomplish- 
ment extremely difficult. 

These sage remarks are suggested by "others, 
equally wise, emanating from parents, re- 
garding the manner of teaching writing to 
their offspring — mere infants that should not 
have left the nursery until wiser than their 
parents. Complaints are made that their 
babies do not write with that degree of 
freedom usually seen among adults whose 
business calls for continual use of the jien in 
rapid wTiting, and advice is given that the 
forearm movement be first taught, and beau- 
tiful forms will then spring up spontaneously, 
and the baby will write "like a little man, so 
he will." 

I believe no one douljts that freedom of 
movement in writing is desirable, but I know 
of no teacher of penmanship but thinks form 
should take precedence in learning to write, 
and that no child of five years of age can 
comprehend the object of muscular or com- 
bined movement and make it available in 
forming letters of which he has but the crudest 
conception ; and yet about ten per cent, of 
parents who despoil the nursery to annoy the 
school expect a special miracle wrought for 
their baby. N. B. — I don'tcensurc the baby. 

NESS College TBAcnEM* and Penmen's As- 
sooiATioN will be held in Chicago, Tuesday, 
July S7th inst., and last three or four days. 
Delegates from the various Business Colleges 
in the United States and Canada will be in 
attendance. The meeting iivill discuss the 
best means to advance the cause of practical 
education. Each evening during the period 
of the meeting will be occupied by a populi 
lecture on a subject of interest to the business 
community. A cordial invitation is extended 
to all co-workers to attend. 

A. P. KooT, Cleveland, Ohio.) 

Tnos. E. Hill, Chicago. III.. -Ex. Com. 

U. B. Bryant, " ' ) 

Omaha, May 27tli, 1880. 
Kd*y*»M Prnman'n Art J'/uriuii: 

I see by the Jlay number of the Joubna: 
that you have discontinued the book-keeping 
department. Whether this is absolute, dat- 
ing from that issue, leaves me to concludi 
and T am of the opinion that it has referenc 
only to new matter, not to the exclusion o 
subjects already before your readers. With 
put upon your meaning, I 

shall endeuvur to ahuw '* what is wrong." If 
I have misconstrued your announcement, you 
only have to cast this into the waste basket 
and uo ill feelings will be harbored, and the 
aders of the Jodknal will never know what 
a terrible calamity they have escaped by the 
timely interference of friends. 
Book-keeping is the science and art of keep- 
g a correct record of all business trausac- 
ms. To this end all systems of book-keep- 
ing aspire, The system that is shortest, 
iple, and gives a complete history of every 
transaction is the system that will be in de- 
mand. I wish to say that, although I made 
d journal entry in sending the problem to 
your paper, yet I do not use the Journal in 
lactious of this kind. I made the Journal 
entry in order that all might understand the 
proper distribution of debits and credits. I 
pronounce the first entry sent wrong, because, 
in referring to Bingham's account in the 
Ledger, we find that he has only purchased 
$500, instead of $2,500 worth of merchandise. 
When a statement of a customer's account is 
rendered, it should be (and always is in busi- 
ness) made to show a complete history of the 
transaction, giving the total purchase, the 
amount and nature of the payments; then 
the difference will show the true balance. 
This should be the case with a Ledger ac- 
count of which the statement is only a coun- 
terpart. If the balance only is shown in a 
statement, the customer may dispute it on 
the ground that he never bought any such 
bill of goods. 

Statements from our books should tally 
and check with the books of our customer. 
When the balance only is rendcnit n- i -riii 
ment, the customer is confrontc<l ^^ 
that are entirely strange to him .m.: 
to confuse and bewilder him, uiilr.-.- h. k. . [■•■ 
his books in the same impractical wjiy of re- 
cording balances. 

It appears strange to some that we can dis- 
pense wilh the Journal and yet preserve an 
equality of sides. 

I am using a system of book-keeping {the 
Complete Accountant) that ignores the Jour- 
nal to that degree that the student forgets that 
he ever had occasion to use it or that such a 
book is in existence. All sales of merchan- 
dise (nothing else) are entered in the '-Sales 
Book." If unpaid, the party owing is debited 
in the Ledger, postmarking the L. F. in the 
Sales Book and the page of the S. B. in the 
Ledger. In disposing of the problem sent to 
the JornNAL the sale is entered in the S. B., 
and Bingham charged in the Ledger with 
$2,500 ; this gives a debit and credit when the 
footing of S. B. is posted to the credit of mer- 
chandise. Enter the note in Bills Received 
iKwk and credit Bingham with $800 in the 
Ledger, obtaining the debit when the footing 
of B. R. book is posted to the debit of Bills 
'Received. Enter the cash on the Dr. side of 
0. B. crediting Bingham with $1,200 in the 
Ledger, receiving the debit when the footing 
of cash is posted. By this method Bingham's 
Ledger account shows a complete history of 
the transaction and no journal entry is neces- 
sary, and yet double entry has been preserved. 
I claim that any entry is impractical that 
does not render the Ledger accotmt in such 

shape that a thorough and complete statement 
can be made therefrom. In regard to our 
method, the whole theory is based upon the 
principle that gave rise to the Cash Book. 
The footings of the different books, which in 
the mind of the learner is a debit or a credit, 
posted at the end of every mouth. There 
other nice points about this system that 
would require too much space here to explain, 
therefore I will ask all who arc not prejudiced 
to send to O. M. Powers, Chicago, and pro- 
cure a book and learn its practical methoila 
and the new departure in the science of ac- 
counts. Hoping T have proved to the satis- 
faction of Mr. Frazcr "what is wrong," I am 
very truly yours. Geo. R. Rathbun, 
Principal <i. W. B. C. 

J. B. Morgan is special teacher of writing 
in the schools of East Hampton, Mass. 

Capt. John L. Tyler is still teaching writ- 
ing in the schools of Fort Wayne, Ind. 

G. J. Amidon continues to win favor as 
teacher of writing at the Pittsfield (Mass. ) 
Commercial College. 

C. L. Ricketts is teaching writing in the 
public schools and the University at Athens. 
Ohio. At the same time he is pm-suing a 
classical cnnrse in the University. 

T'\\- ■"<■■'■ !l r.i \|.il! liiis an extended and 

' ' ' iiiicle to Prof. Frank 

I iliL- Nashville, Tenn., 

l>.M ■ ' "il: 'inodman is a live, 

•itLiii \ '""^ "■■'■'. 'ii"^ l'''^ done nmch during 
tlic p;ist yc'ai' tu awaken public interest in 
writing and practical education. 

F. P. Prcuitt, who is still teaching wrilin^' 
at Fort Worth, Texas, f«rwards a set of gnicc- 
ful off- 1 land capitals. 

J. M, IMiluiii. tcacliiT of writing in the 

publii ■-. li . J- I I I.. I, II, Iowa, sends a pack- 



writing at Spragnc's 
•. Norwttlk, Ohio, 
cuted specimens of 

f ■ I ' ipal of the OtuinWa 
(lo\\.\ l; . I _, , f.irwanis specimens 

of .' I liincy cords, and a 

speciiiii Fi 1 ii , 'i I. mil nourishing. 

S. ( < lii|.rniM I', iiriiiiii at Baylies' Busi- 
ness (.'<(lli-gi-, Ixiiiiniui-, liiwa, sends an artin- 
tic specimen of pen drawing and lettering 
in form of a greeting to the jiatrons of that 

Some elegant -|>. . i;i,r n- . .f ['. .■irl-lili;_' ■■ ■! 
writing have hf i> ■ : !■ . r n f ' 

wield the pen, lu i i.i ■. i,,.i W ,, ,■ . .i i.', ■ 1 -. ■■ 
ness College. Uikuu .s^u^i^ ai.J lUh .-:. . 


F. \K. Willinnis. Pririci 
riniiKiiftlly projiiKTtjUs. 

Till- Kixtt'(_-iitli annivcntiir^ a,„, i.>>iiiiiii-ii<,<;- 
ii'nl will lic celebrated by tbv Bryant. Strat- 
II iiiid S«(Ilpr Baltimore (Md.) BujtiiK-fwCol- 
fSS' on JuiK- 24, at tlie Acudciuy of Mtiiic. 

wn the Hudttoii on May 22d. 
I tiiiinkfi for the invitution to be 
nd rt-jfrt'l tliftt c-ircuii)8tiit)C('t) \ 
■ doing so. The pi 

(.- and hos- 
rely excelled. 

ixmis-.s i.n- iiH-iilioiicI l.y ih.' Wtishington 
prctw iw being unuHually liUercHling, nnd 
hiflily (TodiUibk' to tlic inrtitiition. 

wlin-ls wliirli Imvc hitciv Ijccii ncl-.i-li'd f..r )i 
icrni Of tlveyearein tbe 8t«t« of Miniu-sota. 
Tlii-y art' nlso having ii large sale in the Nortli- 

Thisworkisunnirsiilh coikkI d I \ lli [ r -. | r fi^ i «ul ptnmen and artists 
generally to bt the nio-it comprcheiisivt practical and artistic guide to ornanieiitiil pen- 
manship ever published Stnt postpaid to anj address on receipt of $4 50 or as a 
premium for a club of twelve aubscribers to the Journal 

The above cut rcprcstiits the title pti(.t of the work T\bich is H \ 14 m si/e 

of Jnlict, III. Business C\)|lcge 

■ in enjoviiig on uiinRiial degn'e 

The Dail}/ Nfw» pays lilm the 


I' ' i\ riKinilis in luiy other 

■ - III', Till' work of bis 

iiipjui .1 with i)tiier8 having 

to tin- profeaaor'B ability, aiul 
those entnisted to bis charge. 

Stokes Automatic Pen. 
\\i- Mv ind<'l)tnl to IJ. W. Child, agi-iit. fi4 
Fcdcnl Si., IIosloii, Mass., for saiiipli-s of 
tliiw pens which we find to work very satis- 
riK-riirily. A stroke made with them 
pr.jdureaat oncea dark line, with a shade 
which imparts a novel and plcusing clTect to 
hru-ring or writing. 

Vanderbilt'B Wealth. 
»\ hen llicliisi iimirler's checks for interest 
"II llir •I.p,r.<vnt hi.iids weie sent out the first 
■>I this in<»i(li. Williimi II. Vaiiderbilt had 
r<-j;inliTed in his name 4.iH'r-cent bonds to the 
amount of $31,000,000. Since tbut timetherr 
hiw been received from Vanderbilt, for rcgis- 
Inititm in his naiiu*. 4-per-ecnt bonds to the 
amount of »20,000,000, winch makes tiim at 
this lime the owner of $50,000,000 of tlmt 
clim of bonds. It is reported here that il is 
Mr. Vamlerbilfs puri«»«' to invenl in 4.])(r. 
e<nl boiuls Ibe money which lie will n-c-iivt- 
ill II few dayn in a final setllemeiit for the 
New York C!eiitnd Ilallmad stock sold to the 
syndicjite. The increasing iMipuIarily of tbia 
class of bonds is shown by ibe fact that a 
large number of [hem are being received daily 
by llie Hegister of the Treusur)' fniin siimil 
holders for transfer. It is said' that if Van- 
dvrbilt should sell all his Central stuck he 
could become the owner of $100,000,000 <.f 
Goveniment lionds, or aliout one-fourteenlh 
of all then- luv in existence. As il la. be owns 
more than one ninn ever heldagninst tbisGov. 
eriunent. and amounts to as much as the en - 
tin- annual exin^nses of the Government sour- 
yeaw Ik-fort; the war. The checks for intertiii , 
every ninety days will amount to over $500,- 
000. or over $5,000 a day.- Washington Cor. 
Intfr Oeran. 

TuK OLD, OLD STOKT— A youiig gentlenmo 
bappening to sit at church in a jiew adjoining 
one which a young lady occupied for whom 
bf tntuct-ived a sudden and violent pas»OD. 
was desirious of entering into a couitship od 

the spot, and the exigency of the case sug- 
gested the following plan: He poUtely banded 
his fair neighbor a bible ojien with a pin 
stuck in the following text— second epistle of 
.John, verse liflh : " And now I beseech thee, 
l.iih IK. I i-ilj,.;mii I iMuu- a new command- 
■'■■'■ '■ ! i II wliich we had in tbe 

' ""c another." She 

" ' ' I '■ - I ' liic second chapter of 

Uiiih, ^om iiNili: Then she fell on her 
Jacc and bowed herself to the ground and 
said unto him, why have I found grace in 
thine eyes, seeing that I am a stranger:-" He 
returned tbe book, pointiug to the thirteenth 
verse of the third epistle of John : " Having 
many things to write unto you. I would not 
wnte with paper and ink, but I trust to come 
unto you and speak face to face." From the 
above interview a marriage took place. 



SiQXOK Daiiio Mazzei, stenographer to 
tbe Italian Senate, has invented a niachim- 
which claims to reproduce a speech in tbe or- 
dinary printed characters as rapidly as it is 
spoken, a word of several syllables being re- 
corded by a single touch of the keys. The 
Michela machine, shown at the Paris Exhibi. 
tion, bad the disadvantage of requiring the 
transcriptions of its relief characters into or- 
diuary writing, or at least an acquaintance 
with the former by compositors.— (?tfy(^r•« 


Reversible Writing Books. 

I, D C 

I. 1873 

l«toat fur Imtbo 

H K. PAISK, Cum. ot 
Thlive TuKhert. SdioU Offietrt and thf PuMk. 



AuUiOr, InvuoKir, Kub'llalii- 

Pro BanoPv, 

Addrew, H. w. ELLSWORTH, 




IB '*iLo*ia™*"*"f ' ."' "oo'^-kcoiiing. This 

bJJS" o"'"™'"'"' """■'•""•'P'nir ^''« 

BRYaNT, Buffalo, : 

An Inttrument of Inf$timable Value 

every I}raught«man. 

Tbe accompaaylDg cat repreienia Uie bud nil) 

m>-DB of ruling sua #badlu0, pboloeugreved (l[r< 

draritng [ 

18 rapidly attl 

Bd. by 


:. O. SnxON-, tUnsom. Pa. 



Recommended by leading penaiPQ u.» jupenor to 
Oivo tbem a Trial. 

dot;' \lZTd. "^^li^^ZT '"^- -^'"'"* 

Send Btamp fbr prlc«a he/ow ordcrlog ^mhm. '^"" 

UDlled 3Ut«a 



WIdfBr k Ntwton'6Biiper6up. /iid.'luk.priHc 
1 doioa oz. boltlea fuicy colored Ink bodi by o 
Walu,lijk/porbVuie,'by%VpmV '''■.'".'.'.".'! ■ 

Prepared India iDk. per bsltif, by exprcM 

■ Favui 

nNo. : 

- leiiL-riuK, perdiE... 
y Qdo, fur drawiuK, p 

Jugdoo-B Nofmat sjin«in uf "PlouVliiiiu'g '. 
otb FlourlBblogBDdLc'ticriug..,, 



i« money. 

l^pvDcerUu Compendium 
BiickboardB, by ex'p 
2 *-'2Jii3H " " 

B, atiy Icngili. per'yud. 

ilaieduo boW BWea,'."",' 
iw. tor wuVs orwoodun 

I pOBlago for aampl«i 

|V"0T1CE-— To pupils In ibe Public or CummoQ Scbix,!. 
Dlr«;t to W. p. COOPER, KlogovHle, AabUbuU cmioty, 

Uitof PcDiniu'g Supplies Mailed fur il ceiils 
I ID PotlQge SliuipK; 

Ooarialiiog. aometbmg ulegaut and mwurly .^^"cto. 

16 Muu. AUdrtaa J MADAJiAsZ,' wm* pVot'c*"!' 
OaaivU, lluiclieai«r,X. U. 13^'2l 



Superior Writing 


Wrlllng. Copying, SfHrkIng, Indelible 

BCAmplng, Japan, Slylograplile, 

Sympatbrtlr, Gold, Silver, 

White and Transfer 



Embracing Fluldn. niiu*l(,UKn'uwi, VIoIaI Blac 

Alling's Japan Ink, 

Attorda a 

I rlchiT 

greater contlaaii^ 
The must nmlU tani ctattorat* nouriabm cao be eic 
cgU»t ihrrcwfth, wllliuut brenkluK tbt iwrfi-ct flow u( 

Uualc, CuuiroKt mid Dixplay Wrllliig. 

Alling's Gold, Silver & White Inks, 

FU.W fn-rly. f.'inl.Tlnu tt«- liKhti-sl etrokeB [wrffrlly 

pluyud lu Pi-Q f li>urlBlilog, VlsitlQK, ITii:!.' or Pliuw Curd 


fully roHlattttbe action offroNl. 


Japan Ink, per plal bottlo by Eipresd SI 00 

Gold or SllVur Ink, a ounce bolllo by Express . . 60 

AsstfU'd OolorB' 1 OK. botUea, pL-f boulo, " ' '.'.'.'. 15 
2 ox, " " '- '' 20 

Penman*!! Ink Cabinet, No< !• 

I'RICB, $2.00. 

CunUliistbo tolliiwiiig iDKs: 1 oi botilo oacUof Japuu, 
Ciiruiino, Blud, Violut, Urecu, Contnut-Carmtup, Scarkt, 
Murcuuillu, tteiv D'ack. 

a oz botdo Waite Ink, and K "■ botite of both Gold 


nbinet No. 3. 



■, Rocbi's 


JcrMcy City Business College. 

2;) aud JS Newirk avenuo. JurBoy Ciiy, N.J. 

G. A. Ox'^HKLL, Principal. A. E.SrtPUKxaon, Sccroniry. 

Bryant & Stratton College, 

Cor MojUieaWr and Elm sirueis, Jk 1 PrlnclpalB. M»ncDe.t«r. N. H. 

Clp-ulnri vt bulh /r« for alamp. 6-tr 


^P£CIilSN C 

H. BABLOW, DtfouratlvO'Artl^l aud Peii- 
. luun, -ivb Broailwuy. Iiistructloa glvou In Drawing, 
lor Color and Oil Painting. Also sketching from 
>uro ObjMts, LandBCapDS, or tbo Uoniui) Figure. Ur. 

1 ditr>n'out ciujiguB, f[ 
5 Broadway, i 

P'U'flounsttiM], $1. Sample, 

IMK~A GoKcotlon of ovor 100 valuftblo rool|ii-s for Inks 
ufall kinda.ttud tor alt purposes, Inoludiug Qluasy- 
Black, Wbiio aud all ootoroof Writing Inks (lududlag 
Arnold's WrlllOB Fluid). BlaoK Postmarking and Chnool- 
linjlnk'.lodollhlu mul Symoalhollc Inks, Drawing aud 

Oouoiy...\. V 


pOR Oa OESIS I will sc 

H. W. MIUJiR, 

INK" -*' '"'"^'■* f"-" '^^ col^M'Qc 
iJ.1 rV.. sliver. \vhiti>, iudollble) mailud f 
Swmp# uiken. W. SWIJT, Uorlouvlllu 

udiOK gold. 


'Citi,;^./ *' 


i-1ARD WRirERS—Glllan 
1^ Tur.oi'«r corner a 
CABD CO.. lao Wllllom St 

pecialiy. BEVEL EDGE 

gOMEnmiO JWft--24 TUraorw 

Bevel EJge 

-CEND 24 CB.STS for 12 
KoJeral Si , Bw.ton, Miaa.** 


iho world 

W'*^3*.? SITUATION -Wantod a poa.iion, by 
or I'ublii; Scboila to i«ach I'eamamtilp, Book -kou plug and 
Atllbmollc luquir* of PLATT B. 8PENCEB, Spau- 
oorlanBuameas College, Cloreland, OHIO. Ju 

7 HOBABT ST., VriCA, N. Y. 

:. lie., 

engrossed at from Two 


I faciltly for ibe rapid 

Corrcspondoace solit iiud , 


EBtimutes fur any proposea piece given on application. 
KibbefH CouvMc ol Infttraclion in 


— BV .^TLAIL,. 

A series of fifteen lessons in Plain Writing. FlouriBhlng, 


isliing for 2Gc. Engraved spcclui(?u9 


Penman's Companion. 

K1BBE*S imPBOVED 'f »j<ti;ARE. 

I equally w.-ll 

Our (acuities lor doing engrossing rapidly and liand- 
•'•rnidv enable us to do sucb work, wboly or In pari, for 
TYarot ng Penmen and othera wboae lime is otherwise 
occupied, al such rates as will leave them u Btuali muraiu 
oud give Ibeir cuatomere entire aailsfacllon. Our olRoc 

Photo and Photo-Lithographs 

c:\^^sv\<m '^^\.SK w.»»ss. 

/< j.-ti:<:l=l:l.l.l!*|:-» 

n Series of 


'^^opc/iARsrm Pf/vs/A/ use "■ 

Tlie nVHoss 


3SrO. 536 F£:.A.RIL. SXKBE T, OORlNrER. EX.I»a;, 

John C. Moss. Siipt. New York, 

the Improveil jir r, o;! by bim, which U greatly superior to the old. The lints iire »ery much 

deeper and thu cusl ui pruauLiiuu much less. 






Book-keeping Is by far the most praetUal, thorough and coiMorehcuBlvi 

" .. . . ,„ygj, 

i[)ts at pblloaophialng 

a Ihirly of the beat colleges in i 

, It, lb., subji.c 


Retail, Wholesale, Farming, Commission Lumbering, Manu- 
facturing, Railroading, Steamboating and Banking. 

1,13.50 Sample vopj 


Contains 184 pages, devoted lo the rudlrnoniB, and Retail and WliokPalo Mercbaiidlsnig. PrceiBoly the tbiug 
Norm*! und HigliSf.hools, and Commercial Di-parlmcnifl. Relall, $l,r.O, B^.ruple fur ,;x^imin«tloQ, 76 cents. 


ir>l and 153 State Street, rblcago. 

drcM plainly, 












('oiiimuii School Book-kecpiDg. 

il.,l)r,.clog Si«sk «,»! D„.,t,U E„n. .,ii,l ...l.,,!,-,] lo In 



L'ouiitiog House Book-keeping. 

Ivison, Biakeman. Taylor & Co., 



make aspeclaltyof designing and executlU({ 



Ami-NerTons TriaDEolar 



asL-d by all 
8 being the 
cramping o 

the Angers 

30 (lays. Sample duz 
ross by express. S3.00 

list, seat upon rcceip 
oxen poubolders arc or< 

n post-paid, 
edge Cards 

N. E. CABD CO.. 

Xl. 186ft Families, Schools, Colleges promoU" li 

t., near University Plane, 

'Sest Known. EsTABUSHED.ia24. 


Ol «ui>erior CIVnLISII i 
■ iigt Sent by mail oi 

dif 111) Grand i 


fir nm I 

sH'^' / 

F-iilDlislied. J^oxLtlilyj at 205 Bar-oacL-^way, for ®1.00 jiex* "X'eax". 

■' Entered at tlie Poit Office of JVeie Ttrrk^ N. Y,, a* wamd-ctoju matter." 

XEW YORK. JULY. 188(). 

VOL. IV. NO. 7. 

D. T. A, HEN, 

1'(MinNi>l eiveu SM Expert ou Hnndwrillng. 

206 RroaUwny. Ni w York. 


iPfnl •« 01 Sj. ncorluii Ccpy Ik 




ThurouffU iDBin 

A: STItA'rrON 



B, 1118 » lutnsi,,Pbll 

dpllilim. I'ft 

,"'"" '°j.'':'.'Si"p™ 



W. II. MADl^ER, Prv 




(V>l>y-Book Kill! i>vi>r. Bird nrnt P«n PloiirbOtlDg, 

vnt-.i ISili^triTi. Xi- w York. 





A Nib at Pens. 

1I bo thy point, 

It'll}- slDRlnt 

u roll) 'a biMh ar« piuud Ihw «r)0|ilDK. 

—Xrt Otgood. 

Notwitliiataiultiig the wsc fnr iiiimy cen- 
turies of ix'iis of some kiiul, the now very 
extensively niimnfHcttircd steel peiia, in am 
notJtltU' nppiVMch townrd perfoclion, wen- 
unknown uuiil. in lS;j'i. Joseph Qillott of 
BlmiitiL'ii im I".-, 11 hi- improved making of 
them. r. i I 1. 1 1: ^^ <- iioi uHtU iihout 1820 
thiH -li ' 1' » i> I -uliirlv produced at all 
inmiv ..>M-iihi it.l. .lu.uitities. At that time, 
too. tlu-ir tirsi inaimliicinnT. James Perry, 
found the prvun.-** slow and expensive ; for. 
after iwyinjt seven shillings a pound for the 

tal. wliini was steel rolled out of 

the first nnm he employed five shil- 

fuiKS for making each pen, and even after bis 
business had been establishtti for some vcan, 
he paid his workmen as high as thirty-stx 
shillings per grow. Xow sieel pens of pretty 
fair quality can be made and sold at a prom 
for only thr\'e eenta a gnws. 

As regards the oiigin of the steel pen, 
.-.1-! .._. -n - ore informed, how- 

pen was made in 

Holland, about the middle of the Seventh 
century ; and, also that toward the close of 
the lost wntury Sir. Harrison of Birming- 
ham made steel pens for Dr. Priestly. But 
they were mere tubes turned out of a flat 
piece of steel, with the sides and points filed 
away into the shape of pens. So far back as 
160D steel pens, fashioned by band, turned 
and Hied, were made oa curiosities or luxuries 
for presents. 

The rude pens of Harrison, which were 
also tiio kind manufactured by Perry, were 
for a time made in a humble way by tiillott; 
but at last he superceded them with his own 
superior article. After long and persevering 
effort, he succeeded in giving to the present 
steel pen its invaluable elasticity by means of 
two processes: first cutting side slits in ad- 
dition to the center slit — before his improve- 
ment the one solely in use ; second, the cross 
grinding of the points. 

In 1872 Mr. Oillott employed over 450 
hands, and turned out pens to the great 
amount of five tons per week. In this coim- 
Iry there iin- (.'Mcii-*ivc factories for the man- 
nfactnr.' -l h.i |.i n-.. chief among which 
len, New Jersey 


l>;illv depends upon 
-.-. ■m.ide in New 

nlo general use, we seldom see the good 
'gray goose quill" of quaint, historic, pleas- 
mt, ami riiimmlic iiH'innries. the favorite pen 

if our l"i. I ill I ~ ^^ 1,1. n irc dignified white 
vigs, lin.ii ,\ 11 ■■ ii-^ 111(1 silk stockings 
'liispeil i' ,\iiii shining silver 

luckle-; , Mr |M .i ..I.,, I, ill;,- their dre.'w, had 

ul .l«-li 

have occupied in the days of 
ideal position than can possibly be attained 
by its practical successor. It was the pen of 
Chaucer, Shakespeare, and Milton, and the 
other old poets, and doubtless in the dim 
middle a^es the old monks used it, as they 
sat in their bare cells year after year, labor- 
iously copying the sacred scriptures, and filling 
in the broad margins of the sheets of their 
manuscript with artistic designs, carefully 
traced in variegated colors that formed a rich 

It is ->;ii,i 111 ii ,,iii\ i\M l\r rears ago, a late 
judge in * '. i.iinrrourtsnf West- 

minster^' : 1 ' lit i) the introduction 

"ftliesh. , i ; I iii(. quill into the 

sacred pn.. ;;.a. .4 Uu i^ueen's bench, that 
be was fully persuaded that this daring and 
sacrilegious innovation would he the means 
<if bringing about the destruction of British 
liberty, and the downifall of the British na- 
tion. Great authors, lawj'ers, and merchants 
were also so prejudiced against the steel pens 
that for a long lime they utterly refused them in 
place of the beloved ijuiU. Do not these facts 
"litnv hiuv (irrp ,i hold upon the affections of 
1'- iHrtv wiv iii.iiiiiiuned by this faithful and 
||>| !■ II' I'M Think you that men would so 
ii'inii: III, ;:ii[i::-liy of the steel pen. should 

phice ' 

When our gnmdfathers went to school, a 
bundle rif quUis was a very necessary part of 
the outfit of each student," and not the least 
of valuable n-tiuisitions in a country school 
teacher was that he should be a rapid and ex- 
pert shnper of quills into pens ; for the teacher, 
with a little penknife, generally had to make 
pens for all his scholars, and "when, as was 
sometimes the case, he had to prepare fifty or 
sdxty quills to lie used on that very day or 
the next, it was important, in view of his 
many other pressing duties, that he shotUd be 
able to perform this task quickly. 

It is thought that the earliest approximation 
to a pen was the stylus, a kind of iron bodkin; 
but so fatal did it prove in many quarrels that 
the Romans forbade its use, and a similar in- 


A good deal has been written about pen- 
manship. The desirability of good, plain 
chirography in the performance of certain 
kinds of business is unquestionably great. It 
is almost absolutely necessary that bonk- 
kecpers and those who write in the books 
containing town records, &c. , should be able 
to do such work ncjitly aud legibly. And in 
all cases, if penmanship was plain, it would 
he better, and would save much time and 
perplexity and 

division the pupils should he required to write 
on their slates as much of their reading les- 
son as they have time. The teacher should, 
at each lesson, write the first verse ou the 
board for a model and require it copied as 
nearly m they will be able to do it. Then 
much more to this as they 

sistant effort, can iiii 

and this is all thai i~ i 

The having to (!< 

9 apt to rendei 


writing that under ordinary circumstances 
would be e.\cellent. The best kind of chi- 
rography to possess is that which enables one 
to write very rapidly and yet at the same 
time quito plainly. It has been stated that a 
rapid penman can write 30 words in a min- 
ute. To do this he must draw his pen 
flir-.-ifli ti,r> <^.yH-v of one rod— ie| feet; in 

I I'll. ii'- ... M tniveis a furlong, and in 

W'c make ou an average 
I' ' I III the lien in writing each 

■.■. I I- ^\i,'Mi_ :;(! woras In a minute, we 
iiiUMi uiiike ei'-lit to each second; in an hour, 
2«,800 ; in a day of only five hours. 144,000; 
year of 300 days. 43,200.000. In making 

di lei 

rof theurdii 

.•ill h;i 

si'".' / ;iii(i r4ij}ittiluittion, (tc. 

Till \ ;; I .i Ml 111 iii- LTraded, giving them BC- 
I'lM ' Mills from 1 tolO;any- 

thniL' Ilk, ' ,ir, i, "ms9, unclean slates and 
eruokid lines lo diHcount the grade. The 
second divisiou may write with lead pencils 
and pen. They should be given good copies 
to iuutate, he required to copy notes, letters, 
&c., and be expected to read the teacher's 
and each other's writing. Much of their geo- 
graphy and arithmetic work should be writ- 
ten. The idea is to familiarize them with 
the use (if tlie pen, and the eiisy, rapid nuin- 

detected hy close 

cliirn>rriipliy. It may be said llnH mWivlilii.-ih 
'. h ■ A III, a remarkably even hand are apt to 

I more than ordinarily amiable dis- 

iini generally an equable tempera- 

1 the leti 

position, and perhaps a very lillle shading. 
They should have a regular drill each day, 
known as the " writing lesson." The previous 
divisions will not participate in this. Their 
writing must all be done in connection with 
other studies, hut should be observed and 
corrected all the same. The third division 
sliuiil.! hand specimens of their writing once 
' M,..i.iii III 111' i,;icher to record their im- 
' \hibit to parents and 
1 1 1,1 also have in addition 

I III i._i II ^iiiiiii,' drill, much of their 

son.s. The ability to execute flue, graceful 
flourishes, pen drawing, and the like is a very 
fine accomplishment, but the common schools 

ness, and resohitit 
vigorous hand writ 
ing marked trait 

lll.'lillv 'iuilr Mil 

■llil'' Ul 

i-. f.'chni;. and 

eiiiiicr. Men nf 


r ol 

of minds seldom 

vrite a 


Lord Lvtton's 



"The pen is 

mightier than Hk 



probably much 

norc freqii,'iii;\ 

tie majority of 

l:^. the inherent 

truth in il i- - 

■ 1 

iiiwledged and 


large a prDiJ. iti j:i v\ iln. wi^rld's population 
if. fairly educated and is attaining high civil- 
ization, the pen in the hands of the many 
able writers who supply the mighty printing 
press with literary material will become a far 
CTC-ater power than even during the past en- 
lightened century, and the fate of nations, 
and what shall he the forms of future society 
and governments, and the promotion of the 
general well-being of mankind, will undoubt- 
edly be prineipallv under its leading and con- 
trol.— ?V(^ Paptr'Wfrld. 


There are two things comiected with this 
subject that the teacher is expected to do 
proper justice to. First, to teach the pupils 
to rvtrtrf writing, and, second, to teach them 
to ttritf a neat, legible, and business hand. 
The first should \k commenced as soon 
as the child enters school. It should be 
taught to recognize the written letter almost 
as soon as the printed form, and, if it is care- 
fully instructed in the beginning, it will learn 
one as readily as the other. The writers 
should be divided into tliree classes; those 
suited for first and second grades, those pre- 
pared for third and the less advanced fourth 
grades, and thos^ adapted for the more ad- 
vanced fourth and fifth grades. For the first 

Writing and many uses of it arc so famil- 
iar to us, that we do not notice how strange 
they seem to races who know nothiug of them. 
The following story will show what a won- 
derful thing writing must seem in the eyes 
of savage races. A gentleman in Brazil sent 
to a friend a letter and a Imsket of figs, by a 
slave. The bearer kueu nculiini: ;i'i"nt writ- 
ing, and having a likini: fr tiL'-, ii."iii, of 
them. When hereaeh.'l III- ,i, UK- 

have bad something U) do with it, and there- 
fore, when he was again sent with fruit, he 
carefully put the letter under a large stone, 
sat on the stone, and then tasted the fruit. 
To his surprise the letter still told tales, and 
he was whipped as before. So he thought 
the letter must have some wonderful power, 
since it could see through a stone, and be 
never ate the fniit again. — UlmtUrhuT, Lun- 

asked if in his 
been answered, 
replied : ' " Well", sail, c 

some isn't — "pends on Wat you axes to". 
Just arter de wah, w'en it was mighty hard 
scralchin' fo' de cullud breddem, I 'bsarved 
dat w'enebber I pway de Lord to sen' one o' 
Marse Peyton's fat turkeys fo'deoleman, dere 
was no notice took of de partition ; but w'en 
I pway dat he would sen' do ole man fo' de 
turkey, de matter was 'tended to l>efo' sun 

Tbe Aftl«l-Pe»«n""- 

jf brl|Cblo«M •prlng« lo fonn, 
• fit fADcy Imp to Mtwpe 

Ba<lt uprlng lo Ieaf«' ■od to >>1«»"». 
Tb'lr frpshii«<a •pukl<« 'ncclb ton dew 

ThooghKi brwlhc 10 Bhupc, aod speak li 

lnYi^ow wln«d vl«l'«na of ibe bouI 
AT* wooed rrum depth prorouud 

polwid la thp upper «lf "( nilnil 

Willi irlumph liorD or strife f 
Whence l8 ihle Art of Freedom • 
)( Illghl, 


Divine or human Wl: 
From whence his zem 

His Mil's while boMPl 
What word of tarih b 

Whit Implement d-lh 8 
Wh«l wenp'-n mnrk b 
WliBt spirit uulieH III 

iB homegu wE 
s love-child Q 

Lurned lo llghl 

la flight through ell 

lagi lurhlspowei: 
I for bloBBlug rro;n I 

Autograph Writing. 

me jackass I.I say jackass advisedly, be 
caiwe I know what I am talking about, am 
liavc coiisidert'd the whoU- subject ). It rni 
follows : 


ifBlty ■ 

1 said to myself , "you can beat that coii^ 
Biderably, old man. without much exertion. 

I then turned several pages upon which 
nothing had been written. After a while I 
struck another effusion. It ran thus : " To i 
Mtargaret Anne : . 

"May your path through llfu ho strewD with liowi-rs," 

I thought that the writer was wise in ab- 
atainiog from metre. 

The two quotationn 1 have given were in 
the handwriting of men, one beiug in violet 
ink the other in black, but with many flour- 
iahes aud au elaborate Bignnture. 

The question now arose. "In the name of 
all that is wonderful what is the good of young 
ladies obtaining thcsi- sampK-sof Iheir fnends' 
idiocv? Wlmi .' l.;,nit,|Mtheni? Would 

not be beltri i- L ' H,. -^ luii.^'raph writers 

at, instead Mt i irinnuL' ti into the man- 
ufacture of iMmM-iiMar |,>„iiy and senti- 
ment?" In a.i»^v.r l. tlu^ .,at.stion which I 
put to my own superior judgiiient, I received 
the following answer promptly : 

" There is no sense in everyday people, of no 
ecniuB but stupidity, writing autographs, be- 
cause their ideas are not worth five cents ii 
properly expressed, and are worse than worth- 
less if improperly expressed, because they 
are productive of profanity." 

After thinking over the above I fell toturn- 
ine the leaves of this young lady's autograph 
album. The next sample of caligraphy ran 

—this knowledge will be useful, if yon get I 

""^^our verwe is dreadful, Mr. W. N. B. 

MacS.. and your meaning (if you have any) 
I so vague tliat the 'prince of darkness' himself 

(who'iB considered rather knowing) could not . 

make it out. Never write any more aulo- 
I graphs— they are bad for the following rea- | 

I "They waste your time (if you are f mnk 
you will admit it); they do not advance your 
agricultural interests by raising the price of 
oats, or by preventing bay from being a light 

Tlicse samples will show tbe way I felt about 
I tbe autograph business, and the promptness 
which I displayed in voting against it. It may 
have been ill-bred to mark my disapproval by 
scratching all over a book which was the pro- 
perty of a friend (and that friend a lady) : but 
my nature is principally made up of frankness 
^ sincerity, so it is utterly impossible for 
me to do anything which I do not mean, and 
I give little" thanks to any one who asks or 
expetits me to do it. 

Let me explain that when I duly returned 
the album to its fair owner (red bair is called 
fair, now-a-days), she was mad at me. bbe 
was so mad tiiat she would not speak to me 
for quite a while. 

This state of things I was surjinscd at. and 
deeply deplored, f pointed out that I had 
only stated facts. She seemed mad to think 
that they were facts. I also departed from 

General Oarfleld's Speech 


The following is tbe speech in full of Gen. 
Garfield at tbe dedication of the soldiers' 
monument at I',iiiu-s villi.. Ohio. .T.ily 3. 1880: 

Fellow Cm/K.N- I > n i '^i i^fspond 

1 such un occasi.'ii :_ '' ii :i monu- 

(Applauae and clun- W n,'. 1 I rive list- 
ened to what my trund Ims s^u.i. i wo ques- 
tions have been sweeping through my heart. 
One was, " What does the monument mean:'" 
and the other, "What will the monument 
teach ?" Let me try and ask you for a mo- 
ment to help me to answer what does the 
monument mean ? Oh, tbe monument means 
a world of memories and a world of deeds 
and a world of tears and a worid of glories. 
You know, thousands know, what it is to 
offer up your life to the country, and that is 
small thing, as every soldier knows. Let 
• put the question to you for a moment. 

I fell uiJiddi'i 111 tlii« jnr-ldis^ than at any of 
tlie others, iM-rni-r if n' inim d.u-s steal kisses 

(thev are thi i\ ilmtLj-^l --iriil, except hats 

aadumbri-lliis u In < .^-i li- kft-p quiet and 
siiv nothing ;.buui il, iii.tLuil nf rubbingit un- 
der even' one's iuhc. coupK-d with the girls 
name from whom be stole them ? 

Bein"' busy I threw this collection of drivel 
amon'^°9ome las! year's house accounts, and 
did not look iit ii iiV;iiii l"r ii week. When 1 
picked it up lb- -<'"n<l liiiK- I commenced at 
the back ami wnrkr.l iMiwiinl, , , 

Tin- l;iwl r;diLT:i|iliitt wn-^ modest— he Used 
■m.,\ (ii'ir 1 ■. I imtL'i' li\' the jingle nf his 

I V '. ' '. ,■ ■ , ! ■!,. iill.iuii li:i<l Ih'^'Ii in his 

I and ill xhrev weelis slir ^wl> a^ imiiJl^ .'.-. 

' This is my experience of writing auto- 
graphs. I consider the practice senseless. It 
is all very well to have a specimen of a 
friend's writing, but to collect drivel from 
every source in a book is idiotic. 

If we have a friend who lives near us, he 
leavei hiarnni It we have ii friend who is 
;„i I,,. ^^ iih - 11- Il III 1- iliiTi fiire. what 
',. ,",., . : . !■ ■, J I, , ' . '.M- us a speci- 

; Ihi 

, four 

a day. 

.1.1.1 have told 
-I happy" ? 

nil uica III »Miii ><u^ iA|....... ... ...V. looked 

over the autographs of those who ■■ had been 

On the first page was the name of the owner 
and till- date upon which she became tbe 
iiH iH T- t > I the next page was the autograph 

The resemblance can hi- ijulckly teen— ^ 
Its hloseom is red, lis k-oves are grteu." 

If I were the young lady I should have 
thought this rather personal, if aot insulting, 
but she did not appear to mind it. I must say 
it was correct in detail, but not flattering, ac- 
cording to my notion. 

Leaving this lop-aided specimen of sweet 
poesy. I hurried to the next autograph. 

It was not in verse— it spoke of the golden 
path of virtue ; with lively recommendationa 
to keep within its hounds. I also considered 
this insulting lo the owner of the album, but 
I would not sjiy a word for anything ; it being 
evidently written by a young man from the 
country beiug generally looked upon as 
■■tli"lii\" wlirii pri'inaturely separated from 

1 irii -L. hul iiiiiiul this album, and it work- 

,.,i „, III ,,M im ihink that I had promised 

,,, , ,i>t,,i,,.!, bosh (thereby giving the 

,„,,■,, ! liiiKiiv people writing auto- 
1 , . iiiiiice aud support), that I 

Ti-, 1 \ lime I thought of it. At 

l:i.[ 1 -.1 -.iN,Liil\ ^lo^vn to make an end of 
the matl.T. 

Would I give the young woman some good 
advice, couched in terms of flattery and ap- 
proval 'i 

Would I jerk sentiment, sweet as molasses, 
and wTitten in violet ink? 

Would I be humorous and scratch some 
sparkling shaft of wit, which would penetrate 
the dullest intellect? 

No. I could not, and would not, do any- 
thing not dictated by instincts of sincerity 
I and truth. 

So I took that album and wrote below each 
autograph the opinion I held of the "scala- 
wag" who wrote it— whether he, or she, was 
male or female. And, when I got through, I 
felt as if T had done something for the worid 

I ' li. l^,^^ ih. iDii-iioiisof the Sentimental per- 

|.,,,,;,,,i 1, III. country I wrote observa- 

- : i, 111 ( changing the wording as 

Dou'i cdiiK' near where there is ink and 
pens again. The potatoes in your section are 
strong, and have gone to your head. Dnip 
^vriting altogether unless you have to make 
out bills fur luniip* ;iiid things." 

■• Darn ^^i.k kitiL'-^, mil forget that you are a 
poetess witlL a ImllKuil future before you." 

•■ Sacritit c viur [ inspects its a poetess, and 
ascertain whutliLr i\ ilolhir's worth of rice will 
make more than oik- pudding for two people 

but ongiiiJiiiy u ii[ipi"''i - '" f''' 

people. Now it had bi-i niii -iniuli 
plies toeverybody— then t. 11 it In- ' 
senseless. "Let the iinii-f.ipli "■ 
cease from troubling iui>l iIh vm nry 

Absurdity of English SpeUing. 
We find in St. Nicholas tbe following illus- 
tration of pronunciation and spelling in the 
use of wrong words which have the same 
pronunciation n^- flir ri_'!ii M.-nlsi, and which 
propcriy rt-mi ■.-.-■■ii-l ■■•r\-- " ' '-li' ■ 

rpiiii i. 1 ii^li about his 

neck, fine up till 1 ill -^^t: ,-ilitlear. After 
a thyme he had slopped at il gnu house and 
wrung the belle. His tow hurt hymn, and 
lie kneaded wrest. He was two tired too 
raze his fare, pail face. A feint mown of 
pane rows from his lips. 

The made who herd the belle was about to 
pair a pare, but she through it down aud ran 
with all her mite, for fear her guessed wood 
not weight. 

Butt when she saw the little won, tiers 
stood in her eyes at the site. "Ewe poor 
deer! Why due yew lye hear? Aie yew 

" iGiow," he side, "I am feint two thee 

She boar him inn her arms, as she aught, 
too a room where he mite bee quiet, gave liim 
bred and meet, held cent under his knows, 
tied his choler, rapped him warmly, gave 
hymn sum suite drachm from a vial, till at 
last he went fourth hail us a young horse. 
His eyes shown, his cheek was as read as a 
tlour. and he gambled a hole our. 

Dr. Weulworth givestle loUowiug problem 

The EngUsh language has one "t" and 
four substitutes for "l," namely, ct, as in 
ctesiphon ; pt, as in Ptolemy ; phth, as in 
phthisic : th, as in Thomas. It also has "a," 
and len subslilules for "a," namely, ai, as in 
v,nii 11^ " iM .1^ , eigh, as in eight; el.. 

IIS i Ni ihoy ; aig, as in ( nm 

l,;i, . Lml syllable of Alleglun\ 

Jill 1- 111 -Mi^i 1". Jis in gaol; aigb, n.s ;i. 
luii;liL t- ..lui.u.iui; the above, how iiiun.v 
ditfereiil ways ot spelling the first syllable of 
the word "tailor," and then writing them 
with lar, ler. lir, lor, lur. lyr. larr, lerr, lirr, 
lorr. lurr, lyrr, Her, Her, llir, llor, llur, llyr, 
llarr, llerr, llirr, llorr, Uurr, ilyrr. lour, leur, 
laer ; how many different ways of spelling 
the whole word "tailor," in the style of 
which were given ninety-six specimens in a 
le of the Troy Timm f 

Suppose vour country, in tbe awfully em- 
bodied form of majestic law, should stand 
above you and say, "I want your life, come 
up here on the platform and offer it," how 
many would walk up before that majestic 
presence and say, "Here I am; takethislife 
ami use ii lor v<tnr irieat needs?" (Ap- 
.,l,i.,,„ \im| ,.i ,i1>.in-;r iwii uiilliona of 

., ,,!. ■ ■■ I' .■•'.. \ iiiiptiiuse)- and tt 

further." To give up life is much, for it is to 
give up wife and home and child and ambi- 
tion. But let me test you this woy further. 
Suppose this awfully majestic form should 
call out to you and say : " I ask you to give 
up health and drag yourself, not dead, but 
half alive, through a miserable existence for 
longyeurs, uiUil you perish and die in your 
Crippleil .1 1 111 111 I I'll --1 I'lulihuii^ T -• \: Mill ]•> 

yet thousands, and thai wiili liieir eyes wide 
open to the horrible consequences, obeyed 

"And let me tell how 100,000 of our 
soldiers were prisoners of war, and many of 
them, when death was stalking near, when 
famine was cliuibincnp into their liearls, and 
idiocy was threnti mii- .ipihii w i- i< n ni 
their intellect. 1 ii _ ■ - ' ' ■' ; ■-■■" 
stood open evii\ i i - ;i ' i i i' 

desert tliei 
the eiiitn.^ 

That is what your monument means. By Ihe 
subtle chemistry that no man knows all the 
blood that was shed by our brethren, all the 
lives that were devoied, all the ^rief that was 
felt, at last crystallized itself into granite, 
rendered immortal the great truth for which 
they died— (applause)— and it stands there 
to-day, and that is what your monument 

Now what does it teach? What will 
teach? Why, T remember the stnry of ( 

ocoine, and will not 
■ r{)uiitrv calls theni. 
1- dead lips of the liu- 

The G-. A. R. Candidate. 

The following play upon letters as well as 
words, by a comrade, will be particularly in- 
teresting to tbe Grand Army of the Republic, 
and to Republicans in general : 
The soldiers of the 

G. A. R.;^ FIELD 

Will stick tn tlie Ri'piiltliciin iiomiiu-es. 



lid II 

the lesson of sacrifices for what we think: thi' 
lesson of heroism lor what we mean to si »- 
tain, and that lesson cannot be lost to a peo- 
ple like tins. It is not a lesson of reveiijei 
il is net a lesson of wrath; it is tlie graiiil, 
sweet, broad lesson of the immortality of lli'' 
truth that we hope will soon cover a.^ wi"i 
the grand shekinah of light and glory all IJiin" 
of this Republic from the lakes 10 the oiiii- 

I once entered a house in old MaMadi"- 

M!tu, wliiTC f>7er it* dwni were two crosw-d 
HWortlH. Onv wim ibt itword «rried l>y tliv 
KTBiiilftitlicr of iu owner on tlie flcld of Bun- 
ker flill. and the other was the nword carritd 
liy thr- Kntflixh grHndjtirc of the wife on the 
mnie Oeld and on the other side of the con- 
flirt. Under tho« crowed swonU, in the re- 
ntoTfi\ liarrnony of domestic peace, lived h 
linppr and contented and free family under 
the Iijtht of our republican libertica. (Ap- 
piai«e.> I tnwl the time is not far distant 
when tinder the cnwiejl swords and the 
lockwl filiields of Americanti, North and 
Soiitli. our pi'ople sliall sleep in peace and 
ride in lilx-rty. love and Imrmony under flu- 
union of one flax or the Stars and B'ripcii. 

(ApplHiise.) ^^. , 

Ctirioflities of Crime. 

A farmer was tried under the Special Com- 
mission for Wiltshire, England, in January, 
IWJl, upon an indictment which charged him 
with liBvini; fclonintisly sent a threatening 
letter, wliicli was alleged to have l)ecn writ- 
ten by hioi. That the letter was iu the pris- 
oner's handwrilinj: w;i^ positively deposed 
bywilni-K'- ,^llM^l,l.t ii;..! ;impk- means of 

hccomin:; !ii I i i .t'l ii Tbc lelter in 

question. ;in I ( ki r .1 ilic some Itind to 

other pcr-Mii- ! iIIm, ,r|i .1 scnip of paper 
f..ii»'l ill til. .r . . !.iTi:iii. bad formed 

-hilt . I . I, ,__''i| edges of Ibe 

iliii. r. ■ ! |. !■ . lilting each other, 

,u>il lii' ' >'' : >. i> I < 'I < I iM' of tbc maker, 
\\\\\'\\ V.A- iliMiliil Kit-, ihrcc' parts, being 
pcrficl wiii-n tiK' port ions of paper were 

The Jury found the prisoner guilty, and he 
was sentenced to be trimsported for fourteen 
years. The judce and jury having retired 
for u few minutes, (hiring their absence the 
prisoner's son, a youth about eighteen years 
of ajre. was brouglit lo the table by the prison- 
er'H iiir<iriiey. iiiul confessed that lie bad been 

lij- hiili.r III' llirii wioic on a piece of 

impM ii'Mii (III' \ :i lujiy of the coutents 


. lefl I 

) doubt of tlie truth of his 

The writing WHS not a verhaUm copy, al- 
though it diliercd but little; and the had 
spellnifi of the origlntd was repealed in the 
copv. Tbe ori«iiiJil then Immied ro liim. 
and. oil beini; ilrsin-.l I., do sn, lie ri.pied it. 
and III.' wrilini,' «i.s exaetiv iilike. Tpon lllC 
nriini ..t Ihr lr:uii.-il jihl'.'.' (liecireuniBlances 

vMi' ■ ii.'M.ii.iiiin riiliwo days nfter- 

IV I 1 : !i I I ,| I Ins trial and con- 

Ml I ;i I i li 1 ii-.< wliiehhftdbeen 

i.l, in fact, tbe 
ell no other evi- 
iT as the sender 
however, have 
l>l(! inference if 
111 ill tlie prison- 

i",M ■ Jut.' sent 

iinsulering that 
(he buremi. its 
"iiispicion seems 
'itiuff Corner. 

How to Teach Writing to a mixed 
Claas— A Hint. 

In most of the public schools throughout 
the niral districts of this counlrj* and many 
of the private schools in city or country, the 
class in writing consists of pupils in various 
stages of advancement. When^ there are 
Ix-ginners, with those having srmic cxp<'rience 
and capable of writing with a moderate de- 
gree of facility and accuracy, and also those 
having a natural aptitude coupled with con- 
siderable practice, enabling them to make 
beautiful forms easily, though ntrt systeniali- 
cally.and sometimes even at the sacriflce of leg- 
ibility : we do not believe it best that all be 
requirwl to write the same copy at the same 
There are many to whom a hint is suf- 
ficient to materially change the form of a 
class of letters, and who do not necessarily 
require any amount of practice to enable 
them to correct tbe previous errors in regard 
to such class ; while others not only need in- 
struction in all the written forms, but also 
require carefvd and long continued practice 
for a successful imitation of them. 

In most classes in penmanship the number 
of pupils is 80 great as to render a thorough 
course of individual instruction impracticable 
or impossible ; and, when sevend books are 
being used sinuiltaneously it is manifestly un- 
fair and unsystematic to take from a book, 
used only by a portion of the class, a copy to 
explain for the benefit of the entire class. 
What then, shall be done? We would place 
successively upon tbe bluekbonrd. from day 
lo day, a series of carefully .tiniduiited illua- 
trations of tbe priiieiples involved in pnu'ticul 

kind of advertising for any business in which 
there is practically no limit of expansion can 
scarcely be overdone, if the proper chaimels 
an.' chosen and a due regard is had lo the com- 
parative cost. There is no doubt that we are 
all apt to grow lazy and indifferent in the mat- 
ter of advertising, and sometimes think our 
business ought to nm itself, solely on its merits. 
There ought to Iw somewhere in our ranks, a 
friend of experience out of which to draw val- 
uable information as to metlHxls luid means of 
cultivating the soil and sowing the seed. If 
Gaskell thinks it pnident to keep his own coun- 
sels, and justly requires us to strike out for 
ourselves and take the chances as he is doing, 
I have no camplaint to make— I want to get 
what information 1 can. Respectfully, 


Kings of Buainess. 

jVs a fit closing to his twcnty-flve lectures 
to evening students upon economic, accounts, 
government and ethics, Mr. Folsom. presi- 
dent of tbe AUmny Business College, gave a 
very interesting and suggestive lecture upon 
the Kings of Business. 

Who are these kings of business, these 
ariatocrata of wealth ? IIow come tliey to be 
kings in tlie realm of finance 't What part do 
they play in the progress of the race ? Four 
potent agencies are conspicuous in lifting the 
race to higher planes of civilization. Educa- 
tion, wealth, and morals are the pillars upon 
wlilrli iill stable republics rest, and freedom is 

his pocket; so did Peter Coi>per. the glue- 
maker, and (lintrd (he claret-Kittler. The 
same is also inie of >\'illiant Chambers the 
founder of the Edenhui^ Publishing House, 
who. at 19, hod hut five shillings to set up his 
book stall; of the Harpeni who oe^n by print. 
ing.500 copies of " Locke on the Undcreland- 
ing;" and of Daniel Ap|wlton, who began by 
publishing a little volume 3^ iuchca square, 
entitled "Cnnnltsof Comfort." So, tt>o, of 
hosts of others. 

But these kings all know thoroughly their 
oni) business, (^rard was a]temat«l,y sailor, 
mate and captain : Ollcott, too, was in turn 
clerk, teller, cashier, president ; Astor knew 
all alMiut furs : Stewart had the best touch 
for silk and velvet and tbe keenest judgment 
of colors. The HarjM'ni could set their own 
type aud work the presses, and Horace Gree- 
ley, on Ills return from a Eunipean trip, 
coidd nnike vip the Trihurui report before the 
boat reached the harbor, and upon landing, 
put it in type liimself and have it appear as 

In closing, the speaker showed thatpoverty 
WHS not necessarily a bar to kingships of 
wealth. Abstinence In both the financial and 
bodily sense was iirircd. Wealth is Rnvinirs. 

"A single forthini' i« flir- «rMltn;t of wi;il1li 

the seed of a^'oM, m |.i > ■ ^, , i,>i 

which istheoriL'ii' . ; ■ ; ■ i\ 

urged. The eonh 

wind, water, St. Mill iiiiin. n; i- ■ ihi- 

gnmdesl achleveiiieiits o( tin- i\zv- In their 
control is the force. So of mair; in his solf- 
control is bis power to achieve. All grand 
and sublime results achieved by men 
have their causes In the control of their 
physical forces. Man Is like the Leyden- 
jar— Isolate and charge it with electric- 
ity, and a spark '" "'—!'—> »_- .i-.- 
man from dis*ii'Hi"t 
the natural fore ^ 
& power, phy^ii ■ 
Man's body is iiu i^ << 
which, to "give in< I I. 
kept in perfect onl<' 

ehcited. Isolate 

European Armies. 
IttpuhUqiir Franraiw has published 


tun' o( 1 
what ov 

jiays £8,000,000 

ided ■■ 

The army esii 
males for hotm jiiid colonial armies an- stated 
to he £111.000.01)0. instead of alwut £15.000.- 
OOO: (he numlier of men is shown to be 135.- 
000. iustemt of 135,000. and thus the c-iwt per 
man is shown to be £140 a year, and the total 
expenditures to the auiount of H per cent of 
the national income and to requirv 13». a vear 
from oacti Briltslt subject. The Indian sjuiv 
estimates are st-nted at £17.000.000 oralwui 35 
percent of the income. The total stn'ugtb is 
set down as 333,000 menaiid the cost per man 
as £7S a year. 

writing, conforming, as far as is consistent, 
with the system of penmanship used in the 
school in which the lessons are given. In uo 
school should there be more, or less than one 
system of penmanship represented by en- 
i.'riived copy books, and t?int neUxted by the 
ti-aeher ; and, although all systems worthy of 
the name agree in the main, yt^t one should 
be determined upon, and should there be ju 
any ease, a departure therefrom, the teacher 
•should be the alwolule monarcll rtmmnndiag 

Information Wanted. 
Editors Pfnman'n Art Journal: 

I fear (Jaskell will have lo be written down 
the prince of advertisers. Ife has surely got 
hold of the secret which enables him to " ex- 
Mii' but not satisfy," and, as all advertisers 
t^^ow, that Is the king-pin of the structure. 
Wlial I desired Gaskell to state, for the bene- 
fit of his less daring competitors, was not bow 
best to send or receive money through the 
mail, but whether the thousands of dollars of 
drafts he is called upon to pay net him a cor- 
responding return, and if he is satisfied with 
his own methods ; whether he has hud occa- 
sion to change his ideas, and if so, for what 
reasons. I don't presume he will pve us a 
glance at tiis hank account, nor do I wish him 
to. I know he pays his bills, aiul that is all 
that anybody can ask on this score: hut I 
would really like to know what kind of 
advertisiug he deems advantageous, and 
whether be does not often find that he baa 
thrown money away. 

For my own part, I feel sure that a proper 

the animating principle. Kings there are m 
all these realms, hut It was those in the do- 
main of Unance upon which the speaker 

Modem institutions are not feudal, but 
1. Ill the forests of Wisconsin it 
mill ; upon tbe broad prairies of 
Minnesota it is the towering .steam-elevator ; 
in Ohio It is Hit- pork-puckiug establishments, 
where corn -ni - n. yyi ^ . 5 mines outsail 
pork; and in ■^'' ■ . ■ .- :iiid all along 

onrseacoa-it-^ m . _ ■ .n^*, it is the 

truthfully be wud "lUiricU !is Cru-sus." He 
could sacrifice 3,000 oxen and a full size gold- 
en lion at the shrine of ApoQo, and reward 
one of his generals with all the gold he could 
carry away upon his per8<m; but a New York 
carman conveys three tons of gold dally, not 
to the shrine of a heathen goddess, but to 

some temple of tnule. To Ih.s,. I,rn 

kings aniilliori ili^.n - I- i -m I'l im.i'i. i- <,i\'^ 
aWallstreei It : ■ : \ - ■ ^\ ■-'..■'. ■■!■■■ 

wilhasingli n ■ '■ ; . 

of a good ii;inl^ \ ; 

soil. \V. II. \":.im1.iIiiIi.^ (. -Toil- hi^ 

four cents per second ttf interest oil liis ¥31,- 
000,000 of 4 per cent, bonds, a little thing 

But how did these kings of business attain 
their vast wealth? Most of them began at 
the iHittom of the social sade. It is more 
generally true that the poor boy Is the father 
of the prospective king. lA»nl Southampton 
once intpiired of bis Bishop how lo bring up 
his son. He replied : "Give blm parts and 
poverty." Well, then," said the father, "if 
God has given him parts. I will manage the 
p<n-erty." Erastu.i Coming hail these requt- 
slles when he lauded, a young man, at Troy, 
with only 25 cents in lus pocket; ;Vstor had 
them when he reached New York with a 
capital of seven flutcfl and a few shillings in 

Finally the speaker uri-'ii I > i Mm liuh. 
importance, proper (iuiIm i ' 

younij, these duya, ' 

iiw h\u<'H nf Ihisiih' 

so will 
• pel 

his left 

li.ii,,l ,1.1 I ■: , lining forthe ink, he 
^vDiild I 'lu'v r ; >. ' ii in his right and 
prnc,,i! I A (ill is peculiar about 

tbis w r ighly mastered the . ,1 |,. -Ill lu-liip that he was an ac- 
complished teiK-lier ol tliat art. It is well 
known that he writes lo tlus day a beautiful 
copy hand, and pr(Hluccs manuscript with 
great rapidity. At the recent Hiram College 
commencement, the General, as usual, signed 
the diplomas of the graduating class, and it 
waa then that he referred to his experience 
as a teacher of penmanship. ^^___ 

Send for our special cash discounts f(« 
clubs of subscribers to the Joobsal. 

PublUfaed nonllilr »* »1 P«' Year. 


lerly *ln wlvmi 


y new sii»scrlbnr, nr reoewal. Inclosing tl'^^O 

, ■Lo-d'B Prayer." l9xM ;" FlouriBipdEud"," 
Ihn " Coolonnlttl I'Idu'p of pTO({re-B," i2x:9. 

i, . ,: ~, i)i< ir nwn and nnotber name lut 

r ■■ {[,•■ fnllowlng piibllcntlODB, 

I,,. I, . lu.'i.. fiup«t Bpeclntens or |>eii[nnn- 

'"yK'Mla '"'■■.■.■."■.'. "ifisMIn' ■' 

i-n Shocla of Eng'rtBslng. each .llxUla '• 
'8 Nurrnal System of lettering 

• I FlonriBhlDg 

rfle ;)amrB Kd *3 wo wlil for* 
i1 nciurc. »\v* Wxitt Inch*^ retail- for J2. 
won nnifii'B and »T wa win forwtrd a copy oi 
19 & Pnokftrd'B Gnlde," retAllB lor »3 
»' Oompcndium of Ornam-nuil PontnanaHip," 




iib«odniloii- '"'r''«''''''"*|Vf'^A«TJovBRM.^or^«dei 

llBouverloSl {FlcctSl.). 
London , England, 
Journal onn yftar pont-pald 68. Oi 

7hlp!"?!° .. *> *«■ 0' 

-' •< by book post, I 6s. 3' 

Alpbabota "■ ^' 

t' bybookpnet, ■' "■ 

npidlllonal pnsUgc) may bo rcmitied diroclly io 
Enfillsh or V. S. money, and will rccelvo p«in 


205 Broadway, Nqw York, V. S. 


NEW YORK, JULY, 188n. 

The Convention. 
On the 27tU inat., and before the next issue 
of the JouHNAL, the third nniiual Coiivpntion 
of Mie " Business College Teiidicrs' and Pen- 
nmns' Aseocintion" will convene at Chicago, 
iind liold a 6os.iion of four days. A list of tlie 
siiliji'cta to he considered will he found in 
iinoiIuT column. We anticipate a large gHth- 
ering and a spirited and interesting session. 
Kvery person in any manner interested in 
any of the objects of the Convention should 
Itc in aItendan<T. A fidl report of the pro- 
ci'cdings of ihr Convention will appear in the 
t^fptcinhiT nnnilKT of llie .loritXAl., of which 
iswne Ihere will be printed an t'Xtra large edi- 
tion, which will render it exceptionally valu- 
able as a meiiivm\ of advertising. Those 
desiring space should make early appliaition. 

Teaching and Practicing Writing. 

It is a trite, though true sayi".? that "A 
jaek at all trades is good at none." A diversity 
of ihonght and exercise of the hand upon 
many things, does not admit of the aajnisi- 
tion of that high onler of skill ami research 
which has distinguished the pioneers and 
leadiTs in the various departments of luunan 
thouchl and discovery. The mind and hand 
hing and diligently exercised, for the accom- 
plishment of a single purpose, will iK-come 
exceptionally dextrous, and capable of win- 
ning that inunortal fame, which per|ictuates 
the names of our great discoverers and mas- 
ters of the arts, seiouces and letters, and In 
uo one thing Is this more manifestly true than 

hinp and practice of writing. 
Spencer was an enthusiast, in love with, and 
diligent worker in his profession, and by his 
earnest enthusiasm he so inspired his 
many pupils, that they too went forth most 
zealous teachers and advocates of " Spen- 
and became active and powerful 
niewengers for heralding the name of Spen- 
ahroad, until it has become a synonym of 
good writing throughout Christendom. 

Two things were necessary to the broad and 
perpetual fame of Spencer ; firnt. that he 
should by his own skill and acquirements dis- 
tinguish himself : tieeond, that he should by 
his skillful and successful teaching, vindicate 
before the world the beauty and power of his 
lystem ; this was to be done not alone by 
lis own j)ersonal eflforts and success, but by 
the multitude of pupils to whom he should so 
ipart his own skill and enthusiasm, as to 
lead them to become his co-laborers and disci- 
ples. In both these essentials he succeeded. 
Teachers should bear in mind that it is not 
lOugh that they should ho able to place be- 
fore their pupils good models for copies, and 
accompany the same vrith good explanation, 
and properly criticise their efforts ftjr its imi- 
italion : but this should be done with a degree 
of spirit and enthusiasm which shall inspire 
and encourage the pupil. 
The pupil, in liis practice should also bear 
mind that it is studious and careful prac- 
X', direttcd sliiirply tnr llie accomplishment 
a (lisliiK-l jiiid iteliiiile purpose, that imparts 
that perficl eoiiiminul <>f hand which executes 
symmetrical iiiul beautiful writing and fine ar- 

■eh'ss practice is as useless for imparting 

skill and discipline t ? the penman as an aimless 

and careless shooting of bullets would be for 

imparting skill to a marksman. 

Careful practice, with constant study and 

■ne's efforts are the most certain 

i of acquiring a knowledge of and skill 

ecuting good writing. 

Is the Journal Worth the Money ? 
We ask each reader after having examined 
and read the present number of the JoritNAL 
to consider for a moment whether or not it is 
really worth the sum of eight and one-tJiird 
rrnts, which is the exact subscription price of 
a single number; counting the premiums 
worth nothing. If it is not they will, of 
course, in the future endeavor to invest their 
money to better advantage. If upon the oth- 
er liandit is considered to be worth the money 
they will of course re-invest, and why not do 
us and their friends a favor by presenting to 
them its merits and thus not only enable, but 
invite them also to make a good investment. 
Readers should bear in mind that while the 
JooKNAL comes to them for the very small 
montlily cost of eiffht arid OTtt-Htird cents, that 
it requires the aggregate of an immense num- 
ber of such trifles to repay to the publisher 
the cost of such a paper as the Jouunal, each 
number of wliicb costs the aggregate of sev- 
eral himdred full subscriptions. Previous to 
the publication of the JorKSAL, several papers 
devoted to were penmanship started, but 
failing of the necessary and proper support, 
they soon ceased their periodical visits, no 
doubt to the great disappointment of many 
readers. The Jouknai. in this respect has 
been much more fortunate than its prede- 
cessors, and is now certain to continue its 
monthly visits to all who shall offer the in- 
ducement of right and one-third cents per 
month for do so. While the subscrip- 
tions' have been sufliciently 
amply warrant its continuance, they 
far short of what they should be. Among 
the many millions of people in this country, 
to si\y nothing of those in others who write 
and are more or less interested as pupils 
teachers, or admirera of fine penmanship w 
should have a hundred thousmid readers and 
were the merits of the JounNAL properly prt 
senled, and the inducements offered made 
known to every person in the United State 
we believe that mimbcr might be secured 

How is lilts to he aw^omplishLd i* is lb 
question. We believe that it may be done 
thmugh the efforts of its present mid pros- 
pective readers, acting as its agents To that 
end we desire to make every one of our si 
scrihers a live, active agent for the JocBS. 
But, recognizing the fact that "the laborer is 
worthy of his hire," and having no expecta- 

Tilt ilovi cut IS Phot«>-Engrav(d from jur Pin and Ink copy by the New York D'"' 

Lettering and Flourishing. Copies carefully printed upon Une heavy plate paper, suitable for tr:i 

We have under way cuts of a similar dt-iign with pL>rlrrtil'j of tha otiior candidates for Pn ■" 



? a° 

' tion or desire that any one should do us val~ 
uable service for nothing, we invitt the at- 
tention of every reader to the list of premiums 
in the first colunui of the opposile p&gv, offered 
for subscribers singly or in clubs, and should 
they not there find sudlcient inducements to 
enlist their efforts in our twhalf, or if they 
should prefer a liberal cash commission to 
lliosG offered, they are requested to at once 
address us for a circular giving special lists 
of cash discotuits for clubs. 

We believe that nearly every one of our 
present subscribers might with a very slight 
effort induce one or more of their frien<ls 
3 become sultscribcrs to the Journal. This 
slight effort on the part of many would show 
n grand aggregate upon f>ur subscription list. 
Please do us, and your friends the favor to 
try the experiment. 

ability and incorruptible intcg- 


We can conceive of no stronger claims 
than his, through t1tnes8. for the high and re- 
sponsible position to which he has been nom- 
inated, having done hononible service as a 
hired Inliorer, teacher, soldier, legislator and 
statesman, he will as chief executive of the 
nation, have sympathy, as he has had experi- 
ence, with the various conditions of its citi- 
zens, and they nmy all rest assured that in 
him they have an able, tnie and well tried 
representative and leader, one eminently wor- 
thy, and able to guide sttfely our good old 
ship of State. 

you justly rcco-Ml/^- the 1 

this experience belongs in some iik 

the public, and especially to your ri!i 

But toxioilogisls .Inii'l iihvjiys ii^jrcc, i 
they happen to be retained on the same 
and when doctors differ, it leaves open a 

General Garfield. 
In the present issue of Ilie Jurn 
give a splendid portrait of General Ji 
Garfield, the Kepublican nominee for President 
of the UnitedStates. We do this not alone 
a mark of respect due him as a brave sol- 
dier and distin.iruished 

former co-hiliorer in the specialty of which 
of the JouKM-vL to be the 
special advocate. 

It ii" a well authenticated fact that for ; 

thai Ik- w.-i-* ain.-*ti.i.-nK'(l |)iii>il, ami intimate 
friend of P. R. Spencer the author of Spen- 
penmansliip: he is reputed to be at 
I III. Ill,, -I li i;ible ami stylish wTiter 

M ' ' ' N pic al Americau. In the 

fiilii I 1411 !H ,i.i. r .>! ihe term he is a self- 
niudc ULiii, of huiiiblL- parentage; he began 
life in the most laborious and unpretentious 
if occupations. When a lad of fourteen, he 
led or rode a horse upon the towpatli of a ca- 
nal in Ohio. The money which he thus 
$8.00 per month, paid for his tu- 
ition and books, while he worked for his 
hoard at school. Through the academy and 
college he worked his way, attaining to a 
high grade of scholarship which was prompt- 
ly recognized and honored by his election to 
Ihe presidency of Iliram College in Ohio, a 
position which he honorably filled for many 
years, and until called by the votes of hin 
fellow citizens to serve them in the le^sla- 
lure of their State, and subsequently in the 
Congnaw of the TniU'd States. 
SIq the war he prove<l himself a brave sol- 
dier and able geneiuh in the halls of lefrfsla- 
tion he has shown himself to be a statesman 


much inijKjrluncc lu it. I'crliups tiecau 
were not able to understand the iiivolv 
circumstantial reports, bnt mainly. I 

L'd and 

ii pt-u. 

executed iu presence of witness, was hisowii, 
Cisco's, genuine autograph, it has scemcil 
very easy for people to be deceived in " hand- 

I have 80 often performed tricks of this kind 
myself, and with such easy success, tliati ciiii 
readily believe what anybody may claim in 
this respect. The fact that two experts hav- 
ing equal and the same opportunities to in- 
form theoieelvesj will arrive at directly oppo- 
" conclusions in essential points, is a fact t 

be tiik.-n i 

.vlien II 
>y. 1 1 



"Penman," In the foregoing communica- 
tion regarding "Expertism," aud in his com- 
ments upon the disagreements of experts and 
the apparent uncertainty of their testimony, 
simply gives expression to an opinion which 
ii quite prevalent among observers in our 
courts of justice. 

It is well known that expert testimony re- 
garding handwriting is little valued by many 
jurists, and that Judges often listen to it with 
indifference, not to say with impatience. Yet 
we believe that this results chiefly from the 
frequent employment of self-styled and utter- 
ly incompetent experts. Men who have not 
the skill, sagacity, or tnist worthiness requi- 
site to comnumd distinction, or even ordinary 
success, in any other capacity, present them- 
selves with any amount of pretension as ex- 
perts on handwriting, and, like shyster law- 
yers, are always ready to serve cither side of 
any case for the fee. In cases where skilled 
and truthful experts have been called to sus- 
tain a good cause, incompetent or knavish 
pennons arc designedly employed on the ail. 
verse side, by equally knavish lawyers, fur 
the sole purpose of confusing the jury with 
contradictor)' atateinent^ and opinions, and 
then ridiculing, before it, the entire subject 
of expert testimony as being as "you, gen- 
tleinen, can plainly see," thoroughly contra- 
dictor}', and, therefore, exceedingly unrelia- ' 
ble. Thus, in their effort, by trick and device, 
to overthrow skilled and valuable expert testi- 
mony, they tend to unduly degraile all that 
species of evidcn(!c. Not only are unskilled 
or knavish jtersonH thus sought and employed 
as experts by attorneys and clients having bad 
causes, but through their enormous and per- 

fliflcnt pretcruions of skill and experience as ex- 
pert* they are often honestly employed by 
reputable parties, when their Ignorance and ut- 
ter inability to do more than to make willing 
t^eMca to suit the particular theory of their 
side of the case is quite apparent to court and 
Jury, and under a skillful ero»^xamination 
"the expert" and his testimony become ap- 
propriate subjects for the contempt of the 
court and ridicule of atlorneys, while the 
dignity and estimation of expert testimony 
suffers injury accordingly. 

We hold that as presumptive evidence of 
one's special skill it should appear that be has 
in some marked and acknowledged degree 
distinguished himself in his particular calling, 
and among his fellows, or in the special sci- 
ence which he brings to his aid for the dis- 
covery of hidden truth, and this pre-eminence 
should be in and due directly to special 
research, united with extraordinary sagiicity 
aid skill in tlmt particular specialty regarding 
which he is called upon to express an opinion. 
Because one is specially skilled as a black- 
smith would hardly be urged as a reason why 
he should be entitled to give evidence as an 
expert upon chemistry ; yet we have known 
pretentious exparl« on handwriting who based 
thoir claims as such upon special intuition 
and an cxpurieucc in pursuits about as foreign 
to a skillful knowledge of handwriting as 
hlaekumitbing i^ to chemistry. Such experts 
lmv<- iipvcr, tn niir knnwiptlirp. lu'pn consulted 

It wniild imici'd be ii iimtlcr of surprise i^ 
th'' tp^tiinniiy of ihiit clii-js of rxperts wns not 
far below par. It is in this as in all mat- 
ters touching legal or other investigation, if 
testimony is given by a person who manifests 
by his general bearing clear and conclusive 
statements, sustained by convincing rea^'ons 
tlmt he is a man of deep research, and that he 
is exceptionally skilled in his speciolty. he 
nuist be respected, and his opinions will have 
weight with courts and juries accordingly. 

The rulings and opinions of an incompetent 
or corrupt Judge, or the pleading of an igno- 
rant or knavish attorney, may come as far 
short of commanding respect tis do the state- 
ments of some of our self-styled experts on 
handwriting, and in each instance it is the 
incompetence of the person, father than the 
error of principle, that fails to command 

Tliat there is s uch a thing as a scientific in- 
vestigation of handwriting we have not the 
slightest doubt ; and that tlierc arc experts 
who possess extraordinary knowledge and 
skill for conducting such an examination we 
have no less doubt; and in many if not most 
instances they are enabled to reaeli conclu- 
sions and present reasons for the same, which 
constitute the strongest kind of circumstan- 
tial evidence. Of course, the degree of con- 
clusiveness must vary according to the nature 
and circumstances of the case. In some in- 
stances the scope of the examination will be 
too limited, or the evidences for and against 
a certain conclusion be so nearly balanced, as 
to warrant no decided opinion. In such 
cases, honest and skilled experts may reason- 
ably dilTcr in their opinion, and consistently 
represent opposite sides of the case. 

The Book-keeper. 

We are in reci-ipt of the first number of" a 
well printed, fine appearing sixteen (juarto 
paged periodical. entitled The Houk-fcrrprr. It 
is announced as a semi-monthly, and i.-^ edited 
by Seldon R. Hopkins, author of several trrati. 
ses upon the subject of accounts, readers 
will recognize the name as that connected 
with the recently discontinued Book-keeping 
column in the .Tohrkal. Mr. Hopkins is a 
thoroujrh aeeountant. and will undoubtedly 
nuikf Thr liook-kfieper thoroughly Interesting 
tfi III) iiiicifaii'd in that subject. The office 
of publication is 115 and 117 Niiasau street, 
New York. Subscription price, $2 per year. 

Mayhew's New Manual of Business 

We invite attention to the advertisement in 
another column of ttiis work. It has Vk-lh 
prcpiu^d for use in private study and busi- 
ness colleges, and so fur as we have been abli- 
to study the work, and get at its plan and ob- 
ject, it appears to be well athipted for Its pur- 
pose. We unhesitatingly comuR-ud the work 
to all ti-nchun* of btjok-ki-fpiug and acrounl- 

3 to the practices of thesi 

Send Iffoney for Specimens. 

From ten to fifty postal cards are daily re- 
ceived at the office of the Jouhnai. requesting, 
gratuitously, and usually with the alleged 
intention of becoming patrons, specimen 
copies of the Joi'hnal, or samples of our 
various publications. Others say they will 
remit on receipt, which in most instances 
they do not do. 

Long experience and observation has shown 
ua that a very small percentage of these ap- 
plicants mean anything more than to get 
something for nothing at our expense. As 
a matter of fact we have thus far actually 
mailed more copies of the JoxrRNAi. free to 
applicants for specimens and otherwise than 
we have been paid for since its puplication. 

requesting specimen copies have been re- 
ceived from one person in a single year, 
while in lumdreds of instances, from three to 
five cards have come from the same person. 
To such persons as have a honijide intention 
of patronizing the JouitNAi, we should be 
more than willing to mail sample copies free, 
yet it costs soraeihiug, aud the advantage is 
mutual, and to each one desiring them ten 
cents is a mere trille, but when It aggre- 
gates to thousands, as it does with us, it is 
no trifle, but represents hundreds of dollars 
per year. We have tlierefore, and we think 
properly, concluded to mail no more copies, 
or samples of any kind free. Persons de- 
su-ing specimen copies of the Jodhnal must 
hereafter iuclose ten cents, and for other 
things the advertised retail price, notliiug 
will be mailed on the promise to remit on its 
receipt. To give a ten cent order when the 
price is knowu, and afterward remit, writing 
and paying postage twice, is so unbusiness 
like as to reflect seriously upon tlie business 
capacity or integrity of the applicant. In 
either case we shall henceforth decline givuig 
attention to such orders. 

Writing in Public Schools. 
Mary E. Bradley, special teacher of wri- 
ting in the public schools of Akron, O., for- 
wards another package of apecimeus of 
writing by fifty night pupils in one school of 
the average age of twelve years. These spec- 
imens, considering the age of the pupils, pre- 
sent an average degree of excellence in 
\vriting that will be seldom equaled in our 
public scliools, and is liighly creditable to 
teacher and pupils. 

MuBselman's Practical Book-keeping. 

Professor D. h. Musselman, Principal of 
Gem City Business College, Quiney, 111., hius 
just issued a new work of 202 octavo pages 
upon the science of double entry book-keep- 
ing. The work is well arranged, and treats 
the subject in a concise and practical manner. 

A clergyman of Galveston, whose piety is 
not abashed by his want of book learning, ex- 
ecuted the following unique marriage certifi- 
cate, which has just come to light through 
I le^al proceedincs: Galveston, Texas, 3d 
I JI»y, 1S7M. A, I), of our Lord- Know all 

Uodaiid tliesf United States, the mutual Bond 
tbiit (;ii(l Ordained and was beautified With 
the prcscmc .>f our Saviour, at camm at Gal- 
lak-e. nod is <-<immanded of St. Paul. Be 
honorable, among all men, to which I set my 
hand and Stfal us minister in char^ of the 
Methodist Church. j 


C. C. Curtis, Principal of Curtis's Busi- 
ness College, Minneapolis, Minn., is rusti- 
cating at Bayfield, Wis. 

P. R. Cleary, formerly a pupil of G. W. 
Michael, Valparaiso, Ind. , has opened a 
writing institute at St. Louis, Mich. 

Ill 'ini la'^t issue we mentioned Miss Jennie 
1> I' ( ;i^< :i> I,, II Imt of writing in the public 
sit l.i>i \\.>'-hr, O., wliich should have 

I ' ■ 1 ! \ 1 1 ■ . 1 1 ii it Co., publishers of the 

i>' 111(1 Scribner copy books, 

! .1 :17 Park Place, to com- 

■ 1: I- I ;- mi C'liumbersstreet. 

J. (;. .^lulkiiis is conducting a summer 
school for penmanship and drawing at Gosh- 
n, Ind. Mr. Mulkins enjoys the reputation 
of being a skillful and successful teacher of 

J. W. Van Sickle, A. M., M. D., Principal 
of Van Sickle's Business C<i!lei;e, Colum- 

h,i«. O , Ik)* i..<l r..,.!i.lW.-d n lii«inrv of the 

appi-ared unieh butter if wri 

nlTliatid Hoiiiisliiiiii ;oid card writing, also 
a photograph ot an elaborate and very skill, 
fully executed specimen of pen drawing en- 
titled the " Fight for the Standard." The 
original is 44 .\ 60 inches. Around the cen- 
tral drawing are several finely executed 
specimens of lettering and flourishing. 




Professor Goskell reports that he is opening 
his New Jersey City Business College with 
much better success than he anticipated. 

We regret to learn that Mr. Brown who 
opened a Business College at Jersey City, 
N. J., last fall, has discontinued the same. 
Mr. Brown enjoys the reputation of being a 
good teacher. 

A catalogue and announcement for 1880, has 
been received from Jones' Business College, 
St. Louis, Mo. It is got up in good style, 
We have also received the announcement of 
Wyman's Business College, Chaynii Falls, 

Mr. Sadk-r, Principal -f \\u- Br^ 
Stratton BiisIih'-. ( oiii j, . ,i l; ,': m,, .■ 
held his nniniil , ■, ■ 

L. A. Knowlton, Stony Fork, Pa. , incloses 
specimens of drawing and card writing which 
are creditable. 

F. T. Pope, Chariotte, Vt., incloses a pack- 
age of gracefully executed specimens of writ- 
ing and floiu-ishing. 

C. II. Wilkins. with the N. H. Fire Ins. 
Co, MiouhesltT, incloses a card photo, of ,L|i|i' ,ir- 1,. I ir II creditably engrossed set 

\ ' ' ' - ' ' I'.ller, containing superb 

••['■ ■ iiiM M- "I I .III writing, comes from W. 
n. I'litrick, who is teacbmg writing at Sad- 
dler's Baltimore, (Md. ) Business College. 

H. T. Loomia, teacher of writing at Bry- 
ant's Business College, Buffalo, N. Y. , favors 
us with a catalogue of that institution, and 
several well executed specimens of practical 
writing, also an attractive specimen of flour- 

Tl. J. Magee, Penman at the Toledo, (O.) 
liusiness College, seiuls numerous specimens 
iif skillfully executed specimens of writing 
and floursbing He olso forwards proof of 
eight pages of a compendium which he has 
under way. It is executed in good style, 
and gives promise of being a creditable work 

J. F. Wuff, Dodge Centre, Minn., wants to 
know what we think of his wpeeimen forau 
eighteen year-old plow boy. It is well wTit- 
en and does him credit, but would have 

effort. A 



The following are the subjects for lessons 
aud discussion at the Bu8ine-.s8 College Teacli- 
ers' and Penmen's Convention, to be held at 
Chicago July, 27th : 

1 r I 1 1 w to present the sub- 

3 Illustrated by a lesson, 

itv Ledger Accounts. 

It I ui Book keeping— con- 

tnbutfd bi authorb withm the last decade. 

4. Averaging Accounts. Illustrated by a 

5. The best Arithmetical preparation for an 
Entry Clerk. Illustrated by an Entry Clerk 
with an assistant to call. 

0. Labor saved by the use of Columniir 
Books of account. Illustrated. 

7. Changing of money investments from 
* ■ " , different. Illus- 

trated by an example. 

8. A lesson on Domestic and Foreign Ks- 
cbange, by C. G. Stowell. M. A. 

n. Changing Books of Account from Single 
to Double Eutry, and Vke Verm. Illustrated 
by a lesson. 

10. The style of Writing and Figures hM 
a<lapted for business purposes. Illustraleilby 
samples of work from all the Business Col- 

11. IIow to test the capabilities of afili"'''"^ 

oil eouiplfting a Businesa College four ' 

study. Illustrated by examining the cIh-s- 

12. Essentials of Business Writing. 


Oiicago Merchant. To tic nclecttd br the 
Local Ojinmittee. 

ir>. Tlu' value of a BtuineMCollcgc CvurK, 
afl ascertained by tlie ex[Kfrienoe of u f^du- 
ale who liaa puniucd a siioccMful biuiticaa , 
parc<T. To be selected t)y Ibe Local Com- . 

10. Tlic causes of confiwion in Books of 
Account and the dcrices employed to conceal | 
embezzlements, gleaned from the experience , 

17. MeilioUji of recordiof; busim-jw traniiae- 
liorui found by the DicDilK-nt of the Amocia' , 
tioii, ill uw among the business houses in i 
different Bcflions of the country. ! 

IH. A lesHOD in Phonography. 

III. Wasted. — A system of Book-keeping 
from which summarized Ledger results can be 

nishcd at short notice. Want supplied by | 


1 Business Correspoiuk'n 
ti Commercial Lhw. 
I Business Forms. 
I Legal Forms. 

20. Lesson 

21. Lesson 

22. LcMon 
28, lAintna 

(Jentlcmen who cannot attend tin- Annual 
!wliii(,' of the jVssocialion will pleiuic reduce 
jy experiences or obscrvalionH to writing 
1(1 forward it to the Secreliiry, who will enter 
le Mime upon the minutes to the credit of the 


1. flow shall Books of Aceoimt be kept so 
as to insure their admission as e%'idence in 
legal proceedings? By a Judge, Professor of 
II Law School, f)r an eminent Lawyer in active 
l-nulir.-. To he sHccUd by the Local Com- 

•^. Tin- kin.Inf .(liiciiioii (Imimsuvoung 
[imn lo I,.- ,iH,.ful in mi'muitile life. 'By a 
,M« TcUuiil. To he selecUd by Ihe Local (!om- 

8. The mission of a Business College and 
its place among Educ^itional Institutions. 

4. Post, present and probable future of our 
Bunking SvHtem. Bv a Banker or u Finan- 
r-ial Writer. To be' st-leetcd by Ibe Local 

MiLWAUKKB, June 1». IKHO. 
/?r/.>r« I'fnman'^ Art Journal. ' 

Yuu arc. 1 ibink. correctly informed that 
Oen. James A. Garfield the Uepublican nom- 
inee for President of the United Slates, while 
pursuing his studies ut Hiram College und af- 
terward at Williams' College, supported him- 
self in part by tenehing closaea in Sjiencerian 

The late P. It. tipencer taught at lliram 
CoUego and there becimie ac(iuainted with 
Oarfleld. Seeing the young man's talents, 
(inn traits of character and rare promise he 
look great interest in liim, and was, I have 
iimlirHludd, instrumoiitttl in bringing liiin 
turwitrtl when first elected to Congress, 

lieu, tuulleld's interest in popular educa- 
tion and his breadth of view on such subjects 
exceed those of any man who has ever filled 
the presidential chair. 

In this respect 



^ New CominoD 8cbt»ol Book-keeplDff 

Euiry. BufiiDi 

SiDgle I 

put... t ,_, _„.. ^,„„,„„.^. .„„|,.^ 

:S cl-nt ****' **•"'• "d OoUfgrs : 1.8 p.gM. ITIM 
Ifew IQonuvl of Book-kecplnv- Tbli 


Rew Commercial Book>kevplnff - 

1 Bigti School* 



a SiURJe EoTr: 

more than he de- 
H the enthusiastic support of every friend 
of universal education and intelligent citizen- 

Tub Pksmas's Akt Jouunal is not politi- 
cal in its character, but it is educational, and 
hence I have presumed to add the above re- 
mark. Yours truly, 

11. C. Sl-KSCKH. 

Duff's Coi.LKOK, Pmsiiviton. Pa. 
KiUtort PfHman'a Art Journal: 

Fully concurring in the sentiment expressed 
ai the hut convention at Cleveland, that a 
duly rests on penmen and commercial col- 
leges, to support a journal devoted to their 
iiwn iutereais. I have a suggestion to make as 
lo iiur niiKle ofsodoing. 1| may easily be 
(ollowi'd by all commercial colleges, as it has 
uniformly lieen by us, with advantage both to 
themselves and to the Jocbkal. It is a com- 
mon experience to receive applirations in 
Sr^-al numlHTS for specimens of penmanslup. 
Tt> Ihfse applicants we return a n-ply by pos- 
tal card tts follows: "Dear Sir:-Our pen- 
man has no time to execute specimens for 
unttultous distribuiion. If you ore interested 
iniwnmansliip eneUise one dollar lo D. T. 
Ame*. -JOS Bnwilway. New York, and he will 
mail you monthly, for one year, a ct»i>y of j 
the Pknmas's Art JorBSAu each numtterof 
which contains beautiful designs for the pi-n 
and much information alioul the art of writ- ' 

We have seen with surprise in some col- 
legi- advertisements that no attention will be 
paid to applications for specimens. To not 


This work 18 univcn-idly conceded l«y the press, professional peniii«n, and artists 
generally, to be the most comprehensive, practical, and artistic guide to ornamental pen- 
manship ever published. Sent, postpaid, to any address on receipt of $4.50, or i\A ti 
premium for a club of twelve subseriliers to the Journai,. 

The above cut represents the title page of the work, wliidi is 11 \ 14 in si/r. 

reply to all will often diacoimige worthy ap- 
plicants, and cannot but result in harm to the 
college applied to. The mode we suggest is 
convenient, respectful to the applicant and 
the means oftentimes of sending the Ji 
where it might not othewise go. Good re- 
sults are accomplislied on all hands, at little 
cost of money, time, or C4irc. I)y having our 
office man write a number of postals as above 
indicated, during his leisure hours : we are 
alwfti's equipped and ready for an instant re- 
ply to any applicant. The fact ought not \« 
be overlooked, that while some who thus ail- 
dreas us are actuated by motives of mere cu- 
riosity, or a mania for specimen gatlieriiiL:, 
there are many other worthy persons witli :i 
decided tiiste for the art, who are in realii> 
desirous of instruction and improvement. li 
is into the hands of such the Jouun'al shoutil 
go. Meeting as it does tlic necessities of 
their case, it cannot but serve for them n 
good purpose. From their hands it will nat- 
urally go to others and its sphere of useful- 
ness and profit be thus greatly enlarged. 

We modestly suggest thai our idea has 
merit. If 3'ou agree with us. proclaim it in 
print, that others seeing our good e.\ample 
may go and do likewise. 

Very truly vours, 

"P. Duff & Son. 

Back Numbers. 
We still have remaining a few of all the 
back numbers of the Joubnal since and in- 
clusive of the September number, 1877, in all, 
thirty-five numbers, which will be sent witli 
rt'Mffr tlie "Lord's Prayer" or "Eagle" as a 
premium for fS.QO; both premiums and the 
"Centennial Picture of Progress" for $3.00. 



Accounts, wjtii Aiilbmetionl I'roblcma, 



CmmI In Kit the BusiDcjui Collegce Id 
tccPlpt o( 30 ccou. 

805 Broadwnr, New Vork. 




' Coantlair-llouae Book-k««plnff. 

I ' nii.(t I'oinmctidMtlonB from proml. 

I" I- ■'' " '111' aiiinor unit publisher, J. c. 
MiiHUiwt Bros, iiuj Brynoi's Prlatlog aod PublUti- 



(-'omnioii School Book-keepiug. 

from work done b 

y aid of tlie tquare with a comcaaD 

dnftlnK peD, Ibe 11 

ea telDg iepor«ted ni pcriect Inler- 

be varied, \>y lurotog a tliumb 

a any desired angle. Blades are 

length or maietial. Tbe cqii>r«a 

arylup, according to flniah. length 

md .lUklit; of blade 

Julled St&tei or Ob 

3CS Broadway, New York. 



McLec'6 Alobabeia 

CoDgdon'B Normal 8>iH-'m of Pl'iurisbiug ... 

" '■ ofLi-lMriiiB 

Both Floorisbiog and Lctteriug T 

Tbeae are good woika tot tbe rooney. 
Key lo SpuDcer an Peomuuihlp 

Spunao Rubbtr. ixi la , very tupedor, per pleifc". 
Rnll Blackboard!, by Mpreu. 

No! 2 --'assaK" ■"".■,"■.'.'■■*;.■ "".'."..■. 

No.3 " 3x« •■ 

Slooe cloib, onn yard wide, any tenglb. per ykid. 

unj angera aoa iuky |i 


I poaufe for eampi 

I, $1. 's«mpl*, 26 oeute. ft f! KELLLy) 


Superior Writing Inks, 

— AND— 


Alling's Japan Ink, 

A.rTi>rdBii nn>rilnu,« blacker liu(>, a rtcber lusUo, and 
iirc-alvr contlnulljr tlum IndlB Inlc. 
The mo"l riii>ld ftnil olnborftU! Ilourlahca can bo exe- 
cutt^l tliiTi-wtlh, wllhoiil broaklii^ tho porfocl (low of 
lok It In unrivallea for OrDftiuentsI l^joinaDsblp, Cftrd, 
UuHic, Cuuinuit iiDil DispUy Writing;. 

Alling's Gold, Silver & White Inks, 

Film fm-ly. n-nderlug llie li«htcfl ulrolcos iwrfeflly 
plf.yH ril''Vi'irFl!.urlshlug7vt9"»'i>B!'i'r''c<>'of Show Card 





(iM or Sll'vrr Ink, H uuiico bu by Lx >« 

Pennian*H ink Cabin t No 1 

Conlalaa Ibc followlug Iuks: t t)0 i 

CarmiDo, Bluc.Vmlul.Ciri'tinj u as C St 

X "B bottle WU-to Ink, an.l a b 

Penman'M ink i ab net N i 





KibbL «i Coume uf I 

Every Variety of Pen Work Promptly Executed in the Most Perfect Manner. 
Also, ' Counsel given as Expjrt on Handwriting aud accounts. 


r prlota. lucloso stAtnii 







'"'^ 'Photo Lncr/ivinc qq 


PUllad>'lpUln. | 

I Ha 


Uayhew's Univenity Book-keeping 

1114 MITHEW, 

piEOj.vr seEcistE.y or wmrixo axd 

n !• '^"X DORK». 8S2 Bro»J».v.Ne» York Ora 
y ^r.l Ascni lor w.ra'. DOmonj sue] Pen.. Sam 
E..,2"« "'^Ql;- Superior cMda, iDljj, fto. »]w«, 01 
uud. ClrcuUn tor sump. 

9t Hlnmpa, &0c. 
doing eogrosflDg rapliily i 

Photo and Photo-Lithographs 

H. W. Kibbe, 

Ko. 7 HOBABT ST., 

ITXICA, N. ¥. 

;>.*:'^W\\,v\\&AWvS'\\\ S'^ ^'S^'LW ^VvK?v"i'^ 

n Series of 

bCHnnk PEN5 



VrOTICE.— TopuplUln the: 

. COOPER, Xingfvllto. AstaUbuIn c 

nVTI/" —SI reiinipps for all colors (mcludlfiB gold, 
11\ JV, BiUer, whiw. in-ieliblc) mailed for 26 ceuis. 
Stamps luki'D. W. SW1£T, Ujirioiivlllo, OooiKlagn 



Jersey City Outtlness Colleg:e> 

G. A. QjLSKiiU., Principal. A. H. Stkpiik.V8on, SrcrcHiry. 
Bryant St, Strattou College, 

Cor Maocbesier and Elm eireets, 

MancbcBter, N. H. 

II Huron, J 

? Sest Known. EsTABilSHED.ia24 

.Ic Wax. ^^f sM»ii >"■■'■ -""*-' 



Of HUiiurior EI¥CE,ISH lunii- 
vvriling. St-Ht by mail «ii Hi. 

T^ T^ AT n 

&, 140 Grnnd St., N«w York. 




^■u-t>llstL©d. 3i^oxLtlxly, at 205 Broad -^Tsraijr, fox* ®1.00 por 'S'eax-. 

" KnUred at. Vie Post Ofct of JVVu? T'jrk, .V. 1'., <m geeond-elaaji matter." 


VOL. IV. NO. 8. 

D. T. AnKN, 

Kxiiiiiii r <ir (fiic^Uoiipd ll.iiMlvriilinK. 

. IB. NiiA-rriK 


I.-W York. 

pirrrKB, ainswobth & co.. 

D. APPLE'rON dc CO., 


iva« n loss of ten minutes of time, to say noth- 
ing of eyes and temper. 

But suppose it takes my correspondent only 

Ive minutes less to wTile what it lnkf.'* mV 

Ive minutes more to reod, hecnns': ir is writ- 

Ijftdly ; by what pretence of juittite dois 

Am I, like Chnmpollion. „ , -o.-^- 

ian mflnuBcripia, without the honors of a dl»- : iheni, 
coverer? But why is it necessary, in a tinu 
of profound peace, and on a matter of com- 
husinoss, to write m ryphrr, iis thoiisll 

However much these "professors" may dif- The plate is now removed from the furnace 

for in their plans, there is one point in which "".'^ pl»c<*J "P<^" flic pusa imidv' .xpressly for 

they all agree: that is a determination tocvill "'''' '^''"' "■" l""iiiiiiiL' A tlii, k sii,,.r of paper 

ilu- piil.lic. fl'-'' >' '- '"■' I' ^^' ' '"'■ '".Nl^ ii.HH- IV hiiu uver 

IVntnanship is an art which requires much "" I'l'-^'i' 'i ['iii' , hi.i i-. pi -1,1 iiii,>ui;h the 

Hpplication. A learner thoroughly familiar P"^ ■ I'l^im a i ..vmIh; |im-.ui.. The 

with its elementary principles still needs tlil- "^'^ -Ii'lI w ilh iL> pn,uinjil iiiiinL.v.iim is caro- 

i^ent practice hefore he can attain a reason- '^""y •'f'*'*' ''"o'"! "le plate, dried hctween mill 

I able skill in execution. This is so obvious | boards, dry-pressed, and prepared for market 

marvel how such empirics ever gained 1 — tlie whole process requiring a number of 

decipher Egypt- ! the attention which has been bestowed upon ^^y? o^ skillful managenieut. The warming, 

. v\'- 

handwriliiiy ollcii uccuiniJiiiiiL-s liif 
A manuscript i-vt-r st» badly spelt ia n 
ly read than one tiorattUn^ly written, 
most impossible to spell so falsely af 

. And such is the arbi- 
our letters into words, 
'orst are often most true 
ndsofthe letters. Dr. 

ILE <;OI.LE<^E, 








;• Pall gt»od handwriting an 
iiidiinplisliinent. We call il a ncccMity. 
There iH value and asdif-tance in it, and a sub- 
stantial ^ood. 

To rvMi over a page of fair handwriting is 
like ridinc over a tmiooth. solid higliwav. To 
work one's way ihroui;h a page of bad writ- 
ing is like forrin? a jtaKsagc through a swamp, 
thick with nndiTbnish. netted with briara, 
and unstnble with tpiieksaiids. 

There is a eeriain honestT and friendliness 
in cood iM'nmanship :— nav. it has a qualitv 
of justice and equilv. as though it said. / do 
untoothfn tM / tronld tJuU tf^ tJtmtlddo unto 

Bad hnndwritin; is an tneirility. Ii bas an 
nir of si'Ittshnoss alwui il. It savs. "Wwi is 
your oonvrniencp. or pleasure, or time to 
ine:'" \Vc rect'ivcd to-tlay a note, covcfing 
loss ilwui one side of half a sheet of i>amr 
which look us fifteen minutes to read, and xv- 
<|Uired the co-o|>erKlion of all the faculties 
It took our comuipondeut not more than two 
minotes to writs it. Hadhesjwnt five min- 
utes in writing it, we could then have read it 
in two minutes. Thus, Mwe^u us there 

. .Mrs. Ki 

•O. Tl, 

servant happening to come ii'._ , , 

(wkcd her what w-y-f spelt. "Why, what* 
shouUl it spell," said she, "but wift, to bo 
sure?" But some writing we meet with is as 
destitute of structure or arrangement as beds 
of autumn leaves whirled together by the 

When projier names arc written in this 
nianufr, it makes a hopeless case, for there is 
niithiriE in the context to shed its light upon 
ihem. We have had, more than once, to 
hike the signature of a letter, and make a fac 
Hhnilf of them, as a superscription to the mi- 
swer: not knowing whence, or from whom, 
the letter came, nor where or to whom ours 

The lesson giv.ii b\ Dr. Parr to Sir Wil- 
liam .r.m - ;- ;,, i\ 111. ii ■should often be re- 
pealcit \\ ', - : \\ i,m sent the doctor 
he replied as 

> ■ HI write better 
viiU' better, then wV 
. then go to school." 

% certain open- 

better ; ifyij 

Teach cliildrenthai there ^,.. 

ncM and ingenuousness of character, a love of 
fair dealing, as it were, in clear, well-defined, 
distinctly featured penmanship. It is like a 
good i>hysiognomv in a stranger, which inter- 
eats us in his welfare at once. But in bad 
penmanship there is something unmannerly, 
evasive and dissembling. 

Wlien old .John Hancock signed the Dec- 
laration of Independence, he wrote his name 
ill a broad, bold energetic character; as 
though ho said,— "If I am ever tried as a 
rebel. I'll not deny my autograph."— Tc-a/rA^r 

Troubles of Honest Penmen. 

The following from a writer of the past 
eiicratiun shows that dishonest pretenders 
re not H product of the present time alone. 
In no branch of the diversified business of 
education has there been so many fruitless ex- 
perimenters, or so much deception iinicticed, 
that of peimianship. The annomicemenla 
put forth b\ "fiiiishiTiL; writing masters" are 

an accomplish im- 
d where no founda- 
tion luL-i Ihh 11 l;tnl, Tlml which was once 
conaHlm-.l tlu> work of years, la with them 
the pleasant pastime of a few minutes. One 
of them states that ■ "by Ids ingenious and un- 
erring system, he can enable any and every 
to write " a free, Imld. elegimt and ex- 
peditious hand in twelve easv lessons of one 
hour each ;" while another.' detennined to 
surptiss his competitors, guarantees perfection 
hours : The first warrants his to be the 
only true s>-stem ever invented ; the second 

bad handwriting when __ 
iiiis tierf)iiic fixed and inveterate by habit, in- 
to a free, eh-mmt, expeditious style, in the 
short space of six hours, is so evidently im- 
possible, that we cannot but feel surprised 
that any intelligent, reflecting person could 
be deceived by such extravagant and absurd 

"Tli.T.- i« :i ._'r-'Mi ,ii«fiM.-tir.n to he made 

'" I "■ ' II . .i:j. iMij Ml. , i .■ I i.'r ,,t what 

'■ '■■■■■■ '■' ■■■■■ M ■■' '■■>';. ;,ndex- 

M. i. . .. . !■■■■■ ! .« :.ndex- 

jufjiiin- thr liirter bofon' his eye has been suf- 
ficiently exercised in the former, would be 
like setting a person down to an easel who 
was perfectly ignorant of the painter's art, 
and expect him to dash away with all that 
spirit and clfcct of touch which constitute ar- 
skill. But if the band and eye have 

been previnnslv educated 
tutes the 

This i.= 

bad, in 

afew hi.iir- ..I ■ , iii;iiiksof 


condeinn''!!. imnj^ h< r.nisr ihr I'iniiri' Imp. 
pens to liavi- |.uiriu-<l rill Uiiii wliieli would 
have suggested itself to the pupil in this sub- 
sequent practice, wliile the latter, after hav- 
ing laid the foundation of a free mercantile 
hand, had not the opportunity, 

How Steel Engravings a 
A brief e\|»lanatioii of the l 

Uil painting is the highest department in 
art. Next in order is the steel plate, and no 
other style of reproduction can compare with 
it in its grade of excellence. 

In the first place, the designer furnishes 
the subject to be engraved, usually in the 
form of an oil painting, and often at an ex- 
pense to the publisher of thousands of dollars. 
The design is then engraved on a highly pol- 
ished plate of steel about an eifihth of an inch 
thick. Skillful engravers must be employed 
in the process of engraving a creditable plate, 
often spending many months or years of con- 
stant work in its completion, and frequently 
at an expense of many thousands of dollars. i „ 

However perfect the steel plate, the engrav- T'"' "'*'>'' Bahylonica, that is. the Wdlow 
ings therefrom will have but little or no value "^ Babylon, or our Kuglisb weeping willow, 
to the critical eye unless well printed by a com- '^ » native of the Levant, the coast of Persia, 
petent printer who has spent years in learning ^^'^ '^^^^^ places in the Eaot. Tiie 

and mastering his art. so as to be able to per- '^ introduction ■-'" *^""' '■■ '■■■ 

fectly produce the emrraver's translation of the account is as fol 
painter's thought. " poet, having u 

The highest portions of the engraved plate ^S^- t>*>8erv..i 1 

inking, wiping, polishing of plate, 
be repeated in printing each picture. No 
steam power or mechanical invention lifts 
the sheet from the press — all must be done 
by hand-work. 

It is a fair day's work for two men to print 
and prepare for market from ten to twenty- 
five copies of the largest size engravings. 
Thus It will be seen that after expending a 
large sum of money for paintings and en- 
graved plates, and waiting months or years 
for their completion, tlmt the multiplication 
of creditable engravings is slow and expen- 
sive, and that their beauty and finish depend 
very much upon the skill of the printer— the 
importance of whose vocation has never been 
adequately appreciated by those not familiar 
with his departmeut of art- nor by those 
who persist in having and paying for cheap 
work, and in Hooding the country with ex- 
ecrable prints — a dishonor to the painter aud 

III' I II ;iii' produced, and other facts in 
tiinii' il.arlyil will be realized that the quality 
ot the work shuulil reguJiitc the \nnn.-. Then 
the demand for pictures by itiu siiuureyiu-d 
with which to rover wiilis will ciitiiuly cease, 
and the (pialily and the mml ut the work, and 
not quantity, will be the thing desired, and 
then many "palatial" as well as "cottage 
homes " will he more beautifully adorned. 

Bad Penmanahip. 

John W. Brooks, the railroad manager, 
^vrote to a man living on the Michigan Cen- 
tral route, threatening to prosec.ite him forth- 
with unless he removed a barn he had run 
upon the company's property. The recipient 
did not read the letter, for reading it was im- 
possible; but he made out the signature, and 
arrived ut the conclusion tliat the manager 
had favored him with a free pass along the 
line. As such he used it for a couple of 
years, no conductor on the route being able 
to dispute liis reading of the document. H. 
W. Beecher can hardly be considered a 
model scribe, seeing tlmt one of Ids daughters 
owned that her three guiding rules in copy- 
ing his manuscript were that if a letter was 
dotted It was not an »' ; and if it was crossed 
it was not a £; and if a won] began with a 
capital it didnot commence a sentence. Hor- 
Grceley's discharge of a couipc»Hil(ir by 
i, we all remember, was used as a recom- 
mendation of character, which brought the 
;r honor and position. Theodore Parker, 
who was about the worst writer hereabouts 
within the last thirty years, took the premi- 
when at school for the best penmanship. 

I England i 

produce the lights and the deepest engraved ^^^^ >*"*-'"* I' 
parts the shadows or dark portions in the pic- | *^K "*•' P'' 
of type-printing. 

the celebrated 
f Turkey 

The steel plate is warmed over a furnace, to 
facilitate the management of Ink when spreiul 
thereon. A very fine and thick ink is rtjlled 
over aud into the engraved portions with a 
hand-niller, which is parsed and repassed over 
the plate many times. The ink is then re- 
moved fn>m the surface portions of the plate, 
first by the use of cloths, after which the 
naked hand more perfectly wipes the ink from 
the surface— some time being spent in thus 
•hid, polishing the plate, so that it may prodi 
■"" •" the desu^l grades of light, so that if hrillij 
they shall be mellow, aud bannonize with 

itU c 

1 bee, 


ing willows Jiave descended. This species of 
willow is generally planted by a still p<K)l. to 
which it Is a beautitul and appropriate orna- 
ment ; and when, in misty weather, drops of 
water are seen distillingfroni tlieextremtiesof 
its bninches. nothing can be more descriptive 
than the title it has obtained of the weeping 

claims equally exclusive merit 

carrying his assumption even 

willing to swear thai the "Great Lunar HJv __, _. „ ^,„„„. ^, ^^„„,, 

tern alone has any claim to puhhc patronage. 1 rich and expressive darker portions. 

A newly married lady was telling another 

. . how nicely her husband c<»uld write. " Oh, 

that if brilliant 1 you should just see some of his love letters !" 

" Yes I know," was the freezing reply ; "I've 

got a bushel of 'em in my trunk." 



J"^iWj^^ ^^ /A^^li^ ^JW^fi>Ji^^!^<^ 

Refining Influence of Art. 

TliuL uriifilic [>entuaUHliip, whether made 
up of gmci-tiiDy foriuud K-tttrs. bold free- 
hand floiiriahes, or the floesl paD-drnwiogs, 
i8 calt!tilat«l to purify nnd elevatf, im cot a 
ciuention U> thoHe who have given thought to 
Ihp Nubjoct. As tbe cultivatiOD a=d iudnl- 


of nm 

• d^ 

grad«, d'preve and hrutalize ; ho the gruti- 
fication of bis lov»- for, and study of 
thf beautiful, is comlucive to nioralitj-, re- 
fioemi-Dt and nobility Pc-rchaoce the young 
iiinn, who is accustomed to spending his 
I'VL-DiucKon the btreet.or in debauch, bec<inieH 
inU-reMUd iu tho study of the beautiful ; very 
trfjou vulgar Btoriea, bar-rooui scandols and 
billiard linlU bogin to lose their attractionfl 

The mind of hmunu beingn must ever be 
full of Honitithing, and if it is not full of 
something elevating, that which degrades 
takes it« place. Let uo ouc ever imagine 
that he can harbor evil thoughU and not be- 
come an evil-doer. On the i:ontrary, when 
the mind is filled with pure thought*, nohle 
deedh follow as B.irely as daylight follows the 
dawn AfUT the beautiful has been pursued 
until it becomes practical omploymfnt, then 
the possessor begins to realize that pure life 
is nocessary to a high degree of skill iu its 
execution. Any person who is addicted to 
the use of intoxicants, soon feels the need of 
ft better nerve, consequently his "cups" aie 
sacrificed ; thou the usual late hours are per- 
ceived to be affecting the health; next the | 
use of tobacco, which perhapa, has always ' 
been regarded as harmless, is found to be in 
a large dogieo, a hindrunce to that perfect 
control of the hand, which is so very neces- 
sary in the execution of intricate and highly 
artistic penmanship. Thus the work of 
reformation goes on. the cultivation of the 
taste toning up the moral faculties, and the 
necessity of n steady nerve building up 
physically, until the individual, ouce mor- 
ally deformed, stands forth iu all his original 
purity. Then he begins to realize the capa- 
bilities (if the soul for enjoyment, and 
wonders that he should ever have tried to 
find pleasure in thn cultivation and gratifi- 
cation of passion and appetite. The use of 
tobacco, id especially destructive to the nerve 
force needed in executing artistic pen- 
manship. But aside from its practical hind- 
rance to penmen and other artists, iu attain- 
ing the highest degree of excellence possible 
for thi-m, it is regarded by persons of re- 
fined K< DS bilities as entirely inconsistent with 
genuine manhood. Webster says, that, "Mo 
man can be quite a gentleman and use to- 

This assertion we fully iudorse. Tbe re- 
forming tendency of the study of art, is be- 
cause of the necessity, and becautue the 
susceptibilities which naturally exist away 
down in the soul of every lover of the beau- 
tiful, are properly exercised. 

The bad. which has been fostered for 
years, is in ii ineaauru, lost by the practice in, 
Uivu fur, and study of the beautiful. 

T^aohiner School in the Early Times of 

" Mister ! uo doubt you have all the larnin 
that's required in a soliool teacher. But it 
wanta more than hiruin' to make a chap able 
to keep a school in Criiubi^rry Gulch. You'll 
find that out if you try. We've had three . 
who tried it on. One lays there in the grave> 
yard ; another lost an eye and left ; the last 
one opened sehool and left before uoou-time 
for the good of his health. Ho hadn't been 
buvk since. Now you're of a slender build, 
and all your laruiu' will only make it the 
worse, for all our young folks are roughs and 
dou't stand uo nonsense !" 

This was what the trustee of the district 
said to my friend Harry Flutee, when be 
made applioatiou for the vaeaut position of 

*' Let u« try. I know I am slender, but I 

am tough, and rvoa8trougvtll,"said Horry. 

"Jest as you like. There's the sohool- 

hotise, and I'll have a notice given if you 

want it done !" said the trustee. 

"I do.'" said Harry. " And I'll opeu next 
Monday, nt uioe A. M." 

The notice was given, and there wasagood 
deal of exoit«ment iu the gulch, and all along 

(ht Tuba (ialx. More than fifty yotmg peo- 
ple, of both sexes, made an excuse to drop in- 
to the tavern to get a sight of the fellow who 
thought he could keep school iu that district, 
and many a contemptuous glance fell on the 
slender form nnd youthful face of the would- 
be teacher. 

Eight o'clock Monday morning came, and 
Harry Flott-c went down to the school-bouse, 
with the key in one hand and a valise in the 

" All ready to slope if he finds we're loo 
much for him." said a cross-eyed, broad- 
shouldered fellow of eighteen. 

The school-house was uolucked, and thf 
new teacher went to the desk. Some of the 
young folks went iu to see what he was going 
to do, though the school was not called. 

Harry opened his valise and look out u 
large belt. Then, after buckhug it around 
his waist, be put three Colt's n,ivy revolvers 
there, each of six barrels, and a bowie-knife 
eighteen inches in the blade. 

" Thunder ! He means busiues-s." muttered 
the cross-eyed chap. 

Tbe new teacher now look out a square 
card about four inches each way, walked to 
the other end of the school-house and tacked 
it up against the wa'l. Returning to his desk, 
he drew a revolver from his belt, and quick 
as thought sent ball after ball into the card, 
till there were six balls in a spot not much 
larger than a silver dollar. 

Bv this time the school-house was half full 
of large boys and girls. The little ones were 
afraid to come in. 

Then the teacher walked half way down 
the room with the bowie-kuife in his hand, 
and threw it with so true a hand that it stuck 
quivering in the very centre of the card. 

He left it there, and put two more knives 
of the same kind iu his belt, and quietly re- 
loaded his yet smoking pistol. 

"Ring tho bell! I am about to <-peii 

He spoke to the cross-eyed boy, the bully 
of the crowd, and that boy rung the bell 
without a word. 

' ' The scholars will take their seats. I open 
Ruhool with prayei," lie said, sternly, five 
minutes later. 

The scholars sat down, silent, almost 

After the prayer the teacher cocked a re- 
volver and walked down the floor. 

"We will arrange the classes," he said. 
All who can read, write, and spell, will rise. 
Of them -we will form the first class." 

Only six got up. He escorted them to up- 
per seats, and theu he began to i-xamine the 
rest. A whisper was heard behind him In 
a second he wheeled, revolver in hand. 

"No whisperingallowed here! "he thundered 
and for an instant iiis revolver lay on a level 
with the cross-eyed boy's head. 

"I'll not do so any more," gasped the 

"See you do uot. I never give a second 
warning," said the teacher, and the revolver 

It took two hours to organize the classes, 
but when done, they were well organized. 
Then came recess. The teacher went out, 
too. for tho room wits crowded and hot. A 
hawk was circling over bead high in the air. 
The teachei^ drew a revolver, and the next 
second the hiiwk came tumbling down among 
the wondering scholars. 

From that day ou Harry kept school for 
two years in Cranberry Gulch, his salary 
doubled after the first quarter. .\nd his pu- 
pils learned to love as well as to respect him, 
and the revolvci-s went out of sight inside a 

They had found a man at last who could 
keep school there. This is a fact. HraUVa 
Voluge Jniirnni, {Cat.) 

A Pittsliurgh professor of phouography 
has written iu short-hand characters, upon 
the back of au ordinary postal oard, 18.283 
words of the play of " Romeo and Juliet," or 
from the beginning to the second scene of 
the fourth act. Ordinary speakers average 120 
words a minute, and it would take a reader 
over two hours and a half to deliver what is 
contained ou the card. 

A collesc student, iu rendering 
father an account of his term expen 
serted, "To Charity, thirty dollars. 
father wrote back. " I fear chftrity c< 
I multitude of sins. "— YaU Record, 

Spencerian Fenmanship. 

D. T. A MBS, Esq.: 

Dm r Sir : -In reading a novel published 
by Ford & Co, , entitled ' ' Figs and Thistles, " 
I ran upon thi? enclosed lines, and thinking 
if credit were given to the source of informa- 
tion, " FIrs aud Thistles," it would interest 
your readers, I copied aud forward it to you 
for insertiou in the if you see fit to 


IJ. Lo: 

The author from whom I quote represents 
the heroiue as iudiliug a letter : 

■• In the sloped stylp of penmanship, known 
in that region as the 'Spencerian,' and re- 
garded as the ne plus ultra of chirographic 
art. In those days it was in its most brilliant 
glory, when the gray-bearded old humorist 
who claimed its origin, and who in a sort of 
mock ecotism had given it his name— old 
* Piatt. R.' — presided iu his log academy, and 
went up and doivu the land, explaining, illus- 
trating, aud eiiforciut; the principles aud 
practice of the scienee aud art of penmau- 
bhip He used to claim a sort uf inspiration 
for it— sayiug that it hud nil come to him in 
ft vision, as he wandered ou the shores of the 
lake, aud that he first traced the characters 
of the uew system in the moist sands. It 
was revealf d not far from where the Mormon 
Bible was professedly found by Joe Smith, 
and proceeded from tue same sort of inspira- 
tion, to wit; keen Yankee shrewdness; and 
indeed tho old man's skill not a little justified 
the claim of inspiration. Not only the skill 
with which he wrote, but the ease with 
which he taught, entitled him lo the name of 
the 'Wizard nf ihe Pen,' in which he so 

"His kindly, genial nature, and genuine 
pride in tbe graphic art, impressed him 
strongly upon all ; and many an old-growing 
heart of to day recalls, as a reminiscence of 
youthful (lays, the square cut gray beard and 
mustache, the long, sharp uose, aud eyes 
sciutiliatiug witli humor under his brows. 
Perhaps no one has more characteristically 
impressed himself on that section of the 
country than he. 

"Many a schoolboy, as he ponders the 
mysteries of this 'system,' recalls his father's 
story of how old 'Piatt. R,.' starting from a 
maudlin stupor in a bar-room, iu the old 
stage coach days, challenged a New Yorker 
who was boasting of his peumanship, to write 
with his fingers as well as Piatt could with 
his toi'S ; aud how, the wager being accepted, 
they took off his boot aud stocking and put 

with which 

iquished the boastful ' Downeaster,' Yes. 

inspired — with that supremely practi- 


cal wisdom called 'Anie 
thoughts iuto dollars, and devines at once the 
needs and genius of his fellows. He saw that 
the leading, governing idea of the American 
mind was economy of time, and he therefore 
devised a system of chirograpby which ad- 
mits of tho greatest possible speed of cxecu- 

" Beauty or legibility it had not, i-xcept in 
his bauds or thut of a few masters ; but it 
suited the American need, as being a rapid 
and easily -acquired system of thought de- 
liuealion." — From 'Figx and ThiatUs." a 

Imporrant Rules of Conduct. 

ver exaggerate. 


Nevw wimlouly liightun others. 
Never li'iive home with unkind words. 
Never nuglect to call upon your friends. 
Never laugh at the misfortunes of others. 
Never give a promise that you do uot fulfil. 
Never send a present hoping for one in re- 

Never speak much of your own perform- 
Never fail to be punctual at the time ap- 

Never make yourself the hero of your 

Never pick the teeth or clean tho nails in 

Never fail to give a polite answer to a civil 

Never question a servant or child about 
family matters. 

Never preseut a gift saying that is of uo 
use to yourself. 

Never road letters which you may find ad- 
dressed to others. 

Never fail, if a gentleman, of being civil 
and polite to ladies. 



of anyone 4>r 

) the features or form 

■ look over the shoulder of another 
ivho is reading or writing. 

Never appear to notice a botr. defoniiity, 
jr defect of anyone present. 

Never arrest the atlenbton of au acquaiut- 
mce by a touch. Speak to him. 

Never puuish your child for n fmilt lo 
ivhich you are addicted yourself 

Keve ' exhibit anger, impatience or excite- 
ment when an accident happens. 

Never pass between two persons ^\ l.o ore 

talkiug together, without an apology. 

Never euw:r a room noisily; never fail to 
close the door after yon, and never slam it. 

Never forget that, if you are faithful in a 
few things, you may be ruler over many. 

Nevtr gr.-iit faniili.,ritv with the 
new a.. I . .■■.' ,r ■, .. ..'iTeuse. 

N<'V. f . ■ I ' \..' .'onquests 

in the roo 

Never neglect to perform 
which the frieud entnisSi il <<< you. You must 
not forget. f 

Never seud your guest, who is accustomed 
to a warm room, off into a cold, damp, spare 
bed, to sleep. 

Never enter u room filled with people with- 
out a slight bow to the general company when 
first entering. 

Never fail to answer au iuvi ' 
personally or by letter, within i 

Never occept of favore and hospitalities 
without rendering au exchange of civilities 
when opportunity offers. 

Never cross the leg and put out one foot in 
the street-car. or places where it will trouble 
others when passing by. 

Never fail to tell the truth. If truthful, 
you get your reward. You will get your pun- 
ishment if you deceive. 

Never borrow money and neglect to pay. 
If you do, you will soon be known as a per- 
son of no business integrity. 

Never write to another asking for iuforma- 
tiou, era favor of any kind, without enclos- 
ing a postage btanip for the reply. 

Never fail to say kind and eucouraging 
words to those whom you may meet iu dis- 
tress. Your kindness may lift them out of 
their despair. 

Never refuse to receivft an apology. You 
may not revive friendship, but courtesy will 
require, when an apology is offered, that you 

Never examine the card.siu the card-basket. 
While they may be exposed in the drawing- 
room, you are not expected to turn them over 
unless invited to do so. 

Never, when walking arm in arm with a 
lady, be continually changing and going to 
the other side, because of ch'inge of corners. 
It shows too much attention to form. 

Never should the lady accept of expensive 
gifts atthe hauds of a geutlemau uot related 
or engaged to her. Gifts of fiowjrs, books, 
music or confectiouery may be accepted. 

Nevtr insult auother by harsh words when 
applied to for a favor. K<ud wordi do uot 
cost much, and yet they may carry untold 
happiness to the one to whom they i" • 

Never foil to speak kiudly. If a merchaui, 
aud you address your clerk ; if ftu overseer, 
and you addiess your workmen ; if in any 
position where you exercise authority, you 
I how yourself to he a gentleman by your 
pleasant mode of address. 

Never atti-mpt to convey the impression 
that you are a giuius. by imitating the faults 
of distinguished men- Because certain great 
men were poor penmen, wore long hair, or 
had other peculiarities, it does uot follow 
that you will b" great by imitating their 

Never give ml your pleasant words and 
smiles to straugers. The kindest words and 
the sweetest smiles should be reserved for 
home. Home should be our heaven. 

Why a Letter Doesn't Go. 

The Oiuoinuftti Saturduy I^'iyht publishes 
the following reasons why a letter doesn't go r 

Because you forget to address it. 

Because you forget to stamp it. 

Because you forget t') write the towu or 
State ou tho envelope. 

Because you used a ouci; concoUed stamp. 

Because you cut out au envelope stamp ond 
pasted it on your letter. 

Because you used a foreign stamp. 

Became you wrote the address on the top 
of the enveloi)e, and it was surely obliterated 
by the post office dating, receiving and can- 
celling stamps. 

And because you put your letter in a blank 
envelope, aud sealed it and forwarded it to— 
the Dead Letter Office, where thousands upon 
thousands of valuable letters are daily de- 
stroyed because the people ore either careless 
or ignorant of the postal Inws. 

Audio the above we « 'mid add a few rea- 
sons why an answer don't come: 

Because you do uot sign your name,^ 

Because you 8it,'n it so indistinctly it can- 
not be read. 

Because yon do uot give name of post of- 

Recause you do not give uame of county. 
I Because you do uot give name of State. 

Because you write with a pencil, which is 
' rubbed off and illegible. 
t Because you use ink so palo and dim it cun- 
I uot be read. 

Because you do uot enclose 8t«mp 
I pay postage on the answer. 


PT^n among th« " libermllj- ■ educated, giTe as your knowledge of FiTUcb would «UBbIe baseUlI matches, billianl matches, dog 
way lo a more reawjuable tbeory and more you to speak and cotrcsiwnd with foreign Gghu, cock fighting Ac then he bad all 
rcaaonable views on tbi« subject. , customers. ^ of tbe«o account* ««t up in typo and proofs 

In 6ome of iho larger citits, eapecial- H. S. B. I did not learn, sir. to sp«ik the read, and the forms made up and a doubU- 
ly in the west, Kpteiat tt-acht-ra of penmanship language; it was mostly Iranalatious that w 
are employed and are doing good work — a did. I do not think, sir, that 1 am compt 
work which the public iit Urge are not alow to , t«nt to be trusted with atich duties, 
appreciate. M. What other branchvs did you study i 

If your valuable Journal could be placed the high school? 
in (be hands of truHt«ea, achool officers and I H. S. B. Algebra, English literntun 

boanhi of educations, and if by reading it, physiology, aucicnt hiBtory. natural philoso- have the Iwst authority for stating that the 
thene gentlemen could be induced to spend ' phy, astronomy, geometry, trigonometry, celebrated and long.lnlked of prize fight be 

" " throwing mud •■ I moral philosophy, civil government, rhetoric, tween Jem Mace and Joe Coburn will bo 

■eof itintoserious and, as I said before. French, natural bistory, fought within a nhort diKtaoce of this place. 

JU8I beyond the boundary line betwoon Canada 

of the paper onlered. But he must 
I have a stunning lending editorial, and he sat 
down to write the most remarkable article 
that over appeared in a religious paper, f It 
[ opened thus:--" We take extreme pleasure 
announcing to our many reader!! that \ 

leiMof their valuabli 

atbusincKR colleges, and 

consideration of the benefits of a good hand ^'^^ chei 

riting to the boy« and girls, and theimport- 
icc of practical education generally, to the 
sing would l>f better for all con- 

High School Education. 

A griiduatc of one of our noted high echonls 
applies to n gentlemnu in the commission 
business for a position in his store, where- 
upon the following ([iiestious and answers 

. And you have not studied reading. ' and the United Stat«-„" Ar. Other items of 
ng. arithmetic, spelling, oi grammar i the most ridiculous nature wet« inserted in the 
J you were 1 4 years of age? | paper, and when Ihe subscribers received 

S. B. No. sir; I finished those in the their paper consternation was depicted on 
»nd ; every oountenaueo. An immediate rush was 
made to the office for an explanation, but 
Hance fearing the consequences, had made 
a speedy exit from the town. But what 
must have been the feelings of the editor 
when he received his paper at tbe conference! 

grammar school 
I have my diploi 
as proof of it. 
M. I am afraid, youug man, that your 
I qualificatious are not suit^ible for the posi- 
tion which I advertised to fill. I want a 

young man to befin with us who can make A hasty explanation 

Merchant. Well, young man. I understand ^""self generally useful at first, and 


the . 

Writing; in Public SchooU-What Can be 
Accomplished There. 

pplicaut for the position I adver- "pportu: 
led OS vac4xut in my store. wortby. 

High School Boy. Yew. sir. ; <l<'>ckly i 

M. r presume, tlien, thot you can come I 1'"*l'fi<^' 
prepared to work hard and faithfully in tbe 
of your employer, work up by de- 
id at the jiroper time become a 
thorough business man and have a busiuots 

H. K, B. Yes, sir, such pre my plans. 
M. What advantages have you bad in the 
way of schooling ? 
I H. S. B, I graduated from the grammar 
the January | school at the age of H, and during tbe past I *^*"' average 

Having noticed an ftrticli 

nuinb.T of tbe Akt Jouunai, headed 

iuidalsotho/fW-Mm("/r of a specimen of ploiii 

writiug. said to have been executed by n boy 

Iwflvo yoars of age. I have ventured lo ro- 

iimrk. in reference to them, that tbe speci- 

men referred to would seem to answer the 

•luosliou, " What can bo acompliuhod there ? " 

ijuito conclusively ; or, ot least it answers the 

(piestiou as to what can be aooompliahed in a 

public school where the working class is iu 

charge of a competent teacher of the art. and 

tilso on acocomplished penman. But, Mr. 

l^ijitor, if W( 


accompIiKhed in tbe public schools of 

Slato we shall find ourselves most sadly de 


Tnrougb thu influence of the Journal antJ 
a few other publications of hko character, 
and also tbrough the influence of businest 
fcchooK the post t«u years has witnessed «niit< 
a change in public sentiment iu regard to the 

importanoe of good penmanship, yet the fact I it all with a pencil, so 1 do not 
still ■ ' 

prove.s himself 

party who writes 

ud well,— this is no indisp^-usable 

nn with the youug men of ourstore. 

The obility to figure rapidly and accurately 

is also iadiBpensable. We ofteu liave to do 

a great amount of work iu a short time, aud 

any person who is slow or inaccurate would 

not do at all. I would much prefer a young 

man who good sound lOnglish education 

and some knowledge of accounts, who has 

been schooled in regard tobusineesformsand 

practices, one who can write 

scribers. and the 
its usual amount of church intelligence 
satisfaction was onoe more settled in 
minds of the Baptist inliAbitants of thai 
tion of New York ^\ — Montrral OazelU. 


^^nded the high school, from '"'"'*• "^""^ P"'°' 

which I graduated recently 

M. Have you any knowledge of 
H. N. B. No, sir they do not teach book- 
keeping in the high schools. 

M. Here is a note due, to-day, upon which 
I was calculating the interest when you came 
iu. You will see it has several poyments in- 
dorsed on its buck. Will you lake a pencil 
and figure the amount due. to-day, for me? 
H. S. B. I am afraid, sir, that I could not 
itudy arithmetic in the 
long a 
time hiuco I have studied it that I have for- 
gotten nearly all I knew about it. 

M. Will you take a peu and write the ad- 
dress of our firm on tins envelope ? 

H. S. B. I would rather not try. sir. 

While at the high school we bad no instruction 

ug. aud I hud 


m the 

youug I 

to take said specimen from higS school. Tbe teach, 
riterion of what is actually it in the grammar school, and 

do well by, aud if he proved reliable, indus- 
trious aud willing, I could soon provide a 
very desirable place for Uim. I would gladly 
assist you in finding a place, and if I hear of 
one for which your (pialificatiouB adapt 
you r will let you \uo\s. --Fiichhnry Daily 

Hoaxing a Clergyman. 

The presence in Montreal during tbe pres- 
ent week of a well-known Toronto jourmilisl, 
but wbo is now engaged in a more lucrative 
Albany, N. Y., calls 

Maggie Mitchell reoeived a letter, while in 
Cincinnati recently, which may safely be set 
down as one of the most renuirkable ever 
written by a man with the rank of colonel in 
the army who was ambitious <,f honors ou tbe 
stage. It is as follows that be doth demean 
himself with the pen: " I dont only speak 
make "*^ English language as perfect as yourself, 
in the i ^"^ **'"" '""n^*"to ^^^ Yankee, tbe Irish the 
I would I Etl^iope"" and other Defective Prouuncin 

but also speak the German Language 
iu a do/eu difl'creut provincial Tongues aud 
am satisfied i would make my way on thi* 
stage, if i only got a start, the more so by in- 
troduciug a dozen new Plays, which would 
bo easy to me, because i am master of both 
Languages and can translate them myself." 
He wishes to be recommended to Mrs. Bar- 
ney WilliaiuH "who, as i have rend in a paper 
this Fall, will have to take the stage again 
for a livelihood, me and Her might perhaps 
make excellent partners." The most eitraor- 
dinary jingle of words in the whole letter is 

of tbe OwutU staff a trick that this ; ^"^^ ^^^ paragraph, which spina along 

lopy that I was oblige.! to write fast, and do i '^"'"on'o Telegraph 

journalist— we will call him Hanct 
played on a Baptist clergyman, who was 
editor of a religious weekly, published in 
the interest of his Church. 
At tbe time of "the joke iu (piestion the 


H that the art of writiug, though 
one of the most important, is, uevortheleas, 
ono of the most bunglingly taught aud the 
most neglected of any branch tought in our 
public sobools. 

Many of our would-be educators and school 
ofRciBU,BtiU pcraistincUngingtoondadvocat- ' did not have any 


i palmy 

days, and Hance 
writers. He had the good fortu 
' acquainted with a Baptist clergyman residing 
little town in New York State. \Uv W. 
-. The reverend gentleman and Hance 
old friends, having been raised in the 
lowu in England, and when the clergy- 
was culled to Philadelphia to attend tbe 

thu pupil til 

ftftwon or twenty minutes per day for 
years. If pcrohauee the pupil fails, na he un. 
doubtedly will, to become a neat, legible 
tvriter, he i» readdy excused from his faults 
on the grouiid that his poor penmanship is a 
nui'i o/jfrniu*, (or -great men" have been 
Dul. d for their bad manuscript \s a result 
uf this theory, it is an undeniable fact that in 
the great majority of common schools, graded 
^^-Uuols Aud uv«a high schools IU this StaU-. 
tfltohers am employed without any reference 
whntever to their qualifications as writers or 
t«aohoraof peumouship, aud are, therefore, as 
a nde, wholly tnoomputent to give instruotiou 

Now, if the above remarks are true, and a 
fair bUtemeut of th« case, and if it is also inie studied 

as well as when I left the grammar school, 

M. We have n great variety of goods in I 

our store, aud our youug men must have tbe ■ 

ability to spell correctly. Are you a good I 

ir, that I am. I 

. , -^ i" spelling in the 

lug the tima-honorod theory that iu order to high school, and I don't know how j should i ^^"'''"''^ ^"*^*'«"'=«' ^'^ thought he could 
enable a pupil to become a good writer, noth- , do. ' gel no better person to look after hii journal 
lug is re.piired of tbe teacher except to place M. Here are some papere, -a note, draft ''""■'"« tis absence than Hunce. Accord- 
in his hand a poned or pen and before him a ■ bill of sale, invoice, account of aaies 'check' '"b'b' ^f> wrote to Toronto, informing his 
priutodor engravedoopy to "imitate- audlet ' Icnse.doed, policy, mortgage, and a letter of ^"^^^ »' ^^'^ request, asking him to come 
quipped, scrape away porhops credit. Will you look them over and name "^'''' ""mediately, if possible, and remain in 
each a« you hand tuem Ijack lo me? charge during his absence. The answer 
H. S. a. Really, sir, .' have never seen ''*'"'' '"'^'-'^ ^y telegraph, and stated that 
such papers before, and I could not distin- Hance woiUd be there on the first train, a 
guish one from the other. promise which was carried out without de- 
M Well, youug man wtiat did you last ' '-^y- *^" 1"* arrival at tht house of his clerical 
study in tLe high school ? friend full instructions were given him as U 
H. S. B. Chemistry, natural history and '^'^ duties, which were to make a few appro 
French. priate selections, write a few short suitable 
M. Oh ! Well, let me see, you would bet- I editorials aud superintend other matters gen- 

ter apply to my friends^ , Jo the drug erally. And now comes the trick. As sooii 

business. Your knowledge of chemistry *" *!*« clergyman got clear of (he town 
would probably fit yon for their line of bus- Hance went into the composing room and 
itiess. informed the foreman and printers that the 
H. S. B. I fear, sir. that I do not under- | policy of the paper was immedittlely to under- 
stand chemistry well enough to make my ' go a radical change : " it had beea decided." 
knowledge of any value in business. I only said he, ''to give its readers a different class 
because it was one of the studies 

follows: "Please excuse my Inlrution 
your Pressence in this manner, because anoth- 
er chance to see you and ask your advice in 
my case, which i hope you will be kind 
Enough not to refuse an Amateur who has 
served from the musket up during fifteen long 
Years and has from tbe beginning to the End 
always been considere>l one of the best mem- 
bers of the Gompsny, who has assisted many 
a poor Actor with both money and assistance 
iu Benefit Plays : {who hiis frequently re- 
ceived applause from a,' Gorman audience' 
wbo set dead and cold like churcbmembera) 
who would have been on the public stago 
long before now and rivalled with tbe beat 
of our Stars ; if his wife would have concent- 
ed to do BO, she iw dead now and i can do 
what good hick may direct me, in my present 
ocoupatiou i can hardly earn board and 
cloathes, in an exposed condition of eold and 
Wet, which i i^anuot stand. 

parsgrapher who wants 
paragraph. All you have 
the blanks: we'll f<trn)*«h tl 

thai of the pupils thus left to themselves lo 

■■ imitate '' and "scrape," not more than one 

in «very ten ever become good and f^a»y 

writer*, would it not be well, occasionally, lo 

agiute the quesUon of •• Writing in Our Pub 

lie Schools " until there is a "shaking among tion 

the dry bon»"«"' and (hm«e old fogy notions, mor< 

of news from that which had been given 
heretofore, and the innovation would be 
inaugurated right there and then." Hance 
had procured copies of the New York 
CUpper. Spirit ->/ th^ Tiw^. B^H't Life, 
the Dramatic \e>e-> and other sporting 
iporting housd would be papers ; and he set about cutting out glow- 
er* you would be useful, I ing accounts of prize figbU. hnr«» races. 

of the school: I took but little interest ii 
and therefore do not know much about it. 

M. You say you studied French ? 

H. S. B. Yes. sir. 

If you tiuderstand French, 


me enterprising 
get a poetical 
) do is to fill up 
rhymes: — 


. . .temperance catiae 


— Ktohtik OotiMtiltition. 
We are not enterprising, but can fill th 
out for you just as well as not. on the coi 
dition that you will not sue us for Ubel : — 

The Constitutiou's out of 

Its habits are ao very 

It's par&grapher will take . 



He advocates the.. 
And th'-n for gin gives.. 

Pabllahed .HoDlhljr at •! per Tear. 

SiDgIs iDMrtiDo 20 cruu j»nr lloe DOoparrlL 
lOulamn tat OO t** 00 ISA no fiiui 

5 «' ■::;::.';:: "S W6n mm *'I 

iinch(i2iiow) I an 4 a 00 n. 

ailD»,24wr>r(la.... m 1 to 2 76 4 

adraoen ; -or all monrjia uiil noo yea'. p«v*bli' qua 
XKt\<f In advtDC- Nofl'vinron from the nbovi- r«U: 
RMdltiK malior, 30 oenU pc' 1ID6. 


WhIlttwo liO[K' in reixler ibe J'>t)R.v<L In llsolf hii 

nolonlly in'proaili'it anil n't'Wliro, to oftO'irp i-oi on 

Iho pfttronBgu 11 o'l -bo are lntor«i«tI In akliirul writit 

nndenu ann «K<>ni8, yoi Knowloa that Ibo labor, 
oriliy or bU nirc, w<> olTor the following 


IWAI, iDClOIIIDg fl.r 

rl'l mall ibp JorBNi 
rlho 'Lo d-aPra 
1 or lb"" CenUMi' 

Lo rt'e Prajr*'.'^ lOxW ; " Flourliied EwiIp,' 
tbc Drat copy of lh( 
kod aootliornamo of 

K & Packard'a OcmB of Fonmuiehtp," ret 


Subwtinllon" to Tns »^fMA!*'ii Art JnrmfAi-.or nrdor" 

for (I'lir of o')r puh Icailons, will bo rocoivod Bn-i promptly 



TboJounxAL oxc yoar po't-pnld Be. 6d. 

AmHB'CnmiHiiidliim of Ornamooiul Penmnn- 

ahlp £1 4b. 04. 

'■ ' " by book iwBi, 1 Bs, 3 I. 

•• AlphabMs 7B. 6rl. 

or w-lorn witli rflmlMVnc-'8"ii' current i.rlcB (with 
ln'Eugllab"or V.9. tnou'ey, and will rocoivo pmmpt 

NEW YORK, AUOrST, 1880. 

The Convention. 

Ttic third ttDniml uu-ciin^' of tlii' Itiimiicss 
Collrei' Ti-ai^lR'rs' mul Penmen's Ansoeintion 
met nt Chicago on the 27th of Augnst. iind con- 
tinned its session four days. The aea-iions 
were held in one of tlie large halla of the Pal- 
mer House. There were ahout thirty colleges 

Tlie exercises opened witli an ahle and cor- 
dial address of welcome by Mayor Harrison, 
of Chicjigo, which was followed by an ad- 
dress of the President of the Association. 
The reimlHr business of the convention con- 
sisted of practicul lessons, deliates nnd es- 
says upon the best methods of presenting lo 
the pupil the various hranches of education 
usually taught in business colleges. The 
forenoon of tlie last day of the session was 
occupied with the election of olhcei-s and the 
transaction of miscellaneous busincR«, The 
afternoon was occupied in visitm-i the nmnis 
of the Board of Trade ami n ride in sivcrai of 
the spacious and beautiful parks for whieh 
Chiaigo is justly celebrated. The session 
terminated in the evening with a banquet 
at the Palmer House. The officers selected 
for next year were: For President. Hoh't. C. 
Spencer, of Milwaukee, Wis.; Vice-Presi- 
dents, H. B. Bryani. Chicago: T. M. Peircc. 
Philadelphia : D. T. Ames, N'ew York ; Hon. 
Tra Mayhew, Detroit; Secn-tary and Treasu- 
rer. C. E. Cady, New York; Executive Com- 
mittee. Richard Nelson. Cincinnati: (). A. 
n Wilt. Dayton. O.. and A. P. R.Kit. Cleve- 
land. O. Cincinnati. 0„ was selected as 
the place of the next meeting. The time for 

iL.ldinir Ihe same will he decided by thi- e_\- 
■ I iitive meeting. A more lengthy report of 
■ill' proceedings will be given in the Sep- 
1' iiibcr issue of the Jouksal. 

Writing I>e88oii9. 
In the SeplendM-T number of the Journal 
we shall ^ve the first of a series of twelve 
lessons in practical writing. No pains will 
be spared to make the lessons as practical 
and useful as possible to those of our readers 
wlio are either seeking aid to improve their 
own hand, or to ^ve instruction to others. 
The copies will be original, and carefully en- 
graved especially for these lessons. Cuts illus- 
trating all the correct positions of body and 
hand will he given ond fully explained ; also 
practical illustrations of the most common 
and probable faults of learners with advice 
for the correction of the same. All the move- 
ments, finger, forearm, whole-arm, and the 
combined movement, will be explained and 
tlieir proper use in writing stated. We can 
assure our readers that no person seeking to 
acquire or teach writing will fail to find 
this course of lessons alone worth several 
times the cost of a year's subscription to the 

The Beason Why. 

To be able to write with facility, grace and 
correctness at all Limes, necessitates tlie pos- 
session of genius as well as constant practice. 

The necessity for continuous practice seems 
greater in penmanship than in any other art, 
for every line must tell its own story — the 
story of ease or difficulty in its production— 
and will depend for its excellence upon the 
most perfect physical and mental condition 
of the writer. The temperature of the sur- 
rounding atmosphere has much to do with the 
appearance of writing, so much so that it has 
been, apparently at least, impossible for any 
of the many gifted penmen to contribute any- 
thing to the columns of the .Toitknal during 
the past month. 

Our Associate. 
We (Tip t.:ic following from tlie Bmnbridge 
(N. Y,) ItepriHiam of July 23d: "A very 
large audience listened to B. F. Kelley, asso- 
ciate editor of the Penman's Art Journal, 
in his lecture entitled ' On the Way and at 
Jerusalem,' in which he recounts his experi- 
that portion of the Holy Land. The 
lecturer is an easy, fluent speaker, and gave 
his hearers a very interesting account of his 
3journ in that land." 

The American Newspaper Directory, 
published by Geo. P. Kowell & Co., is re- 
a neatly liound volume of 1,044 
pages, containing "accurate lists of all the 
newspapers and periodicals published in the 
United States, Territories, and the Dominion 
of ('anada, together with a description of 
which they are pub- 
lished," and stating the frequency of issue of 
papers or periodicals, po.itics or general char- 
form, size, subscription price per year. 
year of establishment, editors' and publishers' 

unes, circulation, etc. 

There are also special lists of religious 
newspapers and periodicals; of those devoted 
to agriculture, horticulture, stock-raising ; of 
educational journals ; of those devoted to the 
amusement and instruction of children ; of 
various society journals; of those devoted to 
the various sciences, arts, &c. 

It is a book invahiahle to advertisers and 
many others. 

Back Numbers. 
We still have remaining a few of all the 
back numbers of the Journal since and in- 
clusive of the September number, 1877, in all, 
thirty-five numbers, which will be sent with 
eiilteriXw "Lord's Prayer "or "Eagle" as a 
premium for $2.50; both premiums and the 
"Centennial Picture of Progress" for $3.00. 

Parties remitting stamps for the Journal, 
or merchandise, will do us a favor by sending 
them in one and two cent denominations. 

The second number of The Bovkkffpfr, 
published at 70 Chambers street, in this city, 
dated August 3d, has made its appearance. 

Annoyances to which Editors i 

Sub- j Our fathers who laid the foundation of our 
I great nation bent their backs in honest toil, 
and the children of the Republic should profit 
by their exiiniple. Beginners in life must 
patiently w ail for the honest ex] ansion of their 
ivironment ; they will otherwise fall into 

Not editors alone, but nearly all business 
men daily receive communications from in- 
dividuals in whom they have not the slightest ,. 
inleresl.but who, nevertheless, feel terribly ■I"'";' <'=">P««>'on». A life carried i.p step by 

As a rule, 
nswer respectful 
any way benefit 
but when some- 
. true that Qen- 

aggrieved if the most senseless inquiry is not 
immediately answered by the long suffering 
portion of humanity whose trials Job himself 
could scarcely have borne with patience. 
Some persons seem to have a mistaken impres- 
sion that the business of other people couldn't 
he carried on at all mthout "valuable sug- 
gestions and advice" from themselves, said 
* ' advice" generully coming in a badly spelled, 
horribly written missive, informing the de- 
lighted recipient that "he's an idiot, and that 
the writer always knew he was." Of course, 
ail dissatisfied correspondents don't express 
their opinions in the above straight-forward 
manner, but say what in the end really 
amounts to about the sam 
editors are not unwilling t 
queries or those that can 
the questioner or the publi 
liody wants to know "if : 
eral Garfield really did throw liis mother-in. 
law over a mammoth two-inch boulder into fi 
roaring, rushing, foaming, fathomless wash- 
tub below, or why it isn't grainmatical tc 
say 'them is my ink-bottle,'" the average 
editor is apt to pine for a "lodge in some 
vast wilderness." Another annoyance if 
caused by aspirants to literary honors, who 
begin their correspondence by saying: "I 
now take my pen in hand," and asking why 
they can't write lengthwise, and crosswise, 
and diagonally across the paper when they 
send an article for publication. If some 
such ori^nal genius didn't take special pains 
to say he took the ^n. in hh hand, almost 
any editor would be just foolish enough to 
imagine that the writer shoved it up under his 
left optic, or tied it to a lock of his auburn 
hair. Then there are the "chronic grum- 
blers," who never were satisfied with any- 
thing, and never will be. and who send the 
publisher of some paper nice little autograph 
letters, complaining "that he prints too much 
trash and too little sense, or too much sense 
and too little trash ;" anything, in fact, that 
will do to growl about, and make people think 
the sun is vmder a permanent eclipse. These 
are but a few of the daily trials of an editor's 
existence, although "life is not all dark" to 
them any more than to individuals who fol- 
low some other profession. Most people have 
as many friends as they deserve, and some- 
time we may present tlie other side of the 
picture, or "delight of editorial life." 

The Grit of Maniiood. 

Poremost in the plan of life I would 
mention and commend to the beginner the 
necessity of a delii.ite purpose. Humanity must 
have an aim. Successful people live with fixed 
purposes and plans. Experience has taught 
the world that money, position, power and 
character are not stumbled upon. Those en- 
joy them who resolve to have them and work 
for them. The vicious and the criminal often 
surpass the genial and companionable. Hard 
work and economy are indispensable and 
enter largely into honest and well ordered 
lives. The ends of life must be earned ; an 
equivalent must be rendered. It is a law of 
tlie economy of true life. Gains gathered 
honestly, little by little, will secure a foun- 
dation of success and prosperity. Young 
people must be content to be^n life in a little 
house, with plain food and coarse clothes. 
Industry and frugality added to these will, 
as a rule, secure independence. And while 
the man has thus made his money, the money 
has amassed his manhood. Your constant 
occnpation has kept vice and temptation 
away and saved you from ruin. How true 
that Jewish proverb: "He that raises his 
boy without work has raised him to steal." 
Toiling up through poverty has learned you to 
say no to your eyes, ears, tongues and appe- 
tites. You have, therefore, learned the impor- 
tant lesson of self-government. You have been 
made the master of your situation. Your 
hands have been skilled and brain fer- 

and bids fair to meet the expectations of its tilized. Jesus of Nazareth wi 

projectors iu becoming a successful publi- laborer from youth to manhood. He had 

cation, dignified labor — the axe, hoe, pick and plane. 

step is most oeautiful. False pretenses and 
efforts to live beyond circumstances lead men 
into theft and every conceivable rascality and 
disgrace. The young man who attempts to 
wear a gold watch and charm, who is not 
able to pay for his silver watch and golden 
guard, will, as a rule, undermine his man- 
hood. He must creep before walking. There 
is nobility in living within means. A poor 
young man mnet he content to register at the 
hotel whose bill he can pay. Don't rely on 
luck. Common sense, well administered, covu-- 
Bge, vigor and pluck are the reliable luck. 
An honest head, heart, and hand baptized 
in work are luck. A healthy stomach, good 
sleep and conscience, are yoiu- luck that you 
may depend upon. Don't stand around on 
the streets hoping to find a dollar, or a fat 
pocket-book without an owner. Don't be 
" Micawber," ever expectant of something to 
turn up that will make you rich or wise. 
And while you increase in external wealth, 
look constantly to the increase of your mental 
power. A richly stored mind is great wealth. 
The means of knowledge in this country are 
abundant It is a disgrace to the young people 
of our times to be ignorant. The streets, and 
wagons, and houses, forges, fields, mills and 
men, alt have their secrets and lessons to 
teach you ; lessons in agriculture, commerce, 
mechanics, science, philosophy and history. 
Books and daily papers can he had by rich 
and poor alike. The philosophere, poets and 
historions of all ages and nations arc knock- 
ing at our doors and humble dwellings to 
offer us their society and companionship. 
Shakespeare, Milton, Bacon and Plato stand 
ready to communicate to us rich lessons at 
our fireside, within our collages and simple 
dwellings. Young men and young women 
should hold fast to their native affections. 
Forget not father, mother, and brothers and 
sisters; keep bright their holy memories. 
They are recollections that should often come 
down over young people out in the journey 
of life as a shower of emotions toward whose 
falling young hearts should open greedily like 
thirsty flowers— natural affections as pure 
and sweet as the songs of seraplis, and the 
dreams and loves of the angels. Never for- 
get the old homestead, the honest old father, 
and the worn-out, sweet and loving mother. 
They made your nest soft with the feathers 
plucked from their own bosoms. Cultivate 
affection, loo for man as man. Love human- 
ity; it will ennoble your lives. Seek to do 
men all possible good and no evil. Believe 
in human nature and love it. You will make 
more mistakes by a constant distrust than by 
a reasonable trust in men. Live happily and 
clieerily as you go through life. Laugh often, 
and loud, and heartily. You arc the only 
beings that can make a success of laughter. 
Monkeys and other animals have tried it, but 
they are failures. Go down through life like 
a band of music ; be fragrant with whole- 
some jny. Don't put ofl' happiness to old 
age. What you are through life you will be 
in your declining years. Selfishness, greed 
and stinginess, cultivated to excess, will leave 
for joy in old age. Be happy now 
and the fruits of your life will be as fragrant 
and luscious in your after years as orcliards. 
October days. 

Mr. Whittier'B own statement of the origin 
of hispoemof "Maud Mailer" is quoted by 
a correspondent of tlie Springfield Republican 

" as driving with his sister through York. 

, and stopped at a harvest-field to in- 
quire the way. A young giri raking hay 
near the stone wall stopped to answer their 
enciuiries. Whittier noticed as she talked 
that she bashfully raked the hay around and 
--"cr her bare feet, and she was fresh 
id fair. The little incident left its impres- 
,., „„j !,„ .. m,j jjjg pjjp^ jji^j very e 

it." To the inquiry 

Mimier,"hesaidit v. 

was not a selection. __ _ 

came. But he gives it the short German pn 

to the title, 

suggested to him, and 

the poem 

t the broad Yanki' 

Send for our special cosh discounts foi 
clubs of subBcrihers to the Joitrkaj- 

mfferent Ideas of Authors on Pen- 

If we examine carefully the mon* than one 
f\t)7A^ mcrifit of or»pv.l»«K)k« now claiming the 
attention of U-fu-hf'rn. we nhall discover quite 
a Tariety in the ideas and prinrlpk« tliat 
miwl have ruled in the mindii of ih^-ir several 
aulhora. allhmiKh Home of Ihew nyglem* 
might disappear without much Inm to the 
worlil, a* they are only irnitalionn of othera. 

Here is an aulh«>r whrne experience has 
1»een in teaching advanced rlames mich m are 
U> \hi found in oomniercial collvgeit. lie hvi 
bu-n HucccaRful with a particular method, and 
HtmiKht-wav make* a ncrieii of copy-I)ook« in 
whirl) he aovocntc* the same plan for chil- 
dren tfuit hafi given much satiBfaetion with 

ing expirience only in 
lo oee that hooks for 
iill children may not tie 

ovahie copy-Rlips. 
wivK cliiUlren unould r 

f)ne wiyft (children should not use any but 
(111' finder movement, while nnollier advo> 
ftjile*! fret- moveincntH fnim tiie beginning. 
One npendM niiicli timii in nn- 
aly^^iiig the lettent into almtract 
linen, giving nuinei* lo everj* 
vitrioiiH line in each letter, 
while nnother diHtiiitwea the 
whole Biilijeet of form with n 
single st-ntenee or two. 

(hie lays n great deal of 
Hlretw upon Umrd monfmenUt 
or irritijifj fiff Hint- ; another 

pica a place in the Vw-ir jrofind of our educa- 
tional plan ? It is submitted in all candor, in 
view of its importance, if the art of writine 
should not be placed in the/wrr ffrourui of all 
r)ur edu(«lional i>lans. Is not its naturai or- 
der next to that of reading? Is not its im- 
portance second to none but that ? But what 
arc facts in the case? Writing is virtually 
ignored as a branch of studv in a hkrge ma- 
jority of our conuuon schools. This is so. 
simply because there are no retiuircmente for 
good iienmanship on the part of our common 
school teachers— not even a knowledge of it« 
simplest principles. \» a proof of this we 
need only refer lo the manner of examining 
tcarhiTs. In an Iowa school re|>ort there are 
the methods of four different county super- 
intendents, in conducting examinations. 
Only one of the four mentions writing in any 
manner whatever. That one commences the 
exercise in thiswise: '•Write your name, 
age and pnstofHce address." Here he logins 
and here he ends. And m all probability 
the applicant ended there too; never once 
saying "write." throughout the term of his 
or her school. 

Ucforniis widly n.-cdrd licrc .And how 

am it be brouulii :ii i- V.\ \\v -t'iiiiir;il 

mcana poasilil- ^l .: ^ ;■ ii 

necessary qujilihi .' ,. v\ li:it 

per cent of the - m i- m m. > .M,^l^v 
would be cuiiijRUiit t.. Ua. Ii ti.M^i.ii.liy, 
arithmetic, or uny one of the coniuion 
branches now taught, were they not required 

to the painfully elalwrste produclinns of 
many persons who profess to l»e authority. 
and whose opinions in many matters are read- 
ily accepted as such. Yet they fail to grjisp 
the subject in it« broad comprehensiveness 
Their views are limited and worse than sel- 
fish; for, while they ignore others, thev can- 
not benelit themwlvi>s. Thev work out a 
standard purely their own, n-gantlesa of its 
Illness to universal requirements, and educate 
themselves up — or down— to it. Instead of 
st-t'king to reproduce fonus already exten- 
sively in use, and susceptible of rapid execu- 
tion, they endeavor to avoid such. In this — 
where originality is an injury— they seek to 
be original, and, mifortunateiy, am success- 
ful. Should there be established a National 
Bureau of Education, it is probable that in 
no other branch of study would the people be 
benefitted by governmental supervision and 
consequent enforcement of a uniform svslem 
a.H in this matter of writing. We never can, 
with propriety, say a pereon is either a good 
writer or a poor writer until we have some 
permanent standonl of comparison — some 
universally acknowledged authority. 

Among Germans it is almost impossible 
lo find an illegible penman. To be sure the 
acute angle, which is such a prominent char- 
acteristic of the German script, does not 
admit of the same degree of deviation as do 
the constantly recurring curves and turns of 
the English script. Then, again, it may be 
also, that in no other people is shown'lhnt 

a \yosxa\ system which iiK-itt^l iK-.>plf to cuii- 
mil petty fraud must In- ver?- defective. He 
argued that if the price of postage was low- 
en'd from an exorbitant rate to one that came 
easily within the means of the mass of the 
peopU-. so many more letter? would pass 
through the mails, that the flnancial condition 
of the irenaury would not be imptun-d, while 
society would derive much additional benefit. 
He became so interested in the matter that 
he mnnaired lo bring his views to the notice of 
the British Oovenunent, which gave them a 
favorable reception; and on the 10th of Jan- 
uar>\ 1840, which may Iw considennl the 
birthday of the postage stamp, letters hemm 
to be circulated in every part of the United 
Kingdom at the posU^e rate of only a penny. 
The experiment W11.S ,'iiirr.**ful in' lUM-xleiit 
much licyoiid expr.Lirh!, l;..u;,ni<l Hill 
became secretary ' i !!■ ]■ i; . ^ LTiienil. 
and during the n- \' ■ i ■ _T<'nt a 

change had taken |>hii . u i - i tin' mini- 

her of letters sent il.iniiMi, ii,,. |,,„j|s ^vii« 
7.239.062. against 1.500.000 in ISW. /'«;.,,■ 

The Signature. 
You know thai when a law has been iiinde 
it is signed by the King. Emperor, President, 
or Governor. Well, years ago the kings (lid 
not know how to sign their names. Henry I 
of Encjnnd (in the year 1100) was called 
^liolar, because he could 

Hf/iu (l/rc — or ftm 

r lliruw. 

I. IV ..n„t faith 
, ..Ii j rmd oh. 
, nil Nuch things 

Another checken 
pages with hori/,ontat, 
tiiid slanting lines i 
wliilr iiiiNilier Rays, n 

1 guides, 
'av with 

npiMi till- eye alone. One 
aiillinr iin-rcrrt to build up his 
Icticrs with iliree or four lines 
iiHi-d tw principles, another 
uscH ffirly-wix. Some begin 
with Hiruight lines, curves, 
"pol-hooks" luid "hangers" 
while others present whole let- 
ters, Home use only the sim- 
pleat HtyU' of rapitals and od- 
lierc lo one lonii alone, while 
oMuTH use roinplinited styles 


and others still, that be 

when tiii-sr .1 M I . 

F. M. Johnson, n pupil at tlu- ( 

to include all the demands nun I 
Of exJHling systems theiv are som 
ule iiiiiiiy of these good point > 

The Neglected Art. 
Ill puint ..I simplii-ilv. braiitv and real 
pniclir.ll utjlilv . the simple little art of writ- 
ing \v.\s 11.. p,vr. Its .lilTusiun i.- so general 

an. c.i lallur » it bju- foiUd U> ullaiii. it 
may 1..- Myled the luglecte^ art. 

A moment's ri'lleclion will suHlce to con- 
vinee any ime of the im|>ortance of this art. 
But to eompn'liend it* great importance, lon- 
ger retlection will be more convincing. 
Turn our thoughts which way we will, we 
find the art of writing intimately cbnncctcd 
with alt the commercial and social relations 
of life. There is no tinde, calling, vocation, 
or profeMsion of which it is not the moulb- 
pioce. It emltodioK thought in a visible lan- 
gUH^. Vuder its magic power, ideas a^ume 
tau^ble form, and the egf may trace the ojk 

few months at farthest, under a coinpeteui 
iitslniclor. will enable even a child to cnm- 
mand thin moulh-pieoo of ihe social economy, 
and make it speak eloquently to the eye ; and 
when we know its importance in all the re- 
lations of life, is it not strange that it occu- 

) piL'w exuniinatioii in iliem. It is very safe. 
t least, to .say that a large per cent would j 
ever attain to more than a superficial know- 

; il M - nii: by ^jood ilistrucliuii. Let us 

1 i ii' rising generation to learn this 
' > ii ! .1 IS well as beautiful art as we 
^^'1' ■ ' i I" Itiini it— by force of cir- 

nitn-ii , I ■. I ii^!:iint- may be belter 

limn 11. : I In ■■ I .; hi. mode of instruction 

i81llu;,^ ' h: I MrVLT tO Icud. HiS 

tiiilinn I- us j\ - iiiil generally draws a 

Lit Ihe le«chci-8 ul our conimon schools 
first learn to write, and at the same time 
learn to leach the art. Let them then im- 
pn-.s8 upon their pupils the importance of the 
art ; afterwards let tlicm leach their pupils to 
practice it skillfully, —/wim InntrwUtr. 


In our business relations we are eonslimtly 
reminded of the absolule need of some fixed 
and unlversulh acknowledged style of writ- 

The gratuitous praise that has been award- 
ed to those who write a '-ctmracteristichand" 
has had the effect to produce an endless Va- 
riety of styles, so that to be an adept in de- 
ciphering every style exlaut is to be the 
professor of an accomplishment of no mean 

Penmanship is a branch of education in 
which individual taste is allowed t<K> much 
scope. What is reqtnred in business is a 

Slam, uniform style, with no superlluous 

AM unneoeesary lines tend to make writing 
less legible, wnce they catch the eye, yet con- 
vey no meaning. 

The crude, misshapen, and unfinished 
lettem of Horace Greeley are often preferable 

almost uncouquemble desin ii iiim.. i 
which the American isc»>n-i, .■ i, i i i. 
disagreeable exomples. \'\ i n ■ , . i 
sin' Itijrivc undue promiiH-iii .- i.. imliv 
I" ' 'iImi 111. - \\:i-4 H characteristic of the iJir- 
II II. unostentatious and cosily- 
" I : ' ■ ' - A'liild soon give place to such 

>:i' "I I'irms and ornamentations as a 

li.risiiiiii <imtii,'bl on the inventive faculties 
euuid priHluee. 

Let every one who is forming a handwrit- 
ing keep in mind that it is no more diflk-ult 
to write legibly than illegibly. Look to it 
Ihat vou ingraft into your writing no un. 
inearnng tines. Handwriting hke printing 
should be essentially the siune wherever the 
language is spoken. — aV. Y. Mail. 

Origin of the Postage Stamp. 

Quite an intere-stingaiid nirious story is con- 
nected with the origin of the postage* stamp. 
One day a young girl came forth from an inn 
located in the northern port of England, and 
received from a postman a letter, which she 
turned over in her hand, as she inquired the 
price of the postage. The man asked a shil- 
ling, a sum too large for one so poor as her- 
self to pay. and so she returned the letter to 
the postman with sadness although she knew 
that her brother bad sent it. But a sympa- 
thetic traveller named Itowlaod Hill 'stood 
near, and at this moment interposed ami in- 
sisted ou paying the shilling himself, although 
the girl seemed strongly averse lo his doing 
so. When the postman bad departed, the 
kind-hearted Mr. Hill was surpnsed to find 
that there was no need for his pity ; for the 
envelope, the young girl explained to him, 
contained no written communication, but on 
its outside were certain marks agreed upon 
by hereelf and her brother, fn)m which, tu 
she held the letter in her hands, she gathered 
all the information she desired. "AVe are 
both sci poor," she continued, "that we in- 
vented this mode of correspondence without 
paying for our letters." 

Such duplicity set Mr. Hill lo thinking that 

write his iiuiiie. K 
ilie monks sign tlic < 
Tlieodore. who wa^ 
in Italy, had a guM 
first few letters ni 
Greek cbunictei-s ; ^ 
signed he laid tin 
mrked through tin 


Ibe I 

Turkish sultans i 

bowl of ink and pn '. i i !. pjiper. 

That was aiiugly u,,. , ■ : I! nnon 

way was to have a ^^ ■ _ i ! , i • ii into 
wax at the botloin .-' Mm ■ i iii-r per- 
sons learned how 1m :ii. i -i,. s ibey 

still used the seal- Im i ,,,.,,, -wit- 

ness my hand and w:ii ih. -. ,-i 1- l.ssinid 
less used. Persons who tiad no Niuiiet ring 
used some peculiar elmracter— in these days 
only used by the ilMlerale and called a mark 
—il is but a' cross. 

In the July number of the Pesmas'h Akt 
Joubnai, is given an elaborate photo-engrav- 
ing laken from a pen-and-ink ropy, which 
shows rare skill and ixci nlirm in i»ii.rlraw. 
ing, lettering and Ib-iii i-lin-- I h. UMpk is -i 

grand tribute of 1 ^ ' ■ h- lij. the 

Kepuhlican candi<i;ii> ' : I , . i The 
design is made up ol im lin i iM< [ orrrail in 
the centre, encirclc.l wjih a «r'-:irli ..f leave* 
and riowt-r-s, surrouiuled by beautiful Idler- 
ing and fiourishing. and the whole emhel- 
lished with un rxqiiisitely wrought border 
of vines, leaves, grasses an'd birds, all m mar-' 
veloiisly executed that bad we not often U'. 
fore seen similar productions from the same 
master hand, we could hardly believe that 
the entire original waa the production of un 
ordinary- steel pen. The publisher, D. T. 
Ames, artist penman, at 205 Broadway, this 
city, advertises copies of the rure work, print- 
ed < n heavy plate paper for framing, for sale 
at 15 cents each. Sample copies of the Jol-h- 
sal may be bad at 10 cents each, upon appli- 
cation to the publisher. Similar dcslgDS of 
other Presidential candidates are advertised 
to follow. — Tfir Bookkerpf-r. 

Miw Amalic Rittcrhoff has charge of the 
B ihscription department of thin paper. 

Geo. James A. Garfield is now in this city. 
We understand he has discontinued Iiis writ- 
i:ig flchools. 

Rev. Wm. M. Smith, of N. J., nolwith- 
dtonding his manv clerical duties, has found 
time to favor un with several specimens 
evincing superior skill in the use of the pen. 

Professor J. D. Day, the inventor of the 
celebrated T squflre hearing his name, has 
returned from a very agrceahle visit at Prov- 
idence, R. I., and has resumed his duties at 
this place. 

Professor Charles Rollinson, who has for a 
numher of years heen aiwociated with us as a 
designer and general assistant, is spending 
a short vacation at Lake George and the 
Adirondack region. 

Professor H. W. Beatley, of Brooklyn, 
E. O.. is rusticating in the mountains of Col- 
umbia county A specnnLn of his work re- 
cently received mdicales that he is striving 
for the ' Iftruft fh f^ m penni in«>l ij 

Prof [ I d at 

present f his 

11 a \ ^Iver 

I ikc '^ 1 1 not 

with the nu 1 r i \ I I r 




has fi I 
(ilcnt w 
^rce of c 

f Bndgepoi t 
rd wiitini; let 
1 winch rcfltct 

1 the elaboiate desiirn 

The Students Vow or The Havmted 
Hay stack 

Tlu suljpd if tins si etch wtus an i itel 
ligent encigctic \oung man out West 
whost worthy ambition to be s inieViody 
was not chiUtd by the depiessmg remem 
branec that he boie the much abused appel 
lative of Dauiel Webster or Jolrn Milton 
and was ixptctcd br his doting parents to 
add new glory to either ilUistnoua pat 

If Ins father and mother had evei enter 
tamed an> hopea of future greatness for the 
a in whom they named Prank that vonng 
gtntltman never knew it for the simple lea 
sou that he duln t beheve in spiritualism and 
in no othei way could thej communicate then 
ideas to him as both bad j ears before crossed 
the Cliillmg River and penetrated inys 
teries that the hvmg may not luiow 

Frank had carl> learned that oi phaiis art 
not as a general thing cradled in the lap 
of luvurj and he was certainly no evceptu n 
to the a\erage rule Soon aftci the death of 
his parents. Fi-ank, who was then about 
twelve years old, was oflEered a nhelter, surely 
not a home^ willi an old miser and liis equolly 
penurious wife. They expected to make it a 
paying investment by the amount of work 
they could compel him to perform on their 
rough, stony farm, and didn't seem to imag- 
ine for a moment that any love or senst; of 
appreciation was at all necessary lo a child's 
happiness. All this happened before the 
compulsory educ^ition law was thought of, 
much less enforced, and tVank never saw the 
inside of a school-house until after he had 
completed his sixteenth year. He wasn't 
allowed to study at home evonings, because 
those with whom lie resided argued "that 
'twas no use to bum up good ile jnsl to let 
that lazy boy waste his lime over an old book. 
Re'd a mighty sight better be- sproutin' them 
'tutors down cellar ; he couUl do that without 
a light." 

It is sometimes cheering to remember that 
there never was a life so lonely that it hadn't 

With reference to the practices of these t 

some ray of hope to dispel its gloom, and 
Frank found a young friend who encouraged 
him to make something worthier of himself 
than "old Benson's drudge." This com- 
panion gave him an old copy-book and a few 
lca\es of a tit itise on book keeping ti com 
mence ^Mtli bit / ^ and Wfrc to use them 
was a question tbit for a time sadlj pu/ 
?led pool Frank 

At length a happy thought bnghtt i ed 
his energies and made hfe seem less a bur 
den If ab)ut this time the story gained cie 
dencc that Benson s liaj stack down by the 
Red null was liumted Frank did his best 
I stiengthen and confirm tins supposition 
Vt first all his Insure time which wasn 
i( b V )u maj le sure was spent in perfor 
ig two laigeloaids Mtl i i s II 

I les Nt\t be ( 11 
nt the haystack ii 1 
tlu boaids Then I 

the hay stack and i II I i 

from the msidc as he daicd Next h pio 
cuied a supply of pine knots and stiwed 
them away in this undenjiound apartment 

W\ this work had to be done aftei I irl 
md after eild Benson and liis wih w i 

soothed into eheamland bj the di \ \ 
hum of June bu,^ mosquitoes etc Vt 
times ho became almtst discouraged and 
feared he must abandon all hope of e\er ob 
tuning inything like an education but he 
w IS one of the persevering kmd and at last 
\er\ thing wis ready for study He had 
1 dned the two 1 nar Is t rthcr ii dcr the ha} 
stack— b)tl I f 1 

to add t( I i II 

the torch I I 

the holes I 111 II 

had pulled aw y the ha> to allow the light to 
penetrate through 

The ignoi-ant are generally superstitious 
and nothiiij, shoit of a consideiable sum of 
money would have induced either Benson or 
hiB wife to go near the ha} -stack All in the 
neighborhood who had fithomed the s 
kept It foi Fianl s sake and he vor I 
no one should ever regret au\ kii I 
they had sliown him He kept that vo 
IS to day an honored membei of society 

It shows what can be done if one is deter 
mined to succeed although we hope no vent 
uresome boy will set tirelooncot hisrelat 
haj stacks in his attempts to surpass am 
beietofoio aecomphshed Cuition is 
(jualit} to possess but one can have to 
of It and timid people who f(ar totrj i 
thing out of the beaten path arc apt to be 
left behind by the enterprising individual 
who darea and wins. Better fail than never 
try to accomplish anything worthy to be 

She Wouldn't Uelt. 

A day or two ago. when a servimi _ 
opened the side door of a bouse in rf-i' 
to a tramp's knock, her face looked so in m. 
olent that the hungry man had no doubt thai 
a good dinner awaited biin. He had, how- 
ever, laid out a certain programme, and he 
therefore began : 

"My dear woman, I haven't had anything, 
to eat for two days, and I wanted to ask if 
y^n would spare me one of Ibese icicles 
which has fallen from the eaves?" 

"Well, I dunno," she slowly replied, as 
she looked out. "I suppose we might spare 
you one, if you are really suffering, but of 
course you won't take the largest and best ?" 

He stepped down and selected an icicle 
about two feet long, aitd in a hesitating man- 

rather bold in you to ask it, but I 
I can sprinkle on a little — a very 
little," she replied, and she got the pepper and 
dusted his luncheon very sparingly. 

He started to move away, but seeming to 
recollect something he turned and said ■ 

\ ou seem so lienevolent 1 11 ask you to 
sprinkle on a little salt as well I like my icicle 
se isoned up prettj high 

"i ou are a bold man sir and it s plain 
that you have the appetite of a glutton 1 iit 
1 11 give you a bit of salt and then you must 
be goi e sli replied 

\Mt tl Ic I n I d h It 1 ! 

ved slowly out of the gate and 
h s icicle at a passing dog be 
his disgust 111 language 

vere made 

rule 'i — Bookkeep. 

tly with slung shots 

\ about the dead languages 
What IS It ' asked 
That they arc killed h 

ed of a bad smell about th 
I t II 111 asked Brown what it coul I 
be Brown didn t know but suggested that 
It might be the dead tetters 

A penman in writing wedding invitation 
rocentlj made this mistake Mr and Mrs 

respectfully lequest jour presents at the 

marriage of then dauo-bter 

i huing of a thistle seed 
if you really wanted t 

tincr focus you might tall a 
men who have diaw n prize 
nd I ouisana lotteries 

\\ hat IS the meaning of tl 

T 11 t I i It f ifter all the others have f i Ic 1 
to give the correct dehnitious) — I d n l 

Pe 1 ■rogue— Right 'go i) t fh 1 I 

c 1 


filly which for 
th and health 
id tven life itvcU 
( llmUJi 

CultlOUS THAN A WoMAN.— Talk 

ruri..'!it> cif n omen : \Vi- « ill hark 

J 1 t 

1 1 

1 th 1, 1 nf till, tl 
—And were all the little 1 ir 1 


about lh 

afi\ u 

1 1 1 
An observe 

had been telling the Btor\ 1 
all but tboie who wtr 

1 lo think tbcv w ere stiip 1 
\ fiet m a row on top f tl 

r says that there are a great 
the world who imaprine tli:i' 

the cavity funn i I \ 

mg at the cliin ^ 

down undtT rln imi i ii h i ui -u hi, hK 
hesitating, be Uims iimiul ns it Ik iiad iDrf^ot- 
ten sonietliing, and proceeds lu an explora- 
tion of the ear.". This concluded, he carries 
out his original intention, and disappears be- 
tween the neck and shirt collar, emerging, 
after a lapse of some minutes, with an air 
seeming to say he had performed his eiuty. 
What matter the frantic attempts to catch 
him, the enraged gestures, and the profane 
language ? They disturb his equanimity not 
a moment. Driven from one spot, he alights 
on another ; he finds he has only got a duty 
to perform, and he does it. 

I.., Tlnsi.nnl ., j<.k, , itmafiirt. 

"Now tlien. madam, please look stcadi 
I at this place on the wall," said a photograph 
lo liii old lady when he liad placed her in i • 

1 thee 

. Tbi- 

I I lie spot indicated. lh( n . i 
i'--s the floor and miiiun 
I'll I niii then, turning to ili«- rii 
>;tii|>ii. I, m-iiUy remarked; "I dun i > 
unytliiiig lliere." 

"I suppose," said a boarder from the < " 
lo the old farmer who was his landlord. "lh» 
there are romantic incidents connected wit 
that picturesque gorge over there?" 'I'l 
old farmer looked at him mournfully /"t 
said: "Yes. Only six months ago a pJiir" 
youthful lovers strolled through and ncvr 
came back." "You don't say sol Wli!i 
became of them?" asked the city boaidct 
" They got married and settled in the neN 
town," answered the old farmer. 

Writing Schools. j 

Nt Ii^ri^ hfi [tc-ninaiuhip (ronlinucn lo lit- a '. 
branch of nlur'alioti, wriiinp itrhools will 
iiL-tTtT "plBy fml;" and ilu- nm-vnof s fpw 
Uiffiibt} |M-op)c, whrme prvjiidices outweigh ' 
ihvir Itrairui. And who never attcndiHl a wnl. 
ktifi <:\Mim, or who, if they did, were incapiihle | 
rf rcrriviiig iniitnietion, will never con- 
vinrr 11m- prufemon thai it i« not an b'munitjie > 
)trMini-*«i, nor thr lu-n^iMe, tbinkinj; niaiiae« 
that n tfoocj writing Hcbool in nol a ptibltt 
bintflt. I 

Thai thi-rc nrc humliugs and MWindleni in i 
thJH ut in every iithrr proft»wion no one pre- 
icndu to deny ; hut are the wonby lo lie et-n. 
Mured hecaiue A or B haan't Miffirient dix- 
r>:romcnl lo shit-Id liimwlf from the Irickti of 
a . .iiipiric;' Or. if a few uii-ii MiilTer tlieni- 

iinil liiiiill> uUtiiduiied? / ^/m not. Tlic 
jH/tpIi- iif ihiH "day and gencnilion" cIioohu 
ii'il (o hi- thiiH circumscribed, \v\r to pin tlifir 
fiiith to the coaUtailH of H few )K)or, aitnpU', 
Hf- If -ton ceiled, namm-.mindcd bigom. They 
lire Iwglnning to rcaliM* the imporbitict- of a 
wcll-reguiHled iiationat systeui of punnmnRhip, 
one lliat may he spread from ocrcun I') oc<Hn, 
[kiid read with an niiieb eaae and rapidity lui 
niir prcw-iit Htyk- of printing. 
Thf old tliforlt-K that "pmrtir 




generally, to te I hi- most comprehensive, pniclieal, nnd artistic guide to ornamental pi 
niunsliip ever publislied. Sent, postpaid, in any address on rcci-ipl of $4.50, 
I)rcininni for a club of iwrlvc subscribers to the .lornsAj.. 

The aliMVc ciil R-i>r(wnrs the lillc pa-c of the work, wlii. |i is 1 1 \ 11 in 

;i theory y In 
Siip[KWc a per- 

^zx .[\-^10^m{^ 

inol.iiMv viiiir father's; / \ I 

IV I, iiinl «o liaa i-V.TV- I 
vl.i- Ami Ihii. j/mlr, 

iiikI si. will tliiil (if our itrompliy iiuirk" 

of display < 

AH pin and uikcop,ii. ('Uts ot all (It.stnplK 

j iiri' iviidi'red legible by bt-snicaring the leaf 
I with ink-like fluid. A lelter is generally tin. 
; ished on a single leaf, which is then iucloscd 
j in a second, whereupon is the address. 


Caught by a Frog. 

A lti<-h llic ciphers, in- 
■ ', give the significant 
t ivill bf surprised lo 

nitVANT & s-ricA'rio:\'s 

(nmmou School UnoI{-kee|)iii^. 

Couuliii^ House Hoitk-kci'piiig, 

Went past. And then the Thoiimston 
man thought what n fool he was not to re. 
member that he was on a side track thai 
hadn't been uwd for six ycare. He pulled 
.his fool out of thi- b(K)t, reutoved that 
article fmm its position, put it ou the end of 
a elub. and kicked himself all the way lionu-. 
— ttiteJUand Courier. 

Some firmin Germany is attempting tostib- 
siilule puiH-r for wood in the manulucliire of 
b-ad-pem-ils. The pai>er is sleem-d in an ad- 
hesive liquid, and rolled round the core of 
lead lo ibi- n^iuirvd iliickness. After the 
l>ajHTjs dry it is eolon-JL and it n-scmliles, 
•edar iH-nril. 

A'beu tluistietl, an ordinal 

Hindoo Writing- 
Wriliug is a curious art practiced by tlii- 
Iliudoos. They may be often seen walkini; 
along their native streets writing a lelUr. 
An iron style and a palm leaf are their imple- j 
ments. In writing, neither chair nor table is I 
needed, llic leaf being supported on the mid> ' ^^ 
die linger of the left hand, and kept steady j 
with the thumb and forefinger. The right | -. 
hand does not. as with us, move along tlie mumb' 
surface, but after fiuisliiug a lew words, the ' A|>i> ov 
writer fixes the point of the iron in the last ' '>"''": 
letter and pushes the leaf from right to left so ' ""°J ^ 
that he may 6uisk liie line. The charactcre ^ra. 

Ivison, fiiakeman. Taylor • 

In n lit of In St at, l lue to 

ev ry D aug «n an 
a mp u u « b >d wlib a 

Oaoads Add e 


nly not only upon 
iioingm ijrt-mpily. 

lull BetaorwpKw), 
3 >lieei tblclr, 23x-JH'in.'. \> 

aluiDH -lO PZvrcbM 

cV, 23x-JH'in 
t'i». (itT 8lio(<ta, by li 

WiuT's drawg.[>aper, but-prcsa, \w.o id.. 9 1 < |I 

" iex2»iu!,' 30 -i 
aixjoio, a 8 

Wlo*or tt Ntwton'ssnperHup.liiil. l<'k,|>r«iick, S 

Iduxinot boUltarftDcy colored lulc sent by ox- 

Wuiit! lui, [wr tiultio, by expnaa .... 

l>«vid'B Japan Ink, per plul bolilc, by <-xprfw.... 1 ' 

fr puicdlDdialDk.por bslile, by PxprtSB 

Am«B' funmoa'a K*voni« N-». I, pM*grt*«! !.'.... . I 

- lu •* gr<'Ni bi.x... 
SlwDCi'DaaHo. l.ostrafor QflO'labiiig 1 

UcLw'e Alitliiibola ".'. "... : 

Buibf|oofl8WD«andI>'t" ri, 

E«* toSpDUUVraU PcLiii ir.r I 

CulDpvUdlUiii. . J 


2H»3«;; v.!'.'."".".'.'.!.' '. .. i 

■ay leusllt. prr >-'■<, 



TTlSttlXO CAtlD< wrliwn 
, ffaOrtni^u-AttttA, %l. Sample, 

Stylo^rapliic Pens. 

Special Wliolesale AgoiiU lor A. T. Cross' 
SlvlQgraphlc Pens. Agent* make money 
selling tliem. Send for Large Illiutrated 
PriceXist Bhowtng .Styles mid Testiraoniaie. 
Over Fifty Thousand in daily use. 

Bevel Kdge Cards, new styles, just oul. 
One Hundred and Fifty, poat-paid with Price 
Li'tl. iJl.OO. 

New lot of Pens, Fancy Inks, etc., to he 
»<>li] a( the lowest prices. Pleaae «end for our 
Priec Mflt. We warrmit prices satisfactory. 

Woonsocket, R. I. 

Kef,. I). T. Ames. 


C. u. »Dm)^{,R•OBom. Fa. 


New Coiiiinon School Rook^kenplng^ 





iUK- TbI. 

|.bo.i « 



.... ..,.1 

aome prpfer 


., '■'■"," 













lud Motion) 


„n.lf4 In 

■bo Dbihexl 
31 1 pages. 

'■ """!:"" 


1 °m' 

«ary bUD 

ke bsTo boao 

l"', " 

m<1 pub'llsber, J. C 


„"• """• "° 



•Pd Publlab- 


t'OHl'LtTK t'OlUiSE 


Arcniiiits, Willi Arlllinieticnl Problems, 




t T uw'il iipply. A.I.Ireaa wllli rAftfroor (liofyrtf Migusi 




lilo, Uaond«K 


'■ I'it^ 



».— I Twtcber for n Bu.inM. Gilbgo. A 
.a .i.>m otoullo icwb RnglisbGranjinir 
nod wno la ibor-iugbly np In BookkLt-p 

bo glvoQ. Artdr.v, wllb rere(vuce». 
&c., •WL'illO bUSIJJK^ COLLBOE, 



•' "" *« 

""""■ »°' 

11, BfBVrt 






Penman's Companion, 

- <■'■■ !■■ ■' '"-" ■■■■' 'I'." bougbl for lb 


Pie doi^ lSt.-iiia. Superior c*nls, toka, ic.alwaye o: 

Addrtaa plainly, 

H. W. Kibbe, 

-Vo. 7 HOBABT ST., 
M21. ITICA, N. 

^i Qrt^J:l=l:l .l. l! *% 

S Series of 


T H. Il.tni,<kW. D.-r.irniivo Ariist ,uvi I'.^-j ,. . MFtn, v\ -ni'iMl, IV-Trn'TK" F 



pupiU In 
»™f Spe 

tbe P<ibtlc or Co 
Kiogavi.le, ABb 

he r writing' 
nlCB for 35cta 




Indollblo) mail. 


ing gold, 






,„j rug. ,Y J 



J«r«ey City Busiuesii CoUeife. 

33 ind 2& Kewirk av^iiuu, Joraoy Ciiy, N.J. 

G A. Gaskkll. Principal. A. H. Stbpubnson, Seoromry. 

Bryant & Siratton ColloKe, 

G. A. Gaskbli, 1 priuclpals. MmicOesWr, N. U. 



- Sest Known. Established. 1824. : Z 


erior EKVL.I!iII n 


r'u.'blAsla.ed. H^oxLtlaJ-y, at 205 Baroa^-wp-oy, fox* ®1_00 per Tear. 
" Entered at the Pott OJpee of Neio York, N. T., an $ec(md-eltm matter." 


D. T. AnKX, 

AMTIsr-PCNUAN ui'l PU fUailEIt. 

Examiner of (jiiealioucd UandwrlllDg. 

«. II. 





40 Cou rt Sircut. Brooklyn, N. V. 


FHKiblklicd l%ta. 


J> 18. BARL01V, 




liolo-Vlootrolypri fur Itluiirikili 




:iOI ft 300 Fullou !Jt . Dnwklyn. 

^ (Tweinr ywiTB nl 3W FulUio Street ) 





flit issiii' of the 
iiiuil as speci- 
liirge nuinbcT to 

^ icrlpiion list, 
j.ltus ctilliiig 
/to thf paper 

/ of Us publica- 
tbeir aub- 




v.\l\ bt> our aiui and effort to pubUsb n paper 
wbich shall coiiiniend itself to all wlio arv iit 
miy licgrte Interested in good practical writ- 
ing or t\nc nnistic peuuiaiiship. 

In tbc present issue we give tlie lirst of a 
scries of twenty lessons in practical writing, 
lu these lessons we slmll make a special oflort 
not only lo present superior copies for study 
and practice, but lo give many hints for prac- 
tice and improvement which will be of value 
to learners, practical writere and teachers. 

We specially invite the alleutiou of parents 
having cltildrcn whom they would interest 
and iuiprove in their writing. Wo believe 
that they can in no other manner and with so 

Blight an expense, do so much lo accomplish 
their object, as by subscribing for tlic Jorit- 
SAi.. Its monthly visits will not onlyawnltcn, 
but keep alive an interest, which with the 
practical aid it will give by way of instruction, 
will certainly do much toward making good 
writers of all ita younger readers. Already 
many pan-nls iirc trying the experiment, and 
we hope for ninny more. It certainly requires 
but a slight improvement in one's writing to 
be worth one dollar, to say nothing of having 
an attractive paper, monthly, and a premium, 
which is atone worth the dollar to any ad- 
mirer of fine artistic penmanship. The fol- 
lowing is from one who has tried it. 

Gi.KN IJEri.Aii.Wis. Aug., 24, 1880. 
Editors J'rmnan's Art J>mrnal: 

DkahSiks: • • • . One year since I 
subscribed for the Joihnal, partl'v its an ex- 
periment. It has proved its own" merits and 
has now become indispensable to me. Inclosed 
find $1.00 for a renewal of niv subscription. 
Verv truly voiirs". 
" J. H. Tii 

Ing of St 

ber of the Joubn, 
weeks later than is 


isual delay in the engrav- 
uLs, the.present nura- 
Is issued neatly two 
r custom. 

Lesson In Practical Writing. 

The firsr reiiuisite in any employment re- 
quiring the use of implements is a full 
knowlcdgt? of their capabilities and uses. It 
is scarcely less necessary that a mechanic 
should thorouglily understand the mechanism 
of the thing he would construct, than that 
be should be able to wield with facility, and 
to the best advantage, the implements he is to 
employ in its construction. The woodman's 
ax, the husbandman's scythe, and the carpen- 
ter's adz, are most useful.and in skilled hands 
convenient implements, capable of producing 
e.\actly the desired results; but they are not 
only exceedingly awkward and uuserviceabie, 
but are even dangerous when wielded by un- 
skillful hands. 

So the pen when in its proper position and 
wielded by the hand of a master, is nn imple- 
ment capable of producing an endless grada- 
tion of the nujst smooth and graceful lines 
blended into artistic forma, ond writing; 
while in an improper position or in unskilled 
bands, it is incapable of producing any such 
desirable results. 

Since then it is im obvious fact that good 
lines and graceful writing can be executed 
only with a pen correctly held, position of 
pen, hand, and writer becomes the first requi- 
site for successful teaching or practice of 


Regarding the writer's position at the desk 
or table, authors and teachers ditTer, and 
uiKHi that point we will not raise au issue, 
since they all agree upon the more vital ques- 
tion as to the correct relative position of 
pen, paper, and writer. 

The position at the dusk or table nnist van- 
according to the size ajid form of the deslt, 
and the magnitude, form and cbarueter of the 
writing to be execute<l. It is not practical 
that under all circumstances the same posi- 
tion should be maintained; we shall there- 
fore give the several positions, slating the rea- 
sons ^veu by tiie advocates of each. 

KiOHT I'osiTios. — In accordance with the 
cut, turn the right side near to the desk but 
not in contact with it. 

Keep the body erect, the feet level on the 
floor. Place the right arm parallel to the 
edge of the desk, resting on the muscles just 
forward of the elbow, and rest the baud on 
the nails of the third and fourth fingers, not 
permitting the wTist to touch the paper. Let 
the hands be at right angles to each other, 
and rest on the book, keeping the book paral- 
lel to the side of the desk. 

This position is advocated us furnishing the 
best support for the hand ond arm while 
writing, and we think not without justice in 
school or class-rooms, where the desk is often 
sloping and 

Front cosmos.— In this the same relative 
position of hand, pen, and paper should be 
maintained as described in the former one. 
In commercial colleges and writing aca- 
lore spacious desks or tables 
n the common school room, 
admissible and is frequently 

demies where x 
are used than 
tins position is 

position we wo 

—Without illustrating this 
say that the left side is 
presented to the desk, and the same relative 
positions maintained as in the right and front. 
This position is advocated on the ground of 
its relieving the right ami from being bur- 
dened with any support of the body while 
writing, and thus giving a more free, rapid, 
and less tiresome action to the liand and arm; 
this argument has considerable force where 
the fore-arm or muscular movement is prac- 

This position is also the most convenient, if 
not a necessity in the counting room where 

VOL. IV. NO. 9. 

u and large books are required to re- 
main in a position at rigiit angles with the 
desk, and olso in the execution of large draw- 
ings or specimens of penmanship which nec- 
essarily, or most conveniently, occupy posi- 

' lions directly in front of the artist. 

Another position at the desk, sometimes 
advocated by authors and teachers is the right 

I oblique, which is a position between the front 
and side, thus, 

oBLiqttE POSITION.— In our Opinion, 
which of these positions is to be adopted, 
should be governed by the circumstances of 
the writer, or the class-room— and are not of 
such vital importance as. that the proper rel. 
alive position of pen, band, and paper should 
be maintained, and that the arm should be 
perfectly free from the weight of the body 
while writing. 

PKsnoLDiNo.— Take the pen between the 
first and second fingers and thumb, letting it 
cross the fore-finger just forward of the 
knuckle (a) and the second finger at the root 
(■f the nail (b) \ of an inch from the pen's 
point. Bring the point (c) squarely lo the 
paper and let the tip of the holder (d) point 
toward the right shoulder. 

The thumb should be bent outward at the 
first joint, and (e) touch the bolder opposite 
the first joint of the fore-finger. 

The first and secoiid fingers should touch 
each other as far as the first joint of the 
first finger; the third and fourth must be 
slightly curved and separate from the others 
at the middle joint, and rest upon the paper 
at the tips of the nails. The writt must 
always be elevated a lillle above the desk. 
Thin position of the pen, is undoubtedly the 
best for all writers using llie finger movement, 
as ii admits of the greatest freedom and facil- 
ity of action of the fingers ; but among writers 
using the iniiscidar movement where less de- 
pends upon the action of the fingers it is com- 
mon, and we think well to allow the holder 
to full back and below the knuckle joint, it is 
easier held, and from its forming a more 
acute angle with the paper, moves more read. 
ily and smoothly over its surface. 

Finger Mazement is tbc combined action of 
the first and second fingers and thumb. 

Fore-Arm Movement is the action of the 


fore-onn sliding the hand on the nails of tht 
third and fourth fingers. 

CoT^ned Mor^mrnt is tlial which is most 
used in bwineu pfnmnn»hip. II is n union of 
the fore-orm with the finger movement, and 
poseascs great lulvantwge over the otlier move- 
mcnU in the greater rapidity and ease with 
which it is employed. 

WhoU-Arm M»temeni is tlic action of the 
whole arm from the shoulder, with the elbow 
slightly raised, and the liand sliding on the 
nails of the third and fourth fingers. And is 
used with facility in striking large capital 
letters and in off-hand flourishing. 

Main Slant. A stmight line 

i slanting to the right of the ver- 

I f',.^^^ tical. forming an angle of 52* 

with the horiTOntnl, gives the 

I slant (M. S. ) for all written letters. 

Connietive Slant. Curves which connect 
straight lines in snmll letters, in a medium 
style of writing, are usually made on an 
angle of 80". This is called the connective 
ilant (C. 8. ). See diagram. 

J3<ue Line. The horizontal line on which 
the writing rests is called the bojie line. 

Head Line. The horizontal line to which 
the short letters extend is called the head 

Top Line. The horizontal line to which 
the loop and capital letters extend is called 
the top lint. 

A Space in Ih'g?it is the hight of small (". 

A Space in Width is the width of small u. 

The distance hetwceu t lie small letters is 1^ 
spaces, measured at hend line, except in the 
a, d, g, and q. The lop of the pointed oval in 
these letters should be two spaces to the right 
of a preceding letter. 

Upper and Lower Turns. In the analysis 
of small letters, short curves occur as con- 
necting links between the principles. These 
curves we call turns. When one appears at 
the top of a letter, it is called an upper turn ; 
when at the base, it is called a Imoer turn. 

MovsMKiiT KXEBOiSE. All instructiOD in 
penmanship should be imitated with a liberal 
use of movement .exercises which should be 
arranged, and practiced with the view of 
facilitating upward and downward as well as 
lateral movement of the hand, and each and 
every lesson should be preceded with more 
or less practice upon movement exercises ; we 
will give a few exercises with this lesson, 
giving others as the lessons progress. 


In practicing upon these movements it 
should be constmitly borne in mind that it is 
not the amount of practice, so much as the 
careful and thoughtful effort to acquire pre- 
cision and cortninty, that determines the suc- 
cess of the writer — careless and aimless prac- 
tice, no more trains the hand for correct and 
graceful writing, than the wild yell of the 
savngc would the voice, for elocution. 
(To he continued.) 

When Thomas gives up his place, salary, 
houst and comfort for the sake of his ideal of 
wliat a musical college should be — when 
Millais flings metaphorically ten thousand 
pounds into the face of the enraged English- 
man, the worid says, "But what is this? 
There must lie something these men are 
working for. Wliat is this thing, to which 
money and position are of no importance? 
This art must be a greater thing than we 
know, and an artist must have our respect 
though we confess we do not understand him. " 

Now for my application. Teaching is a 
fine art. Only those of us who hold the 
doctrine are true artists or will ever make any 
enduring mark on our pupils or command 
respect lor our work. But the test of the 
true artist is the showing that to him the 
necf^'tily nmlMini-d in his art is above all 
ol!i. r iii'i r--Miii ^ ipiii In that he must be true 
if li ' I . ■!,.!. c-lse. How about the 

])iii ' ' I- !uid exhibitions and 

]iT-< • I i >_■ - III -1 itjsiirs? now about drill- 
iiiu |iii|iii.-- •Ill, lu them, perfectly useless 
things ill order to make a show? How about 
training them to read Poe's "Raven," or 
Woolsey's "Speech to Cromwell" before a 
wonder-struck audience, wlien we know 
perfectly well that they can't read at sight 
any page of common English without blun- 
dering so that it is no pleasure to hear them ? 
How about handing round their writing 
books as proof that they are fine and correct 
writcra, when they cau't write a letter of a 
page that is not full of errors? How about 
the essays they read at the exhibitions which 
are supposed to contain their own thoughts 
expressed in their own English? How about 
the time spent in preparation for show which 
ought to he spent in honest work? 

Oh ! fellow teachers, if we as a profession 
are a butt for every one's joke— if wc do not 
find oui-selves recognized as a profession, if 

The Schoolmaster's Conquest. 

Bronson Alcott, of Boston, told Joseph 
CtJok, and Josepli Cook told every-body he 
met, that he made a regulation in his school 
that if a pupil violated a rule, "the master 
should substitute his own voluntary sacrificial 
chastisement for that pupil's punishment; 
and this regulation almost Christianized his 
school." "One day," Mr. Alcott said. "I 
called up before me a pupil who had violated 
an important rule. I put the ruler into the 
offender's hand : I extended my own hand ; 
I told him to strike. Instantly I saw a strug- 
gle begin in his face. A new light sprang up 
in his countenance. A new set of shuttles 
seemed to be weaving a new nature within 
him. I kept my hand extended, and the 
school was in tears. The boy struck once 
and burst into tears. He seemed transformed 
by the idea that I should suffer chastisement 
in place of his punishment, and ever after was 
the most docile fellow in the school, though 
he had at first been the rudest." 

Now. this is very affecting and reasonable 
and striking. No one can read the incident and 
very readily forget it ; and it contains a lesson 
that everj-'school teacher can certainly read 
with profit. The incident came to the 
knowledge of Willis K. Stoddard, who for 
years past has been teaching a district scliool 
in Flint river township, in Iowa. He read 
Ibis extract from one of Joseph Cook's 
lectures, and never forgot the great moral it 
conveyed. Young Mr. Stoddard had some 
pretty hard boys in his school. They were 
liig and noisy and rough and turbulent. He 
had reasoned with them ; he had expostulated ; 
he had begged and wept. He bad whipped 
Iheni until his arms ached, and the directors 
had threatened to dismiss him for unneces- 
sary severity and absolute cnielty ; and the 
boys grew worse and worse every day. But 

fused with anxiety, "Hadn't I better go out 
and get a bigger switch?" 

The teacher softly told him he might do so 
if he wished, and Samuel Johnson went out 
and was gone ten minutes. When he 
returned, the school smiled. He carried in 
his hand a switch that looked like a Russian 
peace commiswoner. It was about seven feel 
long, an inch and three quarters thick at the 
butt, and was limber and twisted, and had 
knots and knobs clear down to the point. 
The boy's face shone with a bright glo' 

Mr. Stoddard stood up and folded his a 

'et look at the 

t act in greedy and 

Then he s 

culprit, "Now strike mi 
Samuel Johnson did i 
unseemly haste. He conducted lumserf like 
a boy who has a painful duty to perform, 
bulls impelled by conscientious motives to 
perform it thoroughly. He pulled off his 
jacket ; he rolled up his sleeves ; he spat in 
his hands, and look a two handed grasp on 
the switch. Twice he changed the position 
of his feet to gel a heller brace. Then he 
drew a long, deep breath, raised his arms, and 
the switch just shrieked through the air like 
a wild, mad. living thing. 

Old Mr. Hargis, the senior director who 
lives only a mile and a half away from the 
schoolhouee, says he was out in his field 
plowing, and when Mr. Stoddard left off his 
first yell the old man's first impression was 
Ihat the schoolhouse had been struck by 
lightning. The next time the teacher sbout- 
e(l the director was convinced that a steam- 
boat had gone astray and was whistling for 
a landing somewhere up the creek. While 
he was trying to hold his terrified horses, 
another volley of sound came sweeping over 
tlie land like a vocal cyclone; and old Mr 
Nosengale, who had been deaf twenty- 
three years, came running over saying 
be believed they were fighting down at 
the quarries. By this time they were 
joined by the rest of the neighbors, and 
the excited population went thronging 
on toward the schoolhouse. 

In accepting Mr. Stoddard's resigna- 
tion, the directors considerately allowed 
his pay for the full term, and in a scries 
of complimentary resolutions spoke of 
bis efficiency in the highest terms, al- 
though it transpired that the board was 
privately agreed after all the facts had 
bec-n laid before it, that he was loo mucli 


.' 1 

r, Stoddard is 

not teaching 
He told his 




iiiid the good 



I', 1 -•■ ■-it'll" r 

inmittee was 



i .■ . ■' .: 

1: Stoddard 

rested o 

r !■ 

i 1 IV leaning 

up, fac 


he mantel- 

piece in 


Slate Pencils. 

The above cut is Photo-engraved from an orip 
at Wright's Business 

;inal specimen executed by W. E. Dennis, Peumi 
CoUege, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

In making slate pencils, broken slate 
is put into a mortar run by steam, and 
pounded into small particles. Then it 
goes into a mill and runs into a" bolting 
machine," such as is used in flouring 
mills, where it is "bolted," the fine, 
almost impalpable, fiour that results 
being taken to a mixing tub, where a 
small quantity of steatite^ flour, similarly 

to bo a school teacher in the eyes of the 

physician is to be a pereon ignorant of the 

simplest facts of physiology, whose fault is it ? 

Do we ourselves" treat our work as an art? 

hold ourselves firmly opposed to all 

sham of whal 

may come frnni ,ui.l -v 

len'd our cfl"nii-. i il> 

full and heallliy im nla 
good of the pupil '.' ur U 
mand for "a few mor 
and prove t(^ tlie public 
ask it, that we are 
tools, and that no more 
there such a thing 

r the prcssui 
1 y ■l.iy and all day 
w h;it is best for the 
L>l,\Mealand moral 
wtyield to the d-- 
; bars of music, ^ir 
)r the committee w 1 1 
merely subservii m 

No Shame In Teaching. 

Theodore Thomas n-siinis his place at Cin- 
cinnati because he is an artist, tie wanted a 
"plain school without fuss or show, with no 

{larade in the management of the institution, 
mt a great and a good school." With the 
question of exuediency, he, as an artist, had 
nothing to do. He stands as the extreme 
type of the artist. We are not concerned 
now with the question of expediency but 
with the question of art, and in thi^ position 
Mr. Thomas is undoubtedly right and is n 
worthy artist. 

Millais, the French painter, says to the rich 
and vulgar Englishman wlio came to have 
him paint his portrait, and wanted to bhid 
him down to n certain number of days for its 
completion or a forfeiture of five pounds for 
every day's delay, " You can leave my house, 
I would" not paint your jwrtrait "for ten 
tho\isand pounds. " AJid wc say he was right. 

No one can be an artist to whom his art is 
not its own rewanl, and no art will ever be 
iieknnwledged such hv the public till tliis 
lesson has been taught by such men. 

■equired of us in 

icewe ought to 
■own fault— the 
d the "few more 
omplacently order 

Art of Teaching? 
want others to respect our work \ 
must respect it ourselves. It is of no use f 
us to cry "Teaching is an art," when O' 
every act shows that it is ti 
that we will do whatever is 
order to retain our places 

If we do not hold the pli 
liold as a profession it is 
fault of our time-saving, 
bars of music" which w 
for the sake of the show, 

Honesty, pure and simple, not because it is 
the best policy, but because our art demands 
it, fidelity to the principles of that art ; a 
flinging away of all shams — a refusal to do 
any work which is for show — these we must 
have as a profession and then we shall not 
need to command respect for we sliall find 
ourselves surrounded by it. — Miss Akxa C. 
BitACKETT, in the American Journal of 

Parlies remitting stamps for the Journal, 
or merchandise, vnil do us a favor by sending 
them iu one and two cent denominations. 

when he was at his wiK' 'lul mid was 
seriously thinking of nniiii 1 1 i^^'v inl l"s. 
ing all of his back salar\ , ( i i , jit 

the school another daj. Im • .i i. i ■ ■!' nt 
and it gave his troubled ihmm! )i. .V h-hi He 
had treasured it up probably half a day when, 
one bright June afternoon, Samuel Johnson 
the biggist and strongest, and worst of all the 
hiti I'aiT boys, violated all the rules of the 
M lii.i.l ..h.'';irfrr aimllitT, as fost as he could 
I ■ .' II Hi] wiiund up by tearing 

. :■ I . Hi ii ins iroopraphy. These he 

, , I :,,[<■ Ills iiHiiith, and, when he bad 

ilRvud iln ui imi; ;i iiiilp, he took the "wad" 
into his hand, and propelled the whole mass 
with great violence into the car of Ellis Has- 
kell, who, signified his very natural dismay 
and astonishment by a tremendous howl. 
Mr. Stoddard called Samuel Johnson up to 
his desk, and more calmly than was his 
fustom under such circumstances, told him 
to CO out and bring in a switch. The boy pres- 
ently returned with a very peaceful looking 
switch indeed— a switch apparently far gone 
ill the stages of consumption — the sickest 

" Now," said Mr. Stoddard, with a gentle, 
c(nnpassioinite intonation, "strike me." 

Samuel Johnson who had already begun to 
unbutton his own jacket, opened his mouth 
wide, and the whole school stared in speech- 
less amazement. Mr. Stoddard calmly re- 
pealed his order. He thought he could see the 
"new set of shuttles beginning to work." 
"Someone," he said tenderly— "some one 
must sulier the infraction of the rules. I will 
suffer chastisement in your stead." The 
teacher saw a "new light spring up" in 
Samuel Johnson's countenance. The boy 
looked at his teacher and then at liis switch. 
The teacher could "see a struggle begin in the 
face." Presently the tears sprang to Samuel 
Johnson's eyes, and he said, in a voice con- 

manufactured, is added, together with 
other materials, the whole being made 
— into a stiff dough. 

This dough is kneaded thoroughly by pass- 
ing it several times between iron rollers. 
Thence it is conveyed to a table where it is 
made into "charges," or short cylinders, 
four or five inches thick, and containing 
eight or twelve pounds each. Four of these 
are placed in a strong iron chnmher or 
"retort,"' with a changeable nozzle so as to 
regulate the size of the pencil, and subjected 
to tremendous hydraulic pressure, under 
which the composition is pushed through the 
nozzle in the shape of a long cord, and passes 
over a sloping table slit at right angles with 
the cords to give pnssage to a knife which 
cuts them into lengths. Tli- \ m iiur, Iml 
on boards to dry, and nli^i "-■ 

removed to sheets of corru'j:i'' ■: i ^' 

to prevent the pencils froTii \^:iii>iiil' Huiuil' 
the process of baking, 
next subjected ' 

to which liupi 
1 pipes, the 
according t 
X posed to 


requirements of the article t 

From the kiln the articles go to the finish- 
ing and packing room, where the ends are 
thrust for a second under rapidly revolving 
emery wheels, and withdrawn neatly and 
smoothly pointed. They are then packed in 
pasteboard boxes, each containing one 
hundred pencils, and these boxes are in turn 
packed for shipment in wooden boxes, coB- 
taining one hundred each or ten thousand 
pencils in a shipping box. Nearly all the 
work is done by boys. 

He is such a bcau'iful writer! "It must 
have been a gift." Well, yes ; we suppose 
80; but as a reward to earnest study and 

Send for our special cash discounts for 
clubs of subscribers to the Joubnal. 


A|{ I WOl KNvr 

A hKtorj'i inog Ul* 

k a>V> br COOKl'iice l«d 
Po ntceat balonca baogr. 

Br crMtnea 
A gturdlfti ' 
Uw Inaigh' 

I, tbrougb n 

gturdlftn toflll i: 
!■ Insight batb dl 
law moA ll«bl U 

Itfibclr _. 


ilr III* nlgbi. 

lOodboH a-i\ b<Kh, 

iilflhl ; 

igo mjtt4Mtyf d : 

a *plri 


A aoul of JuatiM, lo dafrnd 
Dncrampod, untrnminulcd bj 

Tt>rauf(b iloopdii dunbi lo narte. 

Proceedings of the Convention. 
In vifw of lliL- fturts. flr»t, that Ihf conven- 
tion iniidc no provision for puliliflliing in the 
JouKNAi, u rt'port of iu proceedings ; «eeimdiy, 
thnt n very Hinitcd portion of Ibem related in 
any mnnner to poninansliip, and, Vtirdly, tbat 
a report has already been published in pani- 
pbli't form which is much more full and satis- 
fiuaory to all interested partie«, tban ia prac- 
tical to give In the JonRNAi,, we Imvc con- 
eluded not to give any extended report. To 
do 80 would require us to oecupy three or 
four pages with mattem of no special in- 
tpreat to a large majority of our readers, 
while to those who woulu naturally be 
most Interested it would have the stale- 
ness of Bocoiid hand matter. We shall, there- 
fore, confine our report cbielly to the very 
limited portion of the proceedings which 
ri'laled to penniansliip. 

The convention assembled in one of the 
targe and commodious banquet halls of the 
I'aluicr House In Chicago, on Tuesday, July 
37th, about thirty colleges being repreaented. 
The convention was called to order at II :4.'> 
\. M., by the Pi-eaidcnt, who, after some 
opening remarks, introduced Mayor Harrison, 
of Chicago, who delivered an interesting and 
cortUal address of welcome imd congratula- 
tion to the Association. 

Ho said "the people of Cliienjjo rook ga-at 
pleasure In receiving Mk> vi.iims i||,m„-Ii him, 
and tendering them a In nu v\- Icon,, lo the 
city. This wasominenlU , ;i l^u-n,, .. , .Munum- 
iiy. made upof people ni ,iii ,1,1^^,^. s, nnr who 
wore born here and iu;iiiv who utuiu from , 
ollu-r points, iind the obji.^t uf all wils to en- 
11111,1' ill liiiKiiu-ss put^uiis und strive (or the 
tioltiir. Ivluc4ition and art here 
'•■nil (iiiinuiiiiif, 'IN well 1 

.S^i^rr;™^^^;;;^^;^ : F^---^^ 

beginners," tbe members silling as a'class, 
and Jointne frequently in an animated dis- 
cnarion. By a special inWution Mr. Ilicliord 
Nelson, of Cincinnati, occupieil cunsidcrable 
time in presenting his views upon that topic^ 
giving many interesting facia concerning the 
history and first principles of accounts. At 
4:25 O. W*. Brown of Ihe Jacksonville, (III.,) 
Business College, illustrated at the black- 
I board in a clear and concise manner the 
proper method of closing t>ook8 kept l»v sin. 
gle cntrj- and converting the same to doiibh- 
entry. At 5:15 C. E. Cady, of Cadv and 
Walworth's Business College, New York, 
, gave a practical method of a%'eraging ac- 
counts. At 5:40 J. A. Stocnni, Princijial of 
Hrjant's Business College, Chicago, discussed 
the topic of changing monied investmeiils 
from one tine of investments to another, 
which he treated in a scientific and interesting 
I manner. At 8:80 in the evening Hon. 
Frank Gilbert, of Chicago, Assistant United 
States Treasurer, n-ad an able and inter- 
esting paper upon n'»tionaI finance ; after 
which, tbe Hon. Leonard Sweet, of tbe C'bi- 
cago Bar, delivered an address upon "The 
practical f». a literary education." Mr. 
Sweet's address was a most cogent argument 
in favor of business education happily Inter- 
Sfiersed with wit and anecdutcs. 

"He said there were tw-. -\ -i. m^ ..: , ,[,1, ;, 
tion — the old and the iji .'. i . 
theomamental.and tin- i>i!, ,,.. 1 , 11, 

belonged to the old scl I 1 1 ; 

of bis young life in siuih 1 1 ,,, . , i ,,,11 
tor.] He aleo did sorn.ihiML' n, u,. ^v .>'..i 
Latin, and the third ra^mi 1 1 inri, u ,, mih. 
metic, of which he coiil' - - ; h, i. iim i| it^a-st 
of all. The trouble with ih. ..M m In".! sys- 
tem was that it began with the ornamental, 
and left the boy to leani last what he oiiglii 
to have lejirned flm. It was n homely truth 
that a boy at 30 years of age reciuired to be 
placed in such a position as made effort a 
necessity. At that age a boy ought to be 
iibla to ' get hold" of something tangible in have established a grip upon exisfcnrc, 
fjr after lie had 'let gnSii Imnir nin! [in '. 

viouBlo 'catching on' t.— i.Mti ,1 ,, ., 

tialoutaidein the world ^^ < !>. , 1 .,),,,, 

the great majority of 1.1- ■ . 1 ,. 

pecially if they were, iitii nm!. u |..,,',i,,| 

in great eilies. 

Dozens of yonng men called at his ofilce 
every week in scarcli of sometliing to do. 
One told of his Greek scholarship and another 
of his Lutin. They were all right in their 
way, hill (Jnck and Latin were not in the 
markei und roiild iiui he sold. No one want- 
Tliey noetled sometliing 
<■ v'liiiL' ninn who knew 
i""i ■;ysti'iMn( honk-keeping 

\iiii ii< ;i, II wju« essential 
ihl li;nr a llmniiigii business 
Let tbe ornamental come 
afterward. He did not wish to decry a clas- I 
sical education if people could afford it. but 
the^ should rememher that manv disting. 

Mr. Poweraadvocated the utmost simplicity 
the forms of letters, that the writing should 

bo of medium sire and that tbe loops should 
not be exientled to exceed about twice the 
height of the coi.tracte*! letters, and but a 
sin^ type of h letter should l>e used in either 
capitals or small lettcra, Mr. Powers read 
several communications received from busi- 
nesfl houses in Chicago, commending his 
thewy of business writing. The exercise was 
an interesting one and suggestive of many 
hints upon business writing worthy the atten- 
tion of tiiose who eilher teacb, or seek to 
practice the most economical, rapid and legl- 

tins fnr busiiicjis purposes. 

■ 1; -I'i' n;...(i (iir subject by 

writing and 1 alK>ul the correct thine, 

' conscientiously carried out, would admit of 
verj- few mistakes. 
An animated discussion followed Mr. Br)-- 
remarks by Mesi^rs. Nelson, Brown, 


Me«sr- ^ . .. . !;■ 

All : . ,11 rpji(j fryni 

CJ-v '..,:,._.,. ■.,..„„ OlNsinessCol- 

ge, t linjifiw, lini.iL; liiN views jjjiil experience 
1 the value of a, husinesa cullcm; course. 
In the evening an exceedingly interesting 
and valuable address was delivered by Wil- 
liam L. Fawcett, Esq., of Chicago upon 
"The Past, Present, and Probable Fu- 
ture of Our Banking System." The speaker 
began by defining tlie popular idea of a 
"« '> storehouse for money, and stated 
ii' i--_'t. -lite assets of the banks of the 
' ! - ^ amounted to *l,870,OO0.0O0, 

"■ I t which were in bills receivable, 

' 1 ' ' i \ iimI one-half per cent in iiiciney. 

for debl-5. The legitinmK |-1„ ., ,,f ! mi,. 
could never be in favon.i hi Ji i-m . v, ,- th. \ 
tended to expand credit- up mi \\|)i. h imk^ 
thrived. The credit sysi.,,,, \\,:|j ^hiuh 
such wonders were wroi'iglit, wns a product 
of tbe last hundred years, and it was a sub. 
ject so broad that it could not be fully com- 
prehended. The speaker then traced tli.- 

growth ■•[■ III.' I.!,-" I, -, ,i|,l |.. 1 

pliealni sv^tni. ;. .,. ■ ,1,;, :- ■,. 

tiansHctioiis. There sli.nild he a vi ,1, 1 
of capital in proportion to the depn-i 
the loans of the bank should be r<sii 
rajet this contingency. The spe;ik. , , i 
by making a few sii--.s(i(„i.s m ;};.■ han 
of the future. Ar ilir .'.nrlu-iuii a vol 
thanks was teiHlen. I Mr i':i\\,iii 

The evening exiiristis wi,,. hrou'dit 
close by what wo.'i lcriiu:d an "experi 
meeting," each member introducing himself 
to the Convention by giving a one-minute 
sketch of his life. This proved anmsjng and 

Hathbun. Spencer and others. 

In an address upon Ihe subject of "Tlie 
German T^ngtiage as Belated to Commercial 
Efiucation." Professor F. G. Sii.«bridec. teach- 
er of German in the Metropolitan business 
College. Chicago, held that it was of the high- 
est importance that clerks and beginners 
in commercial life should understand the 
German language. As the Professor was an 
invited speaker no open exceptions were 
taken to his views in the resulting discussion, 
but a large number of delegates gave private 
expressions to the belief that the commerce 
of most of the civilized world was carried on 
in the English tongue and writing, and that 
all languages in use would ultimately, in 
business pursuits, succumb to the Anglo- 

At the opening of the afternoon ^cwion 
H. A. Hutson. of Chicago, gave an ex- 
ercise illnslrativo of the best forms of 
a commission sales book, which was foU 
lowed by Theo. A. Prey, teacher of plio- 
nognipliy in Bryant's Business College, Chi- 
cago, who gave a practical illustration 
of the Grabam system, which he taught and 
-egarded as the best and most complete in 
ise. The proficiencv of the several members 
.fhlscIiLSS. evinced Ik.iIi llu. inrrit nf bis in- 
hii'imii ;unl ihr --v-dui 1'1i-h,pl1; several 

"* SS^^^■\- |.i 1 (II.-: :■■ ■:■, 1, I I., :i|"|(TWard 


and ui I 

light I 

Who, late ill li!: -.^Mi exertioiift, 

became an cdiu.i!'. a uum. 

Business c<»lleges were a great source of 
strength to tbe youth of the c"mntry, and he 
hoped they would Increase and multiply until 
every American man and woman received, at 
Ihe outset of their career, an education that 
would enable them to grapple si irees.s fully 
with the business problems of life." [Chei-rs."] 

Votes of tlmnks were returned to both 

At 10:45 Wednesday, A. D. Wilt, of the 
Dnyt<m, (Ohio,) Business College, mnve his 
views of tbe proper treatment of ^inten-st, 
rent, tare, freight, inid similar accounts! 
afler which. V,. A. liathlmn of the Omaha, 
(N'h,, I IJiisint'ss C'r>llege,read a well-prepared 

finds friends 
Ilie mindi 

upon the sain 

Nelson. Chapn 

A letter of r 

atK>nd, and expi 

the twenty- 

ixlies for 

" """ 'I'l'"' '""" "f tbe success of 'lUe 

'""" and read from the ex-Pre»ident of Ilie iaso- 
" ' "I ' - l'"r- ation, S. S. Packard, of New Vi.rk- also 
.,.;./ ';" .'"-Th M*"'^*™'" ^^ greeting from ILC..P!attR, 

Hibbardof Boston, H. C. Wright and 0. 

s prosperity and si 

L' the eommcrciol 

They were the (Pe; 
"' '" ' pap' 

j college 

Claghornof Bn)nkh 
At 11:30, W -^r- ■ 
)Busiii. - ( 

.- Ynrk. 


■Tlie < 

A of ( 

mteresiiTi- paper u 

fusion ill buoks of account and the devices 
employed to conceal embezzlements, gleaned 
from the experience of a public accountant." 
He stated tbat much of tli'i confusion in the 
accounts resulted from carelessness or ignor- 
ance of accounts. 

"A good preventative of confusion was to 
get all transactions directly from the original 
books of entry, and tbe journal entries need 
be few and far between. One of tbe most 
frequent sources of confusion was careless 
postmarking, and on this matter careful prac- 
tice should be cuUivated. ^lalfnrniafioii 
of figures was a frequent C!iii';( uf - rmr , and 
responsible for much consitin- n( (nnfiiHrin. 
All uimecea<!arv work sh'^iild hr rhv,ii<.M.scd 

doe.s '• 


lethod of 

Hi fnuiid thn 


the most 
cring up 'Trooked- 
of original entries 
pencil In large houses when busi- 
ness WHS rushing and time scarce. Tliis 
practice should never be allowed, as it afford, 
ed ea.iy opportunities for "docloring" uc- 
counts. Forgery was another means prac- 
ticed m embezzlement; the raising of figures 
and doubling of entries. The best and surest 
of liook-keeping for every line of busi- 

K\ 11 T \i,i, - .f A 

' >■'. V'l 1. '1 III' i hicago- 

!:.■.,-"■ .■!■-., 

- '1 dings of 

1 ■ ■ ■ i>y Mr. 

\ ■!.■ ,i ■ ■;,. ■ II'.; 

'■■■■■ 1 M hand 

li-'ing of 

' ' ■ . 1 ' III' forma. 

1 ■ ' ' ■'■ ■' '■■ ! 

1 'i;i(ed the 

iiir blnck- 

'..,,■ 1 ,,; .1 J; , ^, ,! 

■ ■■■■' '! ■ ^.'M 11, rs forgers 

■ -t making a fair 

■ ■■ ■ .1 ■■! 1 ■ 

" or the habitual 

r,. , ,, ,. .■ I, . 1 II ,. , 1, 

' li/o tbe writing of 

liiit (1 writing there 

WIUS l.llC s.ilLir <_■■ 11' 

■■■''^Nx , :,i ,1 a'docu- 

1 whole. 

but then- \\'>y\\'\ i.. ; 

'N' about 

the copy "hi'li HI . 

■■■ '■ ' ■■'■'i ■-:'-ilv detect. 

Toilhistrif. 'In. i.. 

>^'"U- the word 

"demaiiil ■■ .'N ■ 1:. 

' " !.i"iard. and one of 

the dele- 1 

inuilnteit, making 

a fair 1, i. ..,:.;. ■ 

I'lii the Professor 

pointed Mill -. ■■ > 1 il 

p,l|'ahle defects, such 

aa nervous lines. 

omissions, and quasi- 

breaks, which non 

3 of the audience had 

noticed until they wt 

re brought to notice by 

the expert. The Fr 

ifcfwor gave illustrations 

of traits of eharacli 

Mm .uitI.,.| the pen- 

mansbip of many |>' 

■ ! - .1 iliat in a 

Ust of a thoiisaii'l 

.1 would 

any more n'sciiihh , 


:eaturps nr ph\';i.. ■ 

The Prof, , , , , 

'id tonarrat" "is 

experieri' 1 

V ■ !l^'r investigation, 

and he n ] ' ! 

-■ w outline of his 

work ill MMu,. . ih.[, \ 

received by Cadet Wbittakerwaa written with 
a pencil upon a small square piece of paper. 
The writing was either skillfully disguised or 
ful simulation. This was compared 
fifty-seven pages from the exercise 
books of tlie cadets. All of these xvere writ- 
ten in ink and taken from books where they 
had been just previously written by the cadets. 
Then each student was asked to write a 
ber of «eiitences in lead pencil. Of these 

247 i)ii 

■Mid ■ 

In looking 1 
■pjiriite most of them 
i ' nni from wheat. 
In list, he bad some 
liiMi the 

icrrhanta. who had {mrtners and busil 

""'I^'*f V."""*'''r"* "'" ''''"■'''■ '^''^ ' Robm't^'n and' 

, present was to clerks from the dry goods jobbing house"of 

colliuna studr-nu ^n..; T^, "m *''^«'S"'«^ J- V. Farwell & Co., of Chicago, givea prac- 

Ihe world. lUcv were .«.« v Jrift ,Zn "he "."^ e,"'"™"'- , ^"-f »'"<;>'. l«'\e» Henrj- 

.va of real life." ^ iV ^°°"'' ''''^'""■f "n Commpreinl law at 

AfliT Ihe cloacof Ihc ad.Iresa, D T Vmcfu .'IT',1 i"^^ Busino™ Collese. riclirered 

."jraJd^Xm ^? t.TTzi:^z "^ |»^ ciiU deupa°r,^:i;s, 

was Ibo address hvlhi Presldm X? "JT »»">«'"= «"* '"'V'S- Ejchange which 

whic),, D. U. Llllibridge; ot^i^e DLv°i»r n?t.„ J„n T,fl'JST"i?° °' k^V"'''"' 

which [)resented tbe easy 

cality and furnished a sure means of detection 

to the expert who reviewed "doctored" books. 

Frank Goodman, of the Nashville, Tenn., College, gave a lesson in business 
correspondence, illustrated by explanations 
upon the blackboard. The lesson was ex- 
plicit and instructive, and showed Professor 
Goodman to be a fliiislied expert in his line. 

Dr. J. C. Bryant, of Buffalo, in an address 
upon the theme of " What is Standard Book- 
keeping," gave a comprehensive idea of the 
practical methods necessary to correct book- 
I keeping. Dr. Brvant held tbat Ihe funda- 
mental principle of the science was the same 
as a hundred years ago, and would always 


ne iiarnwed d^wn by ihe same process, until 
he had but two specimens one from those writ- 
ten with a pen and one from those written 
with a pencil remained in which there were 
marked resemblances to each other and the 
note of warning, and be found that these were 
written by one person. He called for more 
specimens from this same ptr'on, and made 
further comparisons. His researches, agreed 


with those Of the- other .. 
) remarks to make about the 
detail some points regarding his 

H(^ had 
except t 
labors, as requested bv tJie 

F. M. Choguill, of the Zanceville, (O..) 
Business College, followed with an exercise 
regarding busincos forms which were skillfully 
explained and illustrated by diagrams upon 
the blackboard. 

The evening session was occupied by a 
practical and entertaining address upon'the 
subject of "The mission of a Business Col- 
lege and its place among Kducational Insti. 
lutions," by Henry S. Sfonroe, Esq., of the 
Cliicago Bar. 

The speaker in opening referred to tbe high 
office of an educator, stating that tbe teacher 
of the youth of the countr)' w 

The only change 
the meth<Hl of keeping correct accounts. Some I portant personage than the'commander ... «u 
metho^ mtroduced to please the caprice or army, and a good and conscientimis public 
lancy ol certain accountants were pernicious. \ teacher deserved the gratitude and homage of 

the people, for by instilling into the minds of 
the young correct precept* and proper prin- 
ciples, he WM providing, for the future intcl- 
UgCDCC and grcatnew of the nation. Buainess 
college* did not take the places of other 
instructions of learning, but supplement- 
ed them, and supplied an increased and 
growing demand for practical knowledge. 
They served to condense and crystallize the 
leammg and experience of years into a t*nn 
of Instruction, and in this way Iteptpace with 
the advance of the age and met those rcquire- 
mcDts of the present, which were created by 
the electric telegraph, the telephone, the elec- 
tric pen. the hcktograph. stenography, and 
methods and systems by means of which a 
volume of business could now be transacted 
in one day that fi.rmeriy could not have been 
performed in a month. 

Friday morning was dcvnt<-<l lo misc^ol- 
lancous buxincss. Under a fiW i -i ri i-ai-'t 
committee, Ira Mayhcwrcptiri. I 
mittce on changing the tiUi \ 

ation. BuggtHiing that it be dili"! Hm i:n-i 
□ess Educato's' Association of .Viiiericii,' 
which after some debate was carried by a 
close vote. 

The Committee on Life Scholarship was re- 
ported by Mr. W. H. Duff. He said the 

letters of Application. Entpn'rrr, I w 

WJ't Lfn and Form of Bwine-i and S^culy. ' I have been 

Merchants, manufacturers and others i 

committee v 

of life scholarship < 

ing to 

1 favor of leaving the i 

irely i 

need of " Help" often use the coli 
metropolitan newspapers anonymously, rather 
than give publicity to theif wants, and thus 
be annoyed by an army of personal appli- 
cants. Such advertisements bring the adver- 
tiser hundreds of letters from writers of all 
grades, ages and degrees of qualification, and 
though tne advertiser may have stated ex- 
plicitly the age and requirements of the per- 
son wanted, probably one-half will send in 
their application who possess none of these 
qualifiCBtions, and as but one of the many 
applicants can secure the vacant position, the 
writer should bear in mind that the adver- 
tiser will examine these letters in every busi- 
ness way ; all letters written on scraps of 
\>ii\n;r, foohcap or soiled paper will be thrown 
ii once into the waste basket without perusal. 
Ihf lellers containing misspelled words, er- 
Kir.tin grammar, iutcrlineations and erasures 
will be noted, the penmanship and style 
scanned, ond quite a correct eslnnate of the 
character and competency of the applicant 
will be formed from the application. As a 
letter of applicaiidii is the only means of 
ri'i'ii -< tiiiiij - :i1iilities, and making a 

f;iM : 1 11 -: Ji, t lie follOWiug SUggBS- 


. l'n.i>i- 

r IToiiirc, for 
/ and liberality in placing at the 
service of 'the Association the use of the 
commodious hiiUs :iinl piirlors of his Hotel. 
Other rcsMl ,n n ,.1 r.i|in-3 were ordered 
publishcil r 1,1 I Act JorRNAT,. 

the place of 


i-ijiiik - 
reUiry a> 
York V 
Nelson. < 
ton, Ohi 

s selected. 

■Ljra'mme, and the 
r. of Milwaukee, 



business was transacted, after 
which the Convention adjourned to meet in 
Cincitinati in'Xt vciir. 

ShortU ;ili' I 1 1 ■■. !■" K 111, \-- .. ;.i(lnii pro- 
ceeded ill I i; i 1 1 1, iitiiki- 

Randolpli, Hi, v ,,,-,..■ i-.i uv ^ .n-us work- 
ings of lilt- IJ",.!.!, At l:JuL:,-»U.t visit was 
paid to JIosIicr'.s art HJi'ltry. 125 Slate street, 
where a number of the delegates sat for pho- 
tographs, to be placed in a memorial album 
to be opened in 1976. 

In the afternoon the members of the Asso- 
ciation drove ill carriages around the boule- 
vards and along Iho Lake-Shore drive, and 
later in the afternoon took a short ride on the 

The ses.'iion closed with a banquet in the 
evening at the Palmer House. 


t attendance: 


.'O M..' ■' ■' 

1,0. W.,TsIpkrulo, li 

way ilK- wriUT sliould remember that the 
merehanl will use his letters as a criterion by 
which to judge of the applicant's fitness to fill 

sdiii. ii ■■:! \ !■ I-'' ii :ci. the head of 

tii-L- h'- ii.i- .iij'^M il, .iimI .xpi-ess his inten- 
tion of lioiuslly 'endeavoring to perform the 
duties required, but should be careful and 
make no mention of his character or qualifi- 
csitious. Ronicmber that "self praise goes 
but little ways." These should be learned 
from his testimonials or references. 

confident that he will favorably recommend 
lear from vou in an- 

Education And Money Slaking'. 

pply for the situation, equally a power for evil. As a means it is 
.'I'^^^"'^'**^' **^_?*''" ]^'''i'*"; I exceedingly valuable, but as an end it is 
than worthless. In the hands of 
, or woman who esteems it only 
for its uses, its value can hardly be over- 
estimated ; but to a man or woman to 
whom it is an end, it is the worst of all possi- 
le curses. Wealth properly used greatly 
idens the sphere of its possessor's usefulness. 
It enables him to help others in the life strug- 
and there is no happiness so pure, so 
lasting nr so perfect as that which is bom of 
benefits conferred upon one's follows. The 
possessor of wealth may give an education 
here, a dinner to hungry mouths there, he 
may furnish work and wages to willing and 
needy hands, and the doing of this alone 
is a worthy life work. He may endow 
a scholarship in a college or found a 
iiospital, and thus extend the worth of 
his living to coming generations of men and 
women. All these and many other excellent 
things one may do with money, but the 
money itself undirected by a generous im- 
pulse or worthy purpose, can do notiiing 
except lo make of its posessor a narrow 
worshiper of self, a lover of lucre for its own 
sake: used, it widens and deepens the channel 
of its owner's life ; it ennobles him and makes 
the fact of his living abenefiUohis kind, but, 
unused, it dwarfs whatever of good there may 
be in him, and makes of him something 
which the world would have been far belter 
without. With anything like true culture 
the case is very different. The man wlio has 
it cannot, if he would, help using it for the 
benefit of others. Its influnnce goes with 
him wherever he goes ; and so long as he 
meets and talks with men and women, of 
whatever station they may be, just ao 
long will his culture communicate itself, in 
a greater or less degree to others, while its in- 
fluence upon himself cannot possibly be other 
than an uplifting one. 

Many people who decry educationol culture 
have one invariable argument which they use 
on every occasion that suits their fancy and 
which they deem unanswerable. 

They find a few men who succeeded in 
business without any education beyond that 
of the common schools, and a half dozen 
others who with the best education, have 
failed to make money — and immediately their 
case against the college is made out to their 
satisfaction. Sometimes they go a little 
farther into the subject and sarcastically ask, 
Imw anybody can make education pay, and 
they always assume thai, according to their 
hypothesis and conclusions, such a ques- 
tion answers itself. Now to all this there a 
just two replies to be made. First that ev 
in the matter of money making education 
of greal value; and secondly, that the culture 
of the colleges and the after culture for which 
it lays a foundation, arc worth infinitely 
more than money. Half a dozen cases c 
half a hundred cases on one side, and as 
many on tlie other prove just nothing what- 
ever. Success in the matter of gelling money 
is dependent upon mdny things other than 
education as anybody may discover with very 
little trouble. One man has a keener desire 
for wealth than another, 
of comfort and c 

'2' ici¥:si4 


'ADDiS f^' 

^^^^b i-u'i-y^^. 

6. It is best to enclose a copy of any tes- 
timonials the writer may have, mariting them 
i\H Niicii, tlicn if nn interview is given, the 

>'• It 1^ iiii|i>iiinr ihat a letter of appli- 
ciUiini -hiiuM 111 written immediately after 
iKMi-iiiL' III Mil pM-'iiinn or reading the adver- 
tisement, else it may be too late, as others 
will certainly apply before you. 

7. Do not commence your letter by stating 
thai "having seen the "adverlisement," you 
thought you would apply for the situation, or 
"looking' over the paper," or "through it." or 
having "acidenL-illy stumbled over the adver- 

"' and being "out of employment, 
that you ''can give the best of ref- 

Applioation for a Clerksoip. 

UooKPORD, III, Jan. 15, 1879. 
Messrs. Fuller & Fuller, 

OenUemen: — Hearing through a friend 
(Mr. C. C. Clayton) of the vacancy of the 
position of junior clerk in your house, I take 
the liberty of making application for the 
same. I have had hut little mercantile ex- 
perience, yet I am not entirely unacquainted 
with business customs, having often assisted 
in my brother's store at this place. I am 
eighteen years of age and have relatives in 
your city with whom I would make my home. 

For information as to my character, please 
inquire of W. J. Florence", Esq., and H. H. 

Hall, Esq.. both of your cltv. 

Ven" raipect fully . 





CAdvertisement pasted ii 


No. 435 Arch St, Priladel 

Aug. 29. 

1880. } 

Charles L .Stephens, Esq., 

Dear Sir .-—Noticing the above 

in to-day' 

acquisition. Pure accident in very many 
cases forms an important factor in the prob- 
lem, and there are rich men by the score, in 
this country, whose wealth has come to ihem 
in spite, rather tlian by reason of their arts. 
A writer in a Chicago paper, a year or two 
ago traced the history of that city's leading 
properly holders, and of the whole list there 
was but one who had deliberately planned his 
success, while one of them, in a personal 
inteview stated the fact that he had in former 
years spent many a sleepless night over his 
inability to sell for a song the marsh land on 
which his hundred buildings now stand. 
And there are many other conditions to 
success in money-gelling with which educa- 
tion or the lack of it has nothing whatever to 
do. But the fact is plain enough, that with 
other things equal the man whose intellect 
has been disciplined makes money more easily 
and more surely than his neighbor, who is 
without culture. We all know that the 
laboring class, the one most absolutely with- 
out education, is the one whose exertions 
yield the smallest pecuniary returns. We 
know perfectly well that both culture and 
information, the two results of education, 
serve to open many avenues of business 
to their possessor, which, wanting these, 
he could never enter. 

But the second answer is the higher one. 

Money is not the only good. It is not even 
the chief good to be sought in life. Its pos- 
session in considerable quantities is a blessing 
or a curse according to the use made of it, 
and it has no power for good, which is not 

common cant in our utili- 
age aiul country than 
this decrying of liberal edu- 
cation, and certainly there 
s a more illogical 

IN IIandwiuting. — 
A well known publisher in 
this city, who also conducts 
an educational bureau, says 
" he does not believe in hav- 
ing personal interviews with 
applicants, as he thinks that 
a man's handwriting is a 
much better indication of 
his character than his ap- 
pearance or personal ad- 
dress." We have known 
many business men who 
would accept or reject an 

applicant for a situation solely on the style 

of his written application. 

An Elaborate Specimen of Penmanship. 
John 0' T. McCarthy, who is a cleric 
in the U. S. War Depariment at Wash- 
ington, D. C, has recently oseeuled an 
elaborately engrossed copy of the joint 
resolutions passed by the House of Rep- 
resentatives and Senate complimentary to 
the Hon. Charles Stewart Parnull,of Irolund, 
on the occasion of his reception In the 
House of Representatives in February last. 
The work is 36.'!43 Inches containing a pen 
portrait of Mr. Parnell surrounded by a 
festoon of the Irish and American flags, a 
fine drawing of the Capital building, and an 
elaborate border forming an oval aroun'l 

pen and Ink copy. 



The whole forms an attnicHve and artis- 
tic work — copies of which have been pab- 
lished, printed upon fine plate paper 21x32 
and may be obtained by addressing Mr. 
McCarthy as above. 

The Kose Printing Co. 
Have for two years or more enjoyed the 
distinguished honor of being thepriniors of 
the Penman's Abt Jodbnal, and if there- 
fore they have become somewhat vain, our 
readers will excuse them on tho ground of 
justification. In another uolumn will be 
found their advertisement. They do good 
printing at reasonable rates. Try them. 

Now Is the time to subscribe for Ihe 
Journal, and begin with the course of les- 
sons In practical writing. 

UUia' Jr^-aixf U\^& r\ A, i. i iVi^ ^* ^j/jJliXiJA f^S h^ 


THEtrr. LoriH roCBTB. 
TITho Mm of wrw^rt testimony lo Identify 
^IfniftturM and hnndwrlilngs Id dl»put«(l 
docuoiunlA in courU, 1« a rmuUlar one, but 
apart from the limited number of portions 
wlio hftve b««n prptont at trluH Involving 
quwtiuns of thia kind, very few hmve any 
dellnlte Idea of the nature and lm{>ort4knco 
of ihU description of leiallmony. A few 
Illustrations from ca-tee which have occur- 
red 111 our courts will remove some of iho 
obscuriiy vurroundlng this very iDtoresllog 


The (TPncral introduction of thl« kind of 
toatimony only dates back a Itttle over 
tw«aly yeartt, and its birthplace was St. 
LouIh, from whence It hoa t.pread to nearly 
all civilized countries. The manner nnd 
occasion of lU Introduction was substanti- 
ally as follows: In 1S55-6 the Trt-asury 
Department at VVaahington dUcoveretl In 
various parts of tho country evidences of 
the existence of an extensive ring for 


under tho law granting lands to soldli 
1H12. AppllcailoDs for those lands 

•gurd ! 



the frauds were cotuhiotod by 
forging tho names of soldiers to applica- 
tions. There was no act of congress to 
pu«l»li such forgeries, but there was an act 
making It a poultontlary ofTt-ncB to present 
to tho treasury department such forged land 

The ring got pos.iesslon by some nioaim 
of army paymasters' rolls and other docu- 
ments of which duplicates were In the hands 
of officers and from such rolls tho namcswere 
obtained on which the fraudulent applica- 
tions wero concocted. But unfortunately 
for the rl»K, the paymaster's rolls Ihey got 
hold of, wore not tho lost ones, and subse- 
quent ones siiowed that some of the pnrtlos 
who^e names had been u-<ed wore dead. 
In a few casruj, too, the ring was either 
daring or oureku«» enough to use the nanios 
of mim who had not only got thoir war- 
tant4<. but were still living. The fact of 
the forgery wjls thyroforo easily to be prov- 
en, but the problem was to discover who 
had committed tho forgt^ry, and by that 
(duo get proof that the person who present- 
ed tho application know It lo bo forged. 

NumiTOUfl xKVvc^U wore made and IndlcU 
■^' T nil ;iii'! Other plnce^, 

riler. 0th- 
**r proofs were Intro- 
duccd.and the young 

of attempting to levy 
blackmail bv means 
of threatening let- 
tor^, and sent to the 
penitentiary. The 
expert was closely 


and tlii> 
those ill 

the ones hImi Ii i.i ■ .HMiiniii'd the forgerit:3. 
Except by the .vldenco of accomplices, no 
direct proof of tho guilt of those parties 
could be obtitlned ; but a very Inlolllgont 
r of iho g('n<*r«l land ofllce at Wash- 


In dUtrngulshlrg disguised hiindwrillngs of 
elgoaturesor papers, from lils knowledge 
of the genuine handwriting of an individ- 
ual, acquired by close exauilnatlon of many 
letters of such Individual. Ho wiis thus 
enabled to determine with great certainty 
whether or not the writer of the letters was 
the writer of the dlt>guised signatures. In 
most of tho cosos tried here, as well as else- 
where, that was tho sole evidence against 
tho parties. 

The Idea that suoh evidence could bo lu- 
troducod wan entirely novel and was 
tlercely opposed by tho counsel for tho ilo- 
fendants noi-e, the principal of whom were 
Edward Bates and Urlal Wright, two of 
the most eminent criminal lawyers St. 
Louis ever had. Justtco Catron and Judge 
Well<>, who presided over the U. S. olrouii 
court duiing these trials, eustolnod the ad- 
mission of buoh toslimony on the motion 
of Thomas 0. Reynolds. Esq.. who was 
then U. H. attorney for this dUtrtut. nnd it 
has since become the settled law In this 
country and England that such evidence 
can thr\>w great llgiit on the iuvoallKailon 
of foi-gerles, eepwlally of signatures to 

The manner In which Mr. Perkins ar- 
rive<l ut his conclusions In re^jard to the 
identity of wrlt^trs Is a little curious. Just 
as a man has oirtaln 

Or i>crli>nuliit; any motlou by which he can 
bo Idoiitltlocl. ho acquires certain hablls in 
wriilQd— ;us for instance, a peculiar forma- 
tion of certain lettera. No matter how a 
man disguises himself or affects a different 
mode of walking, ho will bo certain In some 
inadvertent moment to make a movement 
that will dli4cov«r him to one familiar with 
his gait. In the same way a man may dU- 
gulsQ his handwrltinif. yet he cannot avoid 
by any amount of caution Infusing into the 
writing certain peculiarities that enabled 
it to be i entitled as his beyond any possl- 

fortjery occurreii in the Davidson 
which was tried In Circuit court No. 1 
some months ago. The testator had left a 
letjncy of one thousand dollars to one of 
hiA heii^, and when the will came to be pro- 
iNited tho "one" was found to have been 
changed into forty. This was done by put- 
ting an f before the one. bringing a strobe 
down on the second hook of the n. trans- 

forming It into a i, and adding a loop to 
the flnal t. making it into a y. The ink 
used was a little darker than that In the 
body of the will, and to obviate the ghiring 
contrast a number of the adjacent letters 
were touched up with the same Ink, a fact 
which was plainly discoverable by means of 
a common magnifying glass. It became a 
question whether this alteration had been 
made by the legatee or by the testator, but 
the question was never decided. It was 
found bevoud doubt that the alteration was 
made after the will was attested, and this 
fact invalidated it, and the deceased 
decided to have 

bis capa> 
biHties as an expert 
and tho rcltablUty 
of such tosttirouy. 
He, like Mr. Mead, 
was of the opinion 
that no man could 
so disguise his wrlt- 

A noted coso In 
which the testimony 
of experts figured 
oxteoslvely is known 
as the John Brooks 
oinlra. It was a 
Now Madrid patent 
for G40 acres of land, 
and embraced the 
property in this city 
known as the bose- 
ball park. The 
amount, however, 
was considerably 
reduced by inter- 
fereoces. It passed 
into the possession 
of Hurah Lucas and 
was conveyed to 
Andrew P. Gillespie 
by a deed purport- 
ing to have been ex- 

Wlth reference to the practice of these exercises we would simply repeat jy2i but which in 
the Instructions given In connection with the first lesson. reality was forged 

___^- In 1871 or ia72. 

The property 

A singular case of disputed signature was 
tried in circuit court No. 3 recently. A Mr. 
Timmerman had made numerous contracts 
In a neighboring State, and liad sUned nu- 
merous notes in connection therewith. 
The notes came in more numerously than 
Mr. Timmerman thought was justified by 
the facts, and lie refused to pay same of 
them as being forgeries. A note for $5,000, 
purporting to bo signed by him, was dis- 
counted by the State Savings iDstitution. 
and when payment was demanded he repu- 
diated it, denying that lie had eser signed 
It, Suit was brougtit on the note, and Mr. 
Timmerman being placeJ upon the witness 
stand was unable to swear positively that 
the note was a forgery, but could only say 
that he believed It was. Numerous experts 
in handwriting were introduced, but they 
were about equally divided In opinion. 
Tho result was, however, that the jury reii- 
deiod a verdict for defendant. The court 
for some rottson sustained a motion for 
new trial, and when the case came up 
again, one of the lawyer:^ charged a wit- 
on the stand with an attempt to shoot 
ensued that the 
) the trial and the 
The case is still 

court refused to couth 
Jury was discharged 


Of disputed b'Ignature came up in tho case 
of the Lafayette Bank against Daniel Frel- 
vogel, tried In Judge Wlckmao's court re- 
cently. The bank h^ld by as^iiinment two 
notes of Mr. Frel vogel "ti for *500 each, se- 
cured by mortgage on real estate. The bank 
brought suit for foreclosure, and Hon. 
Thomas Allen came In and asked to be 
made a party to the suit, he also having two 

I lie signatures lo the notes held byhlm wj 
not passed upon, but will probably be di 
lermlned by another suit. It is evident 
that a fraud was perpetrated either on 

the circumstances under which the dupli- 
caio sets of notes were uttered. 

Most St. Louislans will remember the at- 
tempt to levy 

On Rev. Dr. Berkley a year or two ago. and 
how Ingeniousily it was circumvented 
ilu'oiigh the t^kill of a well-known expert, 
A. W. Mead. E?q. The blackmailing let- 

was written by a lady with a gloved hand, 
possibly for the purpose of better effecting 
a disguise. The suspected lady was intro' 
duced in court, and caused to write copict 
of a portion of the letter, first without and 
then with a gloved hand. It became mani' 
fesl that she was the writer of tho letter, 
and she afterwards admitted It, and that 
she had written It with a glove on, 
facilitate disguise, hut because sh( 
glove on and was In too much haste to take 
it off. 

Mr. Me-'id says he Is unable to give 
analysis of his method, and regards it 
more as an art Inslluct than anything else. 
He Institutes a comparison between a dis- 
guised handwriting and a caricature of the 
human face- No matter how exaggerated 
or grotesque the latter may be, the like- 
ness of the person caricatured may be ac- 
curately preserved. He says Ihat In every 
one's writing there is an expression which 
is Inseparable from it, and which will ap- 
pear through any possible disguise. Mr. 
Mead Is himself an expert. There seems to 
be no handwriting that he can not imitate 

perfectly that none but a skilful expert 

Thai it is almost Impossible to conceive 
that they could ha^'e been written by the 
person. Ho Is generally called on in 
the courts when experts in handwriting 

subdivided and passed Into many bands bo- 
fore the pretended discovery of the old 
deed of conveyance to Gillespie, and the 
ejectment suits under the deed were insti- 
tuted ag'ilnst a number of the parties. The 
flrat suit tried was that for tho Base-ball 
park, in which a verdict was rendered for 
defendant, there being then oo suspicion 
that the deed was a forgery. Parties to 
other suits, however, had their suspi- 
cions aroused, and the result was that the 
Invalidity of the deed was set up as a de- 
fence. A number of experts were exam- 
ined but the forgery was so 


Thot they were utterly at fault. The body 
of the forged deed was discovered to be Id 
the ordinary handwriting of a noted forger 
named Reed, who was arrested for tlie for- 
gery, and In bis truuk wore found several 
old notes and deeds bearing the same sig- 
natures as those to the forged deed, and 
known to be genuine. The most sltillful 
experts could detect no difference between 
the forged signatures and the genuine. 
Among them was that of Chrlstoph G. 
Houts. a former clerk of New Madrid coun- 
ty. Measuring with a pair of compasses, 
the corresponding distances on the two 
signatures were found to be exact. Every 
curve and turn of each appeared on the 
other, and If they had been imprints from 
an engraved plate they could scarcely have 
been more perfect fac-simllles. Old citi- 
zens of New Madrid who had been familiar 
with Mr. Houts' signature for many years, 
tooiified that In their opinion, bis name to 
the forged deed was written by himself. 
Mr. Reed eventually acknowledged tho for- 
gery and told how it was done. In the 
presence of W. H. Clopton, Es.]., rounsel 
for some of the ilrr.i,.! ,,,(-, t; .,i tran- 
scribed portions of 11: I , ji.Ltcly 
that when placed n^r i ■ ;■ >ni)lng 
parts the copy apiieai. i :i. i, i ., i,. . .i uiiced 
from them, and Mr. L'.-ai L.jiii:;i, who Is 
lulteo skillful expert, in giving hN tustl- 
mony on the point, exprcs-sed tho opinion 
that they wore so traced, he not then being 
aware how it wa^ done. The court decided 
Ft quirpa bore! i "'^ ^^'^^ ^^ ^^^ * forgery, and i 

pnrlsou showed that the two sets of notes 
and mirteagos wore exact duplicates of 
liother. names, dates and specifiCAtions. 
Ing made two 

pert in such matters. Is 
surpassed, but his judicial position pre- 
vents him from being calle<' upon. 

A Cose of more than onlinary interest In 
its circumstances and results was tried In 
tue criminal court a few years ago. Mr. 
Watson had a tine residence four or five 
miles in the country, that cost over $40.- 
000. It was burned down one night, and he 
obtained the insurance money. Shortly 
afterwards be received an anonymous let- 
* - ^-s K . « • I,. ~~Z'a~ ^ — .""". - 1 'T asserting that the writer knew of Mr. 
l«fS;i„hL7^« ,^^K ",' "S •" ">«*''!- k'"s°'"',vlng set ara to the house him- 
nato whion Dot«a were tho forged ones. Ho sM, „„h toat uoltias he nut a reruin sum 
».,»lly decided th.t the_not«, held by the ^f m;°eVwhe"e°'re 'riETr oou"d get U h" 
'""",^i..K I would be exposed to the insurance company. 

equired, and consld^.„ .„ >.-..^ c ««.«. , , , , ^ . - 

Ex-Gov. Reynolds is another skillful ex-p"*^ "^'^ the jury. Prom Mr. C'lopt< 
pert, but of late years invariably refuses to ''^penence In this case— the only one tried 
appear In court as such. Judge Llndlev '" ^^**'^'*' ^l"-' '^"« "' forgery was set up— 
•■e places but little reliance on export toatl- 
lony, and. in fact, the law only admits It 
3 corroborative.- Si. LouU Repuhlitan. 

attention t 

I thesub-|3ir. Watson paid 

t others being sent blm 
I port tie put the matter ini 

in and failed 

Ject. but tho teller of the Lafayette Bank, 
hero Mr. Freivogel did business, was fa- 
miliar with his sixuature and testified that j deiJctTve" The" rejuiL was Lue arrest 

hank^lf^°,i'^^..ll^« ^ThU df.i^.i'^K*'*' '^ y*^""*' ™*« ^^o ^^^ *>een in the employ of 
hankweregenulne. This decided tho opin- Mr. Watson, and a comparison of his 
^L ^Ir ^1 ^"?;«.*° Th^*^ rendered a ver- nandwrlUng with that of the anonymous 
«nnHo^HjJ.''"n;'Hr AH. "." T'*^ '''^ '•'"«^- ^ «>aly2ed by an expert who test!- 
nSrt.^-th« i.,u ;„'h 111 ^^ *"? "^^"^ ",9** '° the cise. left but little, if any,' 
party to the suit, and the geDutneuess of <ioubtasto - j- 

It is stated of postal money-orders, that not 
even one rightful claimant has lost a single 
dollar under this system from the date of its 
organization until the present time, although 
during the laflt fiscal year alone the post- 
otticc department issued over $90,000,000 
worth of tlicse orders. Of miwiirected orders 

orders not called for on account of death, 

the agCTcgatc worth now amounts to $700,- 
000.— /*o;wr World. 

Bock Numbers. 

L- still have remaining a few of all the 
buck numbers of the JorKNAL since and in- 
clusive of the September number, 1877, in all, 
thirty-six numbers, which will be sent with 
eitfusr the " Lord's Prayer" or "Eagle " as a 
premium for $2.50; both premiums and the 
"Centennial Picture of Progress" for $3.00. 


Blnfli- lOflMiuo M wnu i«-f llo" nooparoil, 

lOulomn »W 03 f « 00 1 8*1 00 »'»"'« 

IJ I! i;;; «3& m» »«> *">" 

llneh{i«lin» » *• ^ " * "? '; 5^ 

SlfoeB,24 wor<U,. .. "0 1 5^ * '" • ]" 

AilTOTllH'moomfopono and Uin-cir - "— - " 
kdranoo ; mr Rlx fnouttm unl oop y ... 
Mrly tn sdVADO- Nod«vl«tioofrnm lh9 «bov 
ReaillDK mailer, 30 cMit» pt' Hdo. 

Willi* wa li'^P'' ui rendor ibe Jhviwal 

rlhc 'I« d> Pr»ye^'' 1 

Uw^lf B 

!■ renewal, locIoslDg $l.( 

SU33 or the " Conl«nQliil 
For $1.60 Kir- 

DClMtOK »^. we will 
. and ?..r«rard by 

followlDg publlcalloi 

Bblpovor publlslJfil, viz.: 
Th« Msrrlago 0"riinrttt9.... 

•Hio ftunlly BcMird 

8 Bpoolmon Sli»l» of En(t">Bi 
Oongrton'B Nurmal 8y«lem o 

re will forward Iho large 
ichn. reiAlK for «3. 

b Pocifinl'HOMWo," fi 

iiuUil Pen mao ship," 

I' wmiama & Puckn'il 

RtiinlUaicos ili 
[gtvrod lottxr. V 

Huney luchtM 

ThoJouRWAL Olio year, poit-pold.. 

ittlio following 

" ' lAL on- , - . 

nipOQdliim of OrDamoalol 

by book 
linstage) may be remlitMl directly 


. BngliBb <] 

I wUt T 

Icei (with 
ly 10 w 


The Journal and The Business Educat- 
ors* Association of America. 

It w»8 our |)iirpos(r, as nunouiiccd in thi' 
Auffiisl number of the Jouhnal to fjive in 
thla Isaiie mi extended report of tlie proceed- 
ings of the tliinl annuiil coiivciitiou of the 
Bnsineaa OolleHL- TeJicben*' and Hcnineu'a 
Association, lield iit Cliiciigo during tlie last 
week of July; but since the report has been 
published in pamphlet form, and will be in 
tUo hands of alt specially interested parties 
prcviouB to the receipt of the Jodbnal; and 
in view of the fact that an exceedingly lim. 
ited portion of the proceedings related in any 
manner to peninanship, we have conchided 
to omit a lengthy report. 

As our roitders arc aware, the Association 
originated in a convention assembled three 
yoars since in response to a call for a " Pen- 
men's Convention " and mainly through the 
efforts of the JoVJiSAi.. In thit assembly 
w-ure present miiny, if not n\09t of the pn)m- 
inent tuachers and authora of penmanship 
In the country. Among whom were the 
Spencer Brothers, A. R. Dunton, J. W. Pay- 
son. II. \V. Ellsworth, S. S, Packanl. B. F. 
Kulley. A. U. llinman. S. A. Potter.E. Soule, 
W. L. Dean. II. C. KendoU. D. T. Ames, J. 
T. Knauss, T. D. King. J. F. Mooar, Wm. H. 
Duff, G. H. Shaituck. F. O. Young, J. H. 
Barlow, Uiram Dixon, H. P. Smith. William 
Allou Miller and others. 

The various departmcuLs of penmanship 
occupied a fair i>ortii>n of the time and atten- 
tion of the Convention. At that meeting a 

permanent organization was formed under > 
the title of "The Business College Teachers' 
and Penmen's Association," and by a noaoi- '■ 
nioiis vote the Pesuan's Ast Journal was , 
declared to l>e the official organ of the Asso- 
ciation; since which lime it has to the I>c8t j 
of its ability subserved the interests of the 
Association. j 

At the second annual meeting held at | 
Cleveland, penmanship also received a rea- ■ 
sonably conspicuous place in the programme. I 
and the claims of penmen and iienmanship 
were properly resjwcled in the ronvention. 
but in the programme and proceedings of tlie 
late Chicago convention penmanship scarcely 
had a place, one-half hour only being devoted i 
to writing, and another half hour to expert- 
iam of handwriting, while at the close of the i 
session the name of the Association was 
changed to that of " The Business Educators' | 
Association of Auieriai." thus, in the pmcti- j 
cal operation, and name of the As.sociation , 
pennnmship as a distiuclive profession has no 
recognition. This being the fact, the Pen- \ 
mans' Akt JottRNAL Cannot consistently longer ; 
serve the Association as its official organ. ' 
So long as the Association manifested a ' 
proper interest in penmanship, as an art and 
accomplishment, ami properly respected the 
JoiinNALas thcspeciol organ of penmanship 
and the Association, the Jouiutai. could with 
propriety serve the Association in the capacity 
of its official organ, but no longer. Tlie pnr- 
posi- of the founders of the Juiirsai, was the 
ptiblication of a penmen's paper, one devoted 
to the various departments of pcnmansliip, 
and to the interest of penmen, and it is not 
our intention to pennit it to be diverted from 
that purpose. While the Jouknai. must from 
choice and necessity be essentially educa- 
tional in its tendency, it will not lose sight 
of the fact that its specialty is penmanship, 
and that penmen, as artists, teachers, pupils, 
business writers, and admirers of the art, are 
chiefly its patrons, nor fail to yield due alle- 
giance to their interest. Inasmuch as many 
if not moat of our skillful penmen and teach- 
ers arc idcntifled with business colleges, and 
in view of the fact that penmanship is usually 
a prominent feature in their curriculum, 
iliM-i ni-iitiitions ond their representatives 

111 < fhiiiion in the columns of the Jour- 
. I 1.1 -nil ^j its editors liave been too long and 
actively identified with commercial education, 
not to retain a lively interest in its progress and 
success. It is also a fact that the vast ma- 
jority of the subscribers and patrons , of the 
JontNAL are in no wise connected with or 
interested in business colleges, and that many 
such Imve been annoyed and some have re- 
monstrated with its publisher, and discontiu- 
\ied their subscriptions because of tlic busi- 
ness college tendency of the Jouiinal. 

The JoiTBNAi. will therefore, henceforth, 
treat all departmcntsof education impartially, 
and witli equal and liberal consideration, and 
will set apart a column for educational items 
of genend interest and value to its readers, 
to which department contributions are 
specially solicited. 

Exhibits at the Convention. 

At the lale lhi.'*iiu'ss CoUeye Tracbfrs' aiuJ 
Penmen's convention one of the spacious and 
elegant parlors of the Palmer House was set 
apart for the exclusive use of the members, as 
a reception room and for the exhibition of 
any article to which they desired to call at- 

Noticeable among the exhibits was a targe 
scrap book exhibited by G. W. Brown, of 
Jacksonville, 111., in which were numerous 
and very cretlitable specimens of card and 
business writing, (ira^ving and lettering by stu- 
dents at the Jacksonville Business College. 

Orin Ileynolds, of Chicago exhibited in two 
frames specimens of superior business writing. 

A. T. Selovcr, of New Orleans, exhibited 
n fmnie containing a variety of card writing 
and drawing wliich were creditable. 

Frank Goodman, Principal of the Nash- 
ville, (Tenn.) Bvisincsa College, exhibited in 
a targe bound volume specimens of business 
correspondence as taught and practiced in Ids 
college The b<»k contained seven pages of 
each student's work, consisting of business 
letters, orders for goods. day-b(K)k charges, 
with hills made from the same, also two 
pi^ffcs of questions and answers pertaining to 
business letter^i. 

On the page preceding each student's siwc- 
imens, has been arranged the monthly report 
for June, showing the attendance, deport- 
ment, and standing in studies. All of wRich 
is cnilitnble, and sliows the students have 
been prompt in attendance, and worked faith- 

D. T. Ames, of New York, exhiliited a 
compendium of practical and ornamental 
pcmnanship which is a large quarto work of 
forty-eight pages-photo-llthographed directly 
from pen and ink copy, presenting standard 
and fancy alp1ialK>ls, elements and exerciser 
for olT-band flourifliing. designs for drawing. 
Willi numerous siteeinu-ns of engrt>ssed rcso- I 
lulion.s. lestiuioiiiiils. diplomas, title pages, , 
«&c. The work is designed specially as a 
haudbook for the use of artists and profes- j 
sional penmen. Mr. Ames also exhibited a \ 
hxTse scmn book in which were numerous I 
specimens of original pen and ink copy, be- 
side which were the photo-engraved or I 
photo-lithographed copies, thus showing the i 
correct resemblance and relation between the 
original drawing and its reproduction. In 
this book were a large number of specimens, 
embracing diplomas, certiflcatea for schools, 
of stock and membership, college currency, 
letter and bill heads, business carfls, display 
cuts for circulare, paper headings. &c. , repre- 
senting every class of work that is ordinarily 
seen as wood and sleel engraving and in a 
degree of style and perfection bringing them 
into successful competition with the engrav- 
ing; while as regards cost they possess 
decided advantage, being comparatively inex- 
pensive. A specimeu which probably attract- 
ed the most attention from visitors and the 
press was a $5.00 National bank note winch 
was executed entirely with a pen, and which 
so closely resembled the original engraved 
note, as to be scarcely distinguishable. The 
Day Tinting T square exhibited by Mr. Ames 
also attracted much attention and warm com- 
mendation. For a full description and 
specimens of work executed with this instru- 
ment see our advertising columns. 

Wm. H. Sprague, Principal of the Nor- 
walk, (0. , ) Business College, exhibited several 
new styles of pen holders, which appeared 
to be meritorious, especially an obliciue hol- 
der, wliich possesses some new and valuable 
features, and is much less expensive than 
other patterns now in use. Mr. Sprague also 
exhibited several grades of pens, both of steel 
and gold, also ink of his manufacture. 

O. Sr. Powers, of the Metropolitan Business 
College. Chicago, exhibited a text-hook upon 
book-keeping, of which he is the publisher, 
entitled "The Complete Accountant," which 
is a popular work, and has attained to a very 
general use as a text-book in schools and as a 
book of reference. 

J. C. Bryant, of the Buffalo, (N. Y.,) 
Business College, exhibited a series of text- 
books on book-keeping, and finely gotten up 
blanks to accompany the same. This series 
arc designed for use in high schools, business 
colleges and the counting-room, for which 
purpose they appear to be well adapted. 

The Story of a Live School in a Live 
I'luler the abovt- title S. S. Packard, of 
Packard's Business College, 805 Broadway, 
New York, in a pamphlet of thirty-two pages, 
tells many interesting facts relative to the 
practical value of a business education and 
the proper method of procuring it. The in- 
formation IS communicated in the form of a 
spicy dialogue between Mr. Packard and a 
proposed patron of his institution. 

It is worth reading even by those who have 
no special interest in his theme, while to those 

I who have sons or daughters to educate, it is 
of peculiar iuteresl. The pamphlet is mailed 

' free to all applicants. 

The Album of Pen Art. 
are in receipt of a large number of 


inquiries and complaints from parties who 
have subscribed for the Album and do not 
get it, or any explanation from its publisher. 
We dislike to answer such questions through 
the Journal, but they are too numerous to 
be otherwise answered. We can only say 
that we have received but one copy of the 
Album, since December last, and we havti no 
reason to believe that more have been issued. 

Our Employment Agency. 

By neariy every mail we are in receipt of 
letters from teachers desiring situulions, and 
parties wanting teachers, asking our aid. It 
is a SMlisfaction to us to bestow such favors as 
we can without special loss of time and 
nmney. Yet it should Ik- borne in uund that 
such favors cost something in i>ostagc and 
time, and that where adesirnble situation or 
teacher is thus secured through our aid, it is 
a service for which the parties served, can 
abundantly afTord a slight compensation. 

We have, therefore, from time to time an- 
nouuced.that in consideration of two dollars in- 
closed with an application we would place the 
same on tile with references and testimonials, 
(we would also suggest that applicants inclose 
their photograplis) when we will make 
special effort in Iheir In-half. For many who 
have com|. Ill, i wirii tlnsr terms we have done 
subsiiiiiii I -. I M. . ni.i :i|so for many others, 
wholi;i\. ml n mil [ I, I I li. I WO dolIars; but our 
first 8er\ ill* IS tiiu- lo liione wlio have paid for 
it, and we can only assist others when there 
are no other satisfactory applicants, upon our 
list. Nearly every person who has complied 
with our plan has received the desired assis- 
tance. And those who wish toavail themselves 
of our services will do well to put in their ap- 
plication at once. 

Sadler's Counting House Aiithmetic, 
Just published lt\ w II ^ I I . ,r rhe Bal- 

tjmore, (Md.,) Hi ^ i i ,, ,i --i Business 

College. A can I i : Hi is work 

convinces us tluii n ..-■ om ui . in idid merit, 
treating in a concise, practical and compre- 
hensive manner those principles which apply 
directly to business affairs. 

As a text book for conunercial schools, and 
as a hand book of reference in the counting 
room, it is In our opinion far in advance of 
any other arithmetical work we have ever 

The following, (and in our opinion wcll- 
groinided) claims of superiority are set forth 
by the publisher. 

1. The clearness and conciseness of the 
definitions and nilcs of the various subjects. 

2. The systematic arrangement of the sub- 
ject into parts. 

3. The introduction and special treatment 
of the subjects entitled trade discounts and 
marking goods. 

4. The number of ingenious and original 
labor-saving tables throughout the work. 

5. The greater nundier of examples to each 
subject, and the more practical nature of 
such examples. 

6. The illustration of the more important 
subjects by engravings, as serving to render 
the work attractive in appearance. 

' 7. A set of review questions follows each 

8. The general treatment of the subjects of 
interest, stocks and bonds, operations in 
Stock Exchange, Foreign And domestic Ex- 
change and arbitration of Exchange. 

All who are intere8te<l either as teachers, 
pupils, or business men, should examine a 
copy of this work. See advertisement on 
another page. 

The Schoolmaster of the Nineteenth 

, Centtiry 
Is the title of a small book of 15'2. Ifinio. 
pages recently translated from the German, 
and published by Daniel Slote & Co.. 110 
William street. New York. It is a work that 
should be in the hands of ever}- teacher and 
parent in the laud. Although designed more 
specially as a hand book for teachers of pri- 
mary education, it is full of practical hints 
valuable to ail teachers and parents seeking 
to promote the mental development and edu- 
cation of the young. It is a most ingenious 
and happy presentation ol the drawing out 
and building up process of education. 

Messrs. Slote & Co., also publish The 
Grammar School Word book and Etymoi- 
offy and a" Hand Book of Select sentences," 
which are valuable little works for any 
teacher. They manufacture and keep con- 
stantly on hand all styles of school stationery 
and blanks. Book-keeping blanks are their 
specialty. They publish a conveniently and 
tastefully arranged catalogue, which will he 
sent on application. See their adverlisemcjit 
in another column. 

^:^' 'AJjS. ^'j;^ALi:'£r: ', ., -f vvi£i^Vjj„uxj£-x!^' 







^- V 

z/^// /-///•: 

: , -_i-^ ^--- _^ I_J^ ~-^ _> S^^ir^r^^k 

lUx- ,.i. :- 1 1. ;j I. :.,;„. v.i >^>'. Utt i'.i.-i.-i..i , ....i . t^, .,iiL;ii»> m-^ i >--. i<i \_i\\\ Mrwi, iroiii mi oriL'iimi puil iillii mk Specimen executed at Un- <illic<; 'H llie PeSMvS'a Anr .l<Jl?BSAL, Willi E 
gredca of siccl pensv ub BiK-cilieJ, iii»im(acturea by iLe Kstcrbrook Stwl Pen Jlanufacmnng Company, located at Camdeo, N. J., office and salesroaai, 26 John alreet.'New; Yo^^ 

Every niricty of drawiuga for phol<w;ngraviug and pboto-Iithoi^pby ma<le ; also ilisplavcd pena)an<ihip such as engroaed rMoIutioas, raeimrials, diplonu, &:,.&:, pr.>n>-.ty ftTl a 
executed at the office of the Jovrnal, 205 Bn.adway. 


i published in 1857. It was enijraved on stone from P. R. Spencer's coplo; 
re no loncer pos?ihIp. a wiflo and pressing demand was made for a 
Thls'new work by tho Spencerlan Authors is behiR issued In ten parts, each comprisInR nine beautiful steel plates, 9 by 12 Inches in size. Ttio engravings 
the work of the best Spencerlan penmen, notably the celebrated penraan artist. Lyman P. Spfncer. 

The Dim of this publication Is to present Penmanship In its highest perfection, widest range and most varied adaptatior 
The humble learner, the adept, the teacher, the ergrosser, the engraver, the sign-writer, and all admirers of practical 
eubBtantlal help in this new and benullful encyclopedia of pen-art, 
The parls ore issued quarlcily, bcyinning August 1, 1873. ■ 

, extensive sale, 

J fac similes from 

■Ports I. II. Ill AIV; 

nd all adn 
nt postj 

id artistic penmanship will find delight, Inspiration and 
receipt of the publisher's price, fiO cents por Number. 

The Common Sense Binder. 
Editors Penman's Art Jimi-nal, 

I am moved to sngycst to your subscribers, 
and particularly to such of them as are con- 
nected with business colleges, tliut in the use 
of the Common Sense Binder they may pre- 
serve the JooBNAL 80 as to be able readily to 
refer to it, which I have found a great con- 
venience. And by thus keepiDg the files of 
the JouKNAt protected when they are acces- 
eiblc to college students, their interests in 
penmanship and business education will be 
increased. Should the publishing interest 
incidentally derive any benefit from such an 
arrangement, it is all the better; for while 
colleges are benefited by the circulation of 
the Journal they should embrace every, 
opportunity oflfercd to widen its beneficent 

For one I am anxiou.^ tlu.i Mn ,T,,, i-, v, 
slinll continue to do wh;it ; ; i s 

the general interests of l'n-:r . . . <i><l 

of huBJnvss education miiii,;.\ 1 <:u 

equally desinius thai ihiM iii..ii;ui.i;i..-. .-.h.ill 
continue to do what they may ui apprecia- 
tion of the heuc'fits received from the circula- 
I of the .ToCItNAL. 



Mi by a B 

nible that 

obtain the biiidfi. the uue ut wliich in the 
wav proposed I have found so lieiicllL'itkK 
But this service I know yon will <h(<Tfully 
perform for them, as you have done for 
myself and others. Truly yours. 

Agreeably to Mr. Mnyhew's valuable sug- 
gestion we have made arrangements for sup. 
plying 'Ul wlio desire with a binder by mail 
on receipt of $1.75. The binder is very con- 
veniently consinicted for serving both us a 
file iiud a binder. The tulvnntages of such a 
receptacle for the Jodunai. cannot be over- 
stated. If a periodical is worth paying 
for, it is of very great advantage to have 
it in a convenient form for preservation 
and reference; if folded and laid care, 
fully away it loses almost wholly its 
value for study and reference. The in. 
convenience and labor is too great to 
admit of frequent examination, while in the 
bimler it is always as convenient as any 
l>ook. Once used it will be deemed india- 

"Sam." said one little urchin to another; 
" S<am, does your schoolmaster give you any- 
reward of merit ?" "I s'posc he does" was 
the reply ; "he gives me a lickin* regular, and 

Probably the happiest man in attendfuice 
at I lie lute Biisincee College Teachers' and 
Penmen's Convention, was our friend, Frank 
Goodniun, Vice.Prcsident of the association 
and principal of the Nashville (Tenn.) 
BusincBB College. With him the trip, and 
convention, was a happy combination of 
honeymoon and business. The ceremony 
was performed in Nashville on July 20, at the 
residence of the bride Miss Pattie Sims, who 
is a Iftdy of rare beauty and accomplishments, 
and is evidently i» 'try congenial partner intbe 
house of Goodman & Co. The new firm 
have our best wishes. May it long continue, 
tind never do otherwise, than to combine the 
St of pleasure with the moat abundant 

Pen PortraitB of Qarfleld and Hancock. 

Persons desiring the mo8t attractive por- 
traits of either of the Presidential nominees, 
for framing, can receive the same, by remit- 
ting to us fifteen cents. 

In the August issue we announced our 
intiiilion to also publish a portrait of Mr. 
Weaver, but we were unable to procure a 
good likeness of him, and. besides, there has 
not been a dennmd suttlcient to warrant the 
expense. Those who have setjt money, for 
copies of his portrait, can have the same re- 
turned or applied for other purposes, as they 
may choose. 

The New Spencerian Compendium. 

Number four of this work is now ready. 
It contains three pages of capital exercises, 
and six pages of variety of capitals prepared 
with all the care and ari,istic skill for which 
Lyman Spencer is so justly famous, and en- 
graved by A. McLees, who has no equal as a 
script engraver. 

This number is a peculiarly valuable acqui. 
sitiou for both the amateur and the skilled 
penman, presenting ns it does from eight to 
fifteen varieties of capitals as well as a great 
variety of exercises especially adapted to de- 
velop the proper movements to produce the 
letters in the most graceful and beautiful 

The Hektograph. 

Among the many recently discovered meth. 
ods for the reproduction of handwriting and 
pen-and-ink drawings, there is none that 
equals in economy, convenience and facility, 
the Hektograph. By it any writer is enabled 
in a few minutes of time to take a hundrei 
or more fac siuiilea of any piece of 
Circular letters, school exercises, reports, 
aminations, &c., are readily duplicated. 

Teachers and all classes of busine 
will frequently find it very serviceable. See 
the advertisement in another column. 


In the July No. we announced on what 
wc believed to be good authority, that B. 
B. Brown had discontinued his Business 
College at Jersey City. It appears that we 
were misinformed ; he closed only for a vaca- 
tion, and will re- open on the 13th inst. It af- 
fords us pleasure to make this 

Esterbrook'a Steel Pena. 
On our seventh page will be found an 
elaborate speeimen of photo-engraving 
from a specimen of penmanship executed 
at the efHce of the Journal with several 
grades of pens manufactured by the Ester- 
brook Steel Pen Co.. 26 John street, New 
York. The work speaks better and more 
fully regarding the merits of these pens 
than we can ; we therefore refer our read- 
ers to the specimen. 

A Grand Prize. 
To the person who shall send the largest 
number of subscribers to (he JouHNAl, 
wllliin one year beginning with the present 
mouth, September, we will present a 
copy of Ames' Compendium or Williams it 
Packard's Gems or their eqviivaleot in any 
other publication that they may select, ad- 
ditional to the regular premiums anoouocea 

Dixon's Lead Pencils. 

We have for several years past used 
Dixon's Graphite .\rtists pencils and can 
certainly commend them as being of supe- 
rior quality, free from grit and capable of 
carrying a very fine point. 

About these times we are on the look out 
for clubs. Who will favor U3 with the 

W. W. McClelland, Artist Penman, Pitts- 
burg, Pa., is executing very fine specimens 
of engrossing. 

H. J. Williamson, teacher of writing at 
Floyd C. H., Va., incloses several handsome 
specimens of writing and flourishing executed 
by his pupils. 

Jas. Foeller, Jr., has opened a writing in- 
stitute at Ashland, Pa. Mr. Foeller is an 
accomplished writer and pen artist, and will 
undoubtedly merit success in his new en- 

Hon. Horace Russell, who was recently 
appointed Chief Justice of the Superior Court 
of New York by Governor Cornell, and whose 
picture appears in the New York Oraphic of 
August 23. is a brother of Professor H. Rus- 
sell, of Joliet, 111-, our esteemed friend and 
(■ontnhulor. Judge Russell is spoken of as 
one of the ablest lawyers in New York city. 

(i. A. Swayze. has beei 
aiHither year as special teacher of writing in 
the piil'lif schools hi the eitv of Belleville, 
Oiidiri'i Mr Sw>iv/f' litii miiHy fourteen 

huihlM .i I...I.I'.- \. [ III- i.iiiM»>. :iiid is high- 
ly |.M|.i 1 I . ,'7 -^iieakingof 

gaged li> iIk' >iii' ■ '■'■ 'i-i ! ■■ ■■' ■' 1' 1 ■"I", 
OS writing niJi'^ii i ■ i ■ ■ ; ■ ■ i i '"■ 

good that this -■ ■ ■ ■ '"I 

during the pnst >> u in in-i ium m- |mi[m- iii'\\' 
to write propiTly imIuu muyi.i/.c.i. 

F. P. Preuitt, who has for some time past 
been conducting a business college at Fort 
Worth, Texas, receives a high compliment 
for hisiii-tislir skill frmn the Eixning Tek- 
(fraph "f \\v.\\ |il;ir.' which says : "Prof, 

Preuiii 1- --^l'l 1 iiii'-tiiku, master of his pro- 

fessinri, iiiil 111 ii n III ^ imi only pen-drawing, 
but hmii |ii Mil Hill > >iii:>iiK'ntal penmanship, ns 
well ;i- I I ; I ii' II-. in book-keeping. He 
has I"- I . ' -i-^fully a large class of 

pu|Hl^ ' iiMiiig in our city, and 

wilI;t-LiM i"Liii \Miii I .liiss here in the early 
part of Septcnilicr. We commend him to 
parents wishing to give their children the ad- 
vantage of ac(iuiring the glorious art of pen- 

J. M. Melmn has been giving instruction in 
writing at Teacher's Institutes in Iowa, during 

work iJiiU 1 t„n i,.*w ^i i'T.A. MtljiUi in 
nenrly fvpry whool in Ontnt? coiinly.' An a 
token of iIm- appnt-iulion of the Icaehcnt, they 
prcM-nU-(J tiini with 'Mocaulay's Engtanil' in 
five nif ely lioiind voluiiit-d. A« the IViffMor 
affjse lo roipcinil he was greeted with dnifen- 
Ine applaiiM' and a nhowerof l)oiK)iietr. In 
n ffw wLll^.hf>wn word§ he cxprriw-d ifmnks 
f»»r the coinpliiiienlH. A general ImndJihiikinff 
followed, lifter whirh PrnfeaMjr Melinn look 
the train for Cliaiilon. bii« new lield of lulwir." 



;^ iMi mint $1^1^^^; 

Kr.-J. IJ CluiiJItr, .,( Soll-LukL- Cilv, Ulali, 
IB a miiKTloi bmlncm writer. 

.''/." T°""^' "'" hmcil lefl-luiiiilnd wriwr 
r'tlpr" """''" "" '''■S"""y wrilfcn 

A. N. Piilmcr, Odar nnpids. Iowa. ««nd« 
wvi-ral very fine Rpi'piineiui of card and copy 

S. C. Stove 
eral «pc(!iniei 

ex,.c„l,,| ,|,.,iK 

W. II. (lien, teac-h, 
niid llnnicir's lliiiihu 

, Spring .Mills. Pa., nendii »ev. 
» of fancy cards which are 

'if IJilnn and Bumctfs linl. 
l.ii<iri.'..»College writes n letter 

^ "' III'- London. (Ont ,) Hiisi. 
ielo»,.« two ingenious and well 
lis of hirils and Bcrolis. 

' (ViMese. Ha?tiii 

III superl) spec 


ield, MnJ." 
veral copy- 
are highly 


yille. (l>a.. 

raph of 

"lips and card speeinie 

U. 11. Ward, fort I',, 
ate of Oaskell's Mmi, In 
ncss rolle«e. s, „,l, „ i,, 
iog. .Mr. U„i,l |.i.,|„, 
classes in .Maiiii' iMs i;,tl 

II. ('. Clarii, of Ihc 1 
ne,«.s foileije, sends an imperial photogia 

Tlie portnut iinil lellering upon the .heel arc 
well executed, luaking an attractive speci 
men o( pen work. ' 

Exchange Items. 

.1. r. I)nvi» of Allooiia l>n., hnsissucd the 
llr«l niMultt-rol ilie Tht ll-iK:k<rprrani Pm- 
""'"• "''"'■" '" illraelive and reailnblc 

The third number of Thr llmll-jMprT, puU 

" appcanmce. on time and in good style. 

II IS a sisleen pau'e ■piarlo, and full of iiuer- 
.■stiiiij nmller, II i» , ,||ie,l l,y s. H. Hopkins, 
7IU-hainlierslr.ll, New Vofk. 

7'Ar SliidriiU .l.,„rnal is a sistcen page 
nu.nlhly.ilevotiil ehielly lo .standard I'honog 
ripliv. pulilished I- • ' ■• ■ ^ 

This work is niiivi 
generally, to be the moi 
□lanship ever published. 
pr«iniuni for a club of tv 

The above cut rei 


isally tuiHtded^Jiy^tlK" iiris». professioiml pciinieii, and artists 
1 foniprehcnsive. prarlieal, nndartiatic piide to oninDienta) pen- 
Sent, iKMtpaid. to any address on receipt of $4.50. or as a 
civc fiiibscrihers to llic .loiitNAi,. 
ri-st-nts the fille piiL'<' of Die wo-k. which is 11 x 14 in size. 

)M AMEtf Alphabet** 

' A fflOM rJsi-j^hco =itzc. 

- .' A. .1. Urnbani, 744 Hroad- 
edited, and full of niatli'rs of 
ort-band fraternity. 

KiHlort />ei4»um's .lr< Journal: 

It is pro|ier sinre your columns are always 
open tor the good of the fraternity, and hav- 
ing the same object in view, for n"ie to allude 
lo the fact Ibat last year at the Business Edu- 
cators' Convention held at rieveland, Ohio, 
some \'ahiahle samples or models on eshibi- 
tion were removed or taken fmm the display- 
room during the session. That which win 
presented liy allusion to the transaction at the 
time, in the Jodkkai. should have been suf- 
ticient without having been repeated (piite so 
stion theivafler, and yel our Chicago oxhi. 
bition ooio or reo.ption parlor was visited 
probably in the same wav or manner as in 

Possibly it may seem very pleasant lo visi- 
tors, our members and friends, to Imk upon 
the productions, helps, fte , displayed by our 
mote or leas active thinking brethren, but it 
is certainly not so pleasant and saUsfaetoij- to 
the pro<luciT. who cannot feel some degree 
of conftdenee, that the article exhibited may 
be found after the convention adjourns, aiid 
must suffer or be the loser of from $15 lo 
$50 or more. I am disposed to make a sug. 

s 'ii' a 

'Nf-nl of inriftimable Value to 
entry DraughUman. 
• Bccompanyiug cut repreaeuis tlio betti with k 

of rultnf; tud fbsdlDs, pliolo eugraverl illrcrt from 

re sola al pitces varyltiK. arcortllCR te 
Dd <iuallty or blade. &c., Irotn (.« lo t8. soiuKly packed by cxpreii lo i 
Iblted Stal«i or Oanadi. Addteu 

Theabo .., ,, ^._ ^. .^-., 

Now Buok of Alphaliets." The work, conUir.iii« thirty nine nc 
botri, c<Mi^i-,t3 of 32 pages 7ixll JKChea, sent post paid, for $1 60, 
for four subsci ibors to the journal. 

il of the alph: 

gestion however early, Ihar show eases be 
provided hereafler, and the various displays 
or exhibits placed under lock and key and 
shown only when solicited. Plain facts al- 
wavB require plain talk. 

Youre, A Mrmukk. 

Writing in the Pubiic Schools. 

Like other branches tauRlit in public 
selioolfl, penmanship tiliunkl he adapted to the 
ability of pupils. 

To do this, lUe work nuist be carefully grad- 
ed. 1 submit the following, for a graded 
school of eight departments. 


Write on shites from copy on blackboard. 
Teach position, form, bight. Give excrolses 
in drawing straight lines two inches long ver- 
tically and hoiizontally. Teacb the use of 
right hand. Place alphabets on blackboard. 

Rule slates in staffs with a sharp iiistrunienl. 
Teach poMtion, higlit, form luid classification, 
by form, of small lettei-R, night analysis of 
small letters; tliat is. have pupil name prin- 
ciples looking on copy. Teach capitals. 

Write in hooks wllli lead pencil: teach 
position, mental analysis— that is naming of 
principles without looking upon copy, form, 
classification of small letters, sight analysis of 

Write with pen, leach position, nrm-morv. 
ment, mental analysis of small letters, sight 
ijtiysis of capilaU. 

Teach position, arm-movemeul, mental an- 
al}-sis of capitals, imd clasaificatiou of same, 
spacing, and complete mental analysis and 

classification of small leliers. 


Teach portion, movement, fore and whole- 

arm, poniplete classification of capitals, men- 
tal aniilysis of same: and teach spacing and 


Same as previous grade. Husine8s.f"oii»« 

, receipts, orders, etc 

and classification, teach 
r. Business- forms, Mss., 

business letters, etc. 

I have thus briefly sketched out the above 
course. I hope others will go and do like- 
wif^_ J. ar. Mkh as. 


lOMI'LITi: COl'llSE 


vreonnts. tvitli AM Iimetlenl I'mb ems. 



JvT%vy City BuMlnevH follcffc. 

Brrani & iiratlon Collvure, 

dr Ha <fae»ter atid Blm iiirp«ts, 

Cliculu* of both/rw for stamp. 6-ir 

Y'tSmso CABDi wriilenMT"ai^l by mail ai ibe fol- 
'- "-i-MOl oc-igDn. fac^iirt (J "pen ww""'*" «ntS- 
>urwbw». $1. s«raple, ti c*ais. B. F. KELLEx| 


m. MlH«8HILISBii-W 1880 




Dralgneif for BAK 


PRICTICAI TEXT-BOOK FOR IIIMMVS m.\m\ IIIUI srll(.iil\ \( Uil.|lli:s ni; I \IVi:i:Mri^^^^^^^ lUllSTRATED ASD 


lenomberof lo(t»nloni nndonglnal labor-eavlDpTible" IbroiiRhoiit ibo work. S.-TbeRM 
ch fxnmplw. 0— The llliUTMllon of ihe more iropof t»oi snbjocia hy eiinranogfl. as i*rvir 
llnwi Mch BubjKl tL— The genera! tteitmcnl of the siibjecia of Iiiwresl, SlochB nn-i B' 

lUoO of Eschangp. u , ^ , h >rf of the nut 

Tb^Srwiinen l'»Be>, whicL • .n r'!- -;. ii .Coring ■rknowledBmenis '■ "' '"i^"". 

Among IbBioIiJPCIinol air. .' ■■■■' ti iireor Tilal Impi'tlaL.. i niru.^anu^ uubm 

InMyiimlUrworl.. E^^IXDB3>TOE OF" IMEIFtn?. 

ocHR Monday next. Wo have decided U> adopt jour Arllhmelic Fend "■ 100 coplca per eiprcis at onw. 
B«To> D-NMPsCoLLtOR.BuffoKN. y-Tho following espi€88l»e opinion 
(: Q.HH.^-H'iwlojoiillkotdedpocimeo pages ol Sidler's . 
PogM in (.i,P,ij.vihi.ii wiih riiiy oilier Arllhmetic ina week." 

examplea lo each subject, and tbe moto pracifc«l na*ui 
1 Stock Exchange. Foreign and IlomfBtIo Eicbange and A 
ir of the number of an^'Jetta bow presented tn thopnbbc. 

jro ably, exbaufilively and Byat'i; 

(I US lOOcopli': 


NO. 6 & 8 NORTH CHARLES ST.. Baltimore. 


15 & 1] 





A Lively and Interesting Journal. 

Devoted to (he Interests of the Coiintiug 

Roim and the Profes&loD. 

Historical and Biographical Sketches, De- 
Book-keeping Systems 

Pnbllahcd bl -Weekly at S3 a year. Sinjfl 
by tbo publlshora. 



I Ki: \l. ^^VA^ U'l^ »«^L ACTION. | 

IvisoN, Blakeman, Taylor & Co. 

138 nud 140 Orand Street. New Tork. 

NOTICE.— To pupllB Id iho PubDc or Common School, 
ornny others wl«h'ng W improve ih^ r writing, 
being UBittior toachers nor amateurs of ihe art, I will 

Direct to W. P. COOPER, KLngSvtUe, AshUhula county. 

The iryant & Stratlon Blanks 



L/\p \imi\ AND JOUI^NAL, 

Commiiision, BaDklnr, and omall Ktis, 

Bu^iu(ss Forms, Praciice Books, 



Pal. Appllpd For. 

Wakeman's Detachable Sliding Copies. 

Since It has bei^a demonstratoil tbat a movadlg rorv la 
entirely practicable, no serleG ot Copy-Bonks will bo 
acceptable beiealter without thia provlalon. Wakeman's 
PatODl Sliding Copies provide thia important icquKitii 
by a almple and convenient melhod of applying udjuat- 
able copies to eicb page of the book. 

e copies can bo easily detacbed aft 
Itten tbrougb, and aaed again io a 

iper stt of copies may 

They hiivo already been tested Id a number ol flchoola 
wllb eicellenl rcsulls and entire aaileractieu 

Sample Noa. 1, 2 and 3 noti\ ready, wiU 
be for irnrded po»t paid on receipt o/18 cenh 

D. APPLETON&CO.. Publishers. 
1 , 3 (& 5 Bond Street, New York 



Common School Book-keeping. 



Counting House Book-keeping. 

Embracing Ihe Theory and Priicllce of Accounts ; and 

alrucllon. By s"8. rlcKittD^ or N- wTork^ and H. 
Bbyamt, Chicago. I'rice, by mall, tl 50 

7 HOBART ST., KTiaC'A, N. V. 

icry description of Pon-work executed to ordt 


Corr. spondence solicited, 


! pifc. 


nibbe'ii Conrso of Intilructlon fn 

of ibi> course Cliculars giving lull pnrilculais 
.ut on applicuiion. 




Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., 

laSJk 110 Cirand fi 

TEACHER'S AGENCV.— Teacbera dcsirtrg sll.n- 
ilona, and parties seeking good Icttcbere, cm Bocurf ^AitD WRITERS.— Gilt and Bevel Erice rgrds cbc>[ 
valuable aerrlce by elating parilcutars and iDcloains \^ Turnover corner, bevel eftao. 15o.; 50 GlU Edge, 10. 

Bro4dwKy, New Tort 


Penman's Gompanion. 




he paotograpb. With it 



oDg, nnd brass 


her way It ia ca 
black walnut fti 

u he bought for 
polnt«Ior SI.OO. 





penman. M»ple Bl.ido 9« mchea loDg w 
ad. 1 1 works nicely on tbe ecigo Ufa Oris 
out lacking toa druwlng board, yet it w 

I{ t^e hwVby which Uniform Tm^b IL" 
mply placing a mark on tho edg^ of 

Photo and Photo-Lithographs 

H. W. Kibbe, 

No. 7 HOBABT ST., 
6-l«, irriCA, «. v» 




IRe^'7-±s©<a. a,33.<i Ttti -p3ro-ve<3„ 

As a Text-book on Book-keeping, embodying practical ideas, authentic and reliable methods and forms, and plenty of work for the student, 
THE COMPLETE ACCOUNTANT has gradually grown in public favor, until it now ranks as the Standard and Leading Treatise in this country. 
During the last school year, there were times when it was absolutely impossible to meet the constantly growing demand. Many more institutions 
arc introducing THE COMPLETE ACCOUNTANT into their classes at the beginning of this year, and it is very giatifying to the publisher to 
receive the commendatory letters that como from every quarter. 

In order to nccommodate schools of different gi-ades the work is issued in two editions, pi-inted in colors, on fine heavy paper, and bound 
in best of cloth. 

Tlie Co"Li3=Ll:i3=Lg ZEIoiise IBcii'tiozx, 

contains 356 pages, of wbich G4 page 

• JovoteJ to I'lilimiua; 

i and lUtiiil Bu.s; 

to Wholesale Mercli; 

itlisiiiji i 12 pages to Foi 

AccouiitH; 20 pages to Lumber Accounts ; 18 pages to Manufacturiug; 13 pages to Steamboating; 12 pages to Raili-oatling ; 20 pages to Commifii 

pages to Banking : the remaining part of tbe 
Retail Price, _ _ _ 

Introduction Price, - - - 

Per dozen, (thereafter) per 

irk to Miscellaneous subjects. 
$3 BO 

Orders of Two dozen 
Sample Book, for 


A c-ompU't(j wet of blank books, ruled and indexed expressly for this work will be furuisbed at $2.50 per set. net, retail. $4. 

ontaius 164 pages devoted to the rudiments of the 

and Retail and Wholesale Merchaudismg. This edition is precisely what is required in High 

Schools, AcadomioB, and Universities where an extended coiu'se is not attempted, but where a cleai- understandmg of the ordinai-y methods of Accounts 

Retail Price, _ _ _ _ 

Introduction Price, - - - 

Per dozen, (thereafter) per copy, - 

Orders of Two dozen or more, 
Sample Book for examination by Mai], 

Blank books, complete for this edition, $1.50 net, retail, $2.25. 

Orders ■will receive Prompt and Careful Attention. 

O. M. POWERS, 151 State Street, Chicago, 111. 

Chart of Animal Classificafion. 

Bjr A. B. lilllFFfiN, A.M. 

HHiMSlofho* mrr.niif.l la (..or i 

AuablliiK tht< Toarhsr wltb n Cbftd li 

Naiant BlBtorv. Prloo, 16 c« 
Chvt ftrruigod tn DUul 

iPDUry TrMilso, (3.) To bulp ti 

I aiid Oullrgi^a In wbtrh Loctoivt arr Klrcn tn : 
G41 Brond Street, Mcwnrk, New 

The Coniiuou Sense Binder. 






n Series of 



or every dg- 
a (includluB 


By .irileriuv; irimi us, iialroQg cia rely not ouly 
eci'iYlDB a su[iL'rlor undo, but upoa doing \o pron , 
Linos' CocapcuaiuQi uf Oniamcnlal PoDmusliip.. . %\ 

Biyant'a Book-kefpinKi CounlliiK 

- -'lpa.ror inslructloD 

thi'et, couialulDg 

'■ (100 


Bristol Boa'cd, 8 BbMt thick, 22x28' 
2J128, pCTBheeis, b] 
French B. B., 21x34, •• 

Weut'h drkwg-iiaper, bot-prosB, 16i 

upoa doing \o promptly 

11x52 ii 

1 7S 

Stylografic Pens. 

Special Wholesale Agents for A. T. Croas' 
Stjiogratic Pena. Ageuts make money 
selling thcDi. Send for Large Illustrated 
Price List showing Styles and Teatimouialfl. 
Over Fifty Thousand in daily use. 

Bevel Edge Cards, new styles, just out. 
One Hundred and Fifty, post-paid with Price 
List, 91.00. 

New lot of Pens, Fancy Inks, etc. , to lie 
sold at the lowest prices. Please send for our 
Price List. We warrant prices satisfactory. 
Woonsocket, R. I. 

Ref., D. T. Amea. 

Blank Brlalol Bosrd Cuds, per 

Winior k NtwUia'ssnpersnp. Ind. ■tick, 3 00 
1 doxoD 01 boltlu fancy colored Ink aeni by tix- 

Wbllc Ink, p«r bottle, by expreaa 60 

David's Jkptnluk, per pint bottle, by expreu.... 1 'i& 

Prrpuredlndli Ink. per bottle, by exprcas fl6 

SiwDceDanNo. I, extra fur floorlaiiing 1 2S 

Tbe NtwSpriJceruuCkiiupcndluin, Cutlg^, 3, each, 00 

EDgr«B8iDg Puna Tor letierlog, per dOB 20 

Crow (Julli Pen, very Una, for dnwlng, per dox. . . 76 

WltliittuB & Puckxra's Gome 6 00 

McLe'ca Alobabcts ...'.!.'.".'.".'.'.'.','."..'.'.'.".'.'.! 2 60 

Oongdoo'aJloiintlSjatciD of Flounablng 60 

■' '■ ofLetienng 60 

Tlii'8» nre BooiJ woj ks for Ilia money. 

8p i'lL'- Rutber, i.\J ja , very au pur lor, per place.. 60 

No. I aiM, 2X1 ■ reet 1 75 

No.2 *• ajixax " 178 

No.3 •• axi ■' a 80 

Stone dotl), 0D1 yard wide, uiy length, per yard. 

aiBtcd on one aide i as 

U Incb. a wide, per yard, atated oo both aldea.. .. 2 26 




Now Coinuioii Scbool Book-keuuliif 

single and IMuOIu Entry. BuHlacos furme c^UipicilT 
Plain, practical, untqao and wmprohonBive, Adopted 
by the beat Schoola and Colle((e» ; l^e p<gea. Prioo 

New manual of Hook-keoplug:. Tbli 

IVetv deiuentary Book-keeplnf • 

' Coiiiiuerclal Book-kveplnflf — /uf 

Jmt R-:x 

ever pu nil 
Bulking i 

Blank Bookn. 


I uni cotupJete wurk 

iueaa t^Jikaea in ibe 
jtndcd m ilie nigbest 

Tbe Champion Card-Wr 

BrUUant Black IiUl, luvb «a \. 





117 Falton and 52 Ann Streets, fTew T ork. 


Tber mrc aoWntiwIcljii?'! by all 
wrItlDs quality. 



Bttentl m i-wlrt lo «ijppljli)f 
vliber boQDd or wrapped. 


D Ckp, L«tlef 

8>.x6)« oblocg 

) BookjB. I Nu. Rice. 

8^x5}; Oblong 90> 

It wilb uie. «-Si« 
<r wltboui priiit«<l bca 

be cbettp books ii 
Price pet 100 *•( 



No. Siia. No of Page*. Prtcp piT 100 Pooks. I No. Size. 

IS IKiS W I t 00 I W »3 

A iiBKiiAi, iiisronr OV LAIIlii; OIIBEISS. an 

205 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, "" """ 




' , I'liuiiiiK ..f ALL KINDS. 


Every Variety of Fen Work Promptly Executed in the Most Perfect Manner. 
Also, Connsel given as Expert on Handwriting and Accoonts. 

lalOHUeB I 

e HecdblllB. 


ctrotf pe Plntea will be scut by mall to &Dy address, at low prices. lucloie stamp 

olasioe or EnsravlDg and execute Designs <jr Uruwlngs lor the same. For Dlplomna and Specimen 
here. Colleee C ' ' 

Wo have the 
i Work, 


Best Halenal, Best Skill and Workmanship. ^ 

GEO. coiszEE, ' Speciiitty, 

205 BROADWAY, N. Y. 





L .A. :p I LI isr TJ ]N^ 


' rork Slllrato Itnok I 

CAPACITY OF office: 

NonparcU, - ... - 350,000 ( 

Brevier, ... - - 225,000 

Minion, ------ 175,000 

Boin-geois, ----- liO.OOO 

Long Primer, - - 75,000 

AMte, ------ 50.000 

New Mannal 

Bixsiness JParactice. 





Btfvcl Edy 

. nucAt 



Gill Edgo. i 






N 1. N. S.* 




Uiroe slylos, Oc. 

B. A. MUItG 


VmiUy, I 


Ad(1 we guarantee to do work as good and 
as reasonable as any printing bouse io this 

UosM I'linUii!; * o., 

9 Spruce Street. 

P. S.— Parties wlio send us worli tbrough 
seeing this "Ad." will confer a favor if 
they will stale tlie fact when sending oi'lers. 



PATBHTES IMAT 18 h add JUHS 1st, 1880. 


100 COPIES °n^R^^i^^i^E^°N^ 20 minutes 


Invaluable for the Ouplication ot School Circulars, Notices, Ex- 
amination Papers, Manifests or Invoices, Circular Letters, &c. 


Patents for the [jr.ifc 
ot aGelaiineCopyiiioPa 
be pi'osecutetl to the full 

been tssued t 

ot the law, 


22 & 24 Cburcli Street, New Vork. 



Rv nil- AlisdUiU'ly Perfccl. 

Nn School is Complete without them. 

Xo Studio is Furnished without the 

nodal, Parlft, 180». Oruiid .'nedal for ProBrew 


;t. Centennial Award, ISTB. THE GOLD MEDAL, PARIS, 1878. 
Tbt-y iirc Unequalled for Tec-hnical Dnnving. 

Miike Finer and more Perfect Lines 

Greater Variety of Shading for Art Worli. 

Leads are Black, Smooth, Strong, Pleasant. 

American Graphite 


SitiiU'ir g'a.lo to th.. European stain]. >'f 

T T S - \ try. Vfiy soft . . . (BUB) 

V S — V.TV soft (BB) 

S Soli (BantiNo. 1) 

SSI Si.Ii iii,,Uuni .... (HBmuiNo. 2) 
Mil M..liuin black . . . (P) 

M M.'.h.ini (H and No. 81 

M II - Miilium hartl . . . (H H) 

II — llartl (II HH anil No. 41 

T H - Vtry luml (H H H H and No. 5) 

V V II — Very, very hard . . . (H H H H H H) 

"^ These pencils are superior to any made in Europe. 

much finer, smoother, and more perfectly [ 

perfect for arcliilects, 


ArlDepaitm»Dl,N y..jQly6 
'cry ruspectfiiliy y 


iind medium 

I kitmlrablc. we) 


•'Dear A'r.-— Your very 

Binoothueas Mas boat I 

iwiiig, Pulyiecbuic IiiBLltut«, BfookljQ, 

' Dtar $ir:—l fltid your 

Ask your dealer for Dixon's American Graphite Pencils, 
■ "^YoufB ooetfluuily. ' i but if they are not sold by any dealer in your vicinity, wriK' 
letayof Dtvigi, N. v' I to US for samples, Bendiug 9 cents in stamps. 


'■ Entered at the Pott OJUt; of Sea Y-rk, .V. T., aa »eeond-eia»» matter." 


VOL. IV. NO. 10. 


Exaiiilaer of <|iie»tloned HniidiTrinD?. 


Goncfal ^g 01 .S|. uccrUu l\.py liooka, 


«Couri S rucl, Brooltlyo .N. Y. 





COLLEOEt liish luiuM., PhlUii<>it>liiu.Pa 
TI]ur.mHM Juairuciiuu lu p.umaiiBlnr anil a|i BuiIkcm 

IV. 11. HADI.EB, Pn>a>acuior 
BuDiih-M Ool igo, IM timnro, MJ,, pubm 

jr. II. UARLOW, 

with facility and ease, yet we would have no 
Ifamcr fall into tlie mistaken idea tliat he is 
to give special attention to speed before 
having acquired by deliberate study and 
practice correct forms and proportions in 
writing; first, accuracy, then speed; rapid 
and thoughtless practice is worse than use- 
less ; the mind must be educated before the 
hand. The hand and pen are only the ser- 
vants of the mind, and as such can never 
8urpa.H5 the mind's conception and power to 
guide and direct in any perlonnancc. 

If upon the tablets of the mind there is 
presented constantly to our.mental vision, a 
perfect copy of the letters and their varied 
combinations into graceful writing, the band 
will strike for the single and definite purpose 
of reproducing the same, and will progress 
steadily and rapidly to the attainment of skill 
requisite for the reproduction of the most 
perfect conceptions of the mind. The hand 
of the greatest sculptor or artist has no cun- 
ning not imparted by a skillful brain, hence, 
you, student, who would have success, see 
that your practice is preceded and always 
attended with thoughtful study and criticism. 

After having once written the copy, study 
and criticise your effort before the next trial. 
Your faults noted, and a thought as to how 
tliey may be best corrected, will enable you 
to make an intelligent and successful effort 
for improvement. Remember that unknown 
faults can never be avoided or corrected. 
Firat, study to discover, and then to mend. 
Short exercises or copies if rightly proctieed 
are much more favorable for improvement 
than long ones, innsnmch m they are repeat- 
ed at intervals so short as to keep faults and 
criticisms fresh in mind, while oft-repeated 
efforts for correction will be correspondingly 
effective. Faults observed by ourselves or 
pointed out by others, at the beginning of a 
long copy, are very likely to be out of ndnd 
before that portion of the copy in which they 

We will precede this lesson with a repe- 
tilion of the following movement exercise. 

which should be carefully practiced at least 
flfleeu minutes before trying the regular copy : 


The above are the principles employed in 
the Spencerian system of writing, and should 
be studied and practiced until they are fa- 
miliar by form aud number. 


we explained aud 
illustrated the correct itosition. of body, hand 
aud pen, while writing, and spoke of the scv. 
creal movemenW employed in writing, and 
closed wiih movement exercises for practice. 
Qood or well coustructed wriiin" is no 
mor« euential th&n that it should be executed 

Much care and practice should be bestowed 
upon this stem as it so freqnentlv occurs in 
writing, that very much depends, upon the 
accuracy and facility with which it is made, 
no less than fourteeD of the capital letters 
being conslnietcd mainly, or in part there- 
from. It is composed first of an unshaded left- 
curve followed by a rigbt-curve shaded, and 
finished by a left-curve intersecting the stem 
at Its centre, thus forming an oval one half 
the height of the stem, whose Icnsth is twice 
its width having a slant of 25**. 

After having pracUced upon this stem until 

it is mode correctly and with facility the 
following copy may be practiced : 

As each stroke is made the writer sh^^uld' 
recall to mind the form and number of the 
principles employed, and, when, completed 
review his work and see that the ri?;ht prin- 
ciple has in every instance been employed 
and correctly made having regard to form, 
proportion, slope, spacing, and shading. This 
should be dore by at first writing slowly and 
with deliberation. As forms are perfected 
and the other qualities of good writing are 
mastered greater speed may be employed, 
always remembering that in practicing to 
learn to write, the motto is, not how much, 
but how well. 

{To he continved.) 

Individualization of Writing. 

Among the moat striking and important of 
the "presumptions of continuonco," as they 
are called, is that of the continuous idiosyn- 
crasy of writing. Ten millions of persons 
accustomed to write, we may roughly say, 
exist at present ; yet of each the handwriting 
is not onjy distinguishable from the others, 
but continues so during his whole life. Wr- 
may take, as an illustration, the handwritin* 
of Mr. Jefferson. As we gaze on it curi- 
ously, there is nothing in it which would tell 
us that the writer was one of the most re- 
markable men of his age. We liave speci- 
mens of that writing emanating from fifty 
successive years of his eventful career. At 
the beginning there may be some slight im- 
maturity perceptible, and at the close a little 
of the trenmlousness of old a-re. When Mr. 
Jefferson was ticariy fortv. Iif> \v;i'; tlirnwn 
from a carriage, ntar Piiri'^, ;inil iii^ li.-iii 
wrist broken. For some limr i,- a ,- mMi , ,i 
to write with his left htiiid -.nm ,1 1,1- 
writings at this time \m\<- in.n ir,,,ntiiHcil 
mfacaimilehy UU ii -1 1,',. 1 Mi Kundall, 
and though the ^ 1 ilncd and 

puckered, yet no i ,1 u springs 

And it is essential to society that this distinc- 
tive individualization sliould exist. Were it 
not so, nu title tu rt-iil estate could be made 
sure; II Mhiirinl [■ i|iii could be negoti- 
ated: |) ' r.i |)as8 by devise. 
But, iK.t . ! ■ )i Mi.lividualizatlonexist, 

but ii i"^ '- u Ill II- rumpleteness that a 

iiank telier will lie iih.e to discriminate, not 
only betweuit the eignuiures of each of five 
ihousimd depositors, but between the signa- 
tures of any one of the«e, and those of all 
the rest of the warid. Nor is this all. We 
can distinguish in this way, not only between 
indiviiluals, but between countries and geu- 
emtions. An expert wdl be able to tell from 
what country and from what age a piece oj 
writing emanates, as well as by comparisou 
of hands to pick out the individual writer. 
The human face and figure present no such 
indelible und unmistakable idiosyncrasies. 
And, aside from the fact that death di&solves 
the liner signs of identity, a few years change 
the face aud figure so 03 to preclude recogni- 
tion. Wc gaze on Vandyke's pictures of 
Cliaries II. when a child, and are unable to 
detect in them the faintest resemblance to 
the large, swarthy, indolent idler, marked by 
the lilies of dissipation rather than care, who 
is exhibited to us by the painters of the 
llestoraticHi, Yet. while the individual him- 
self xyas thus changed, his handwriting, nide 
as it is, retains its chanicterislics unniMlified, 
and the "Charlea R.," of the battle of 
Worcester, which is preserved by autograph 
collectors, comes obvi:u9ly from the same 
hand as the •* Charics R." signed to the infa- 
mous treatitfs with Louis XIV. Nothing, 
also, can be more extraordinary in this line 

than the dissimilarity between William Penn, 
as a dazzling aud blithe youg cavalier, in full 
armor, as preserved in a picture in the Phila- 
delphia Library, and William Penn, sober, 
stout, tranquil, pacific, and plain, us Inman 
recalls him to us, signing an Indian treaty, 
and as he is perpetuated in paintings execu- 
ted when he was Governor nf Pennsylvania. 

Yet during the lnii- 1 - jn'riod of 

forty years, the si _n \\ .n Penn 

remains unchanged I ii. . i: : imlity of 
the face changes. i in ;■ n iIk i lu ot hu- 
man handwriting i» |>eiiii<iii<'iii. I lie one is 
meant to preserve our identity for the few 
fleeting years of life. The other is meant to 
enable our individuality to operate on poster- 
ity, and in foreign lands. Yet, permonent us 
is the individualization of handwriting— the 
most permanent by far of any marks by which 
we can be distinguished— it is subject to in- 
fluences which prevent this permanence from 
being recognized aa established obsolutely, so 
that it can be declared by the courts to exist 
by a presumption of law. 

1. Handwriting is nmch affected by ita 
object. The old monks had two hands— one 
for tbeir letters and memoranda, the other for 
those exquisite missals, the uniformity und 
delicacy of whose execution have been the 
admiration of every siiliHeijucnt age. Clerks 
in public uilh,, v.. 1,,^, usually two hands 
— one fi)i ' I iIki- for tbeir pri- 

vate work I h. i; ■ 1 iinsc liands is, of 

111. ^w;i, ,■ Ti,, -,,■,„,.! i,.Li".| ,- ii,;i( which 

:;!■.- Ilie i..,'uli,iniM-. ,.1 [|m .miL.t In fvdl 
elUrt.^ aii'Plulip Vuiuu^-iis Ml. Clmbot, 
in his ingenious essay on Junius, baa illustra- 
ted — had two bauds — one a flowing business 
band, the other a literary back-hand, like 
thai, in which the letters of Junius were writ- 
ten Another line of distinction may be oh- 
served in the writings of the old New Eng- 
land ministers. They could write in iorge, 
legible and even letters, bold, firm and pre- 
fivf, wlir.M' li!i(^ were all straight when 
^inii'/liiiK ^: ;\ri^ lequited, aud round when 
('■iiniiM-- ,v ,- M([iiired, and in which the 
i w ,111,1 -1 ,|,. A, le given with conscientious 
111 I ur;icy. in tiiiy hand their public docu- 
contained in the official 
en. But when led to do 
so by the shortness of their supply of paper, 
of which they sometimes complain, nothing 


and the i: 

ings, so closely and minutely written, and so 
perplcxingly inieriined, that it is a wonder 
how they could have been preached. Per- 
<ous writing for the press, aa Miss Martineau, 
in her autobiography, reminds ua, acquire 
the same habit of cramped and tortuous 
writing, periiaps because the occurrence of 
subsequent thoughts leads them to interiining, 
and filling up nooks and corners of the paper, 
and to all kinds of compression. The late 
Dr. Liebcr used to advise his friends who 
wrote to foreign correspondents to use a 
back-hand, aa most iiitelligil)le to a foreign 
eye, and those engaged in such a correspon- 
dence naturally uequirc stnnc of the pecu- 
liarities of a bock-baud. There is no hand- 
writing that may not, by some of the pro- 
cesses above mentioned, have its individuality 

2. But the demarkations of individuality 
are broken down far more effectively by iini- 

uncouscious imitation wi 

the way in which copyisti 

features of the writi 

have instances in 

I adopt the distinct- 

whom they copy 

in proportion to the influence he exerts upon 
them. It used to be noticed that many of 
the students in the oflice of the late Mr. John 
Sergeant, of Philadelphia, a lawyer as dl»- 
tinguished for dignity and moral power as for 
intellectual force, acquired more or less 
closely the singularly neat and refined peo- 
mimahip which was peculiar to him. The 
writing of women, uiso, it may he noticed, 
fs very much the product of the fashion of 
the day, a common popular school type being 
unconsciously followed. It is, however, with 
conscious imitation wc Imve most to do. 
And, as to this, we may hazard the following 
fctatcmcuts : (1) There is do piece of writ- 

ing,_ of several pugcs, which can be forged 
iu sucli iL way as to deceive any large nutnucr 
of expcru ; (2) there is do siguatiire tliat 
may not he forged in such a way as at It-ast 
to divide expert Icstimooy. It has been ob- 
Ecrved, by those coDTcrftaot with the cxanii- 
natioii of writings, that there are cases of 
contested flienatiires, in which the probabili- 
ties ou eath side approach so nearly to equi- 
poise, tluit experts of the highest character 
receive, from the fact of their iKiog em- 
ployed to invc8li<rBtc the matter by a particu- 
Itir parly, the very slight impulse which is 
ncccssury to turn the scale of their judgment 
ill liiv ,r of such party. Perhaps it is to this 
wi: iDiiy attribute the division of experts in 
clo^c-ly lii-'putcd questions of writing." And 
this (iivisiim of opinion, which 




t permanent and 
taUiilil-; ut all tin- Bii,'nsof individuality, there 
(Jill hi- ii'i iltiii'iii^lnilion. It may be forged. 
It niuy be varied liy unconscious imitation. 
The pn:4utiipli(>ii that it exhibits continu- 
otiflly the same diffmiia is not a presumption 
of hiw. but only un inference from fact.— 
Criminal Law Magazine. 

f or RoblnsoD r 

In I 

,' is the art of expressing ideas by vis- 
urcliarnctera inacribcd on some ma- 
I is either ideographic or phonetic. 
Iiii.: wriliiic iiijiv lit L'illirr pictorial, 

of writiii;;: hitnnjUiiiluc, !uu-atic, duiiotic 
tnchi'i-ial. mill Copttc. 

TliL- liivLini..ii oldie eld and full Heiro- 
oiYi-iiio writing ispluced much earlier than 
3,0)) ycu-i U. C. It was originally in 
coniiiuiii use, and after ahcrter methods of 
wriiius liad been devised, it continued iu use 
e.xccpiiomilly down to Christian times for im- 
poriiuu stale documents, Inscriptions and 
religous composiaons. 

Tlie vviints of a reading and writing nation 
Cprobiibiy long before 3 000 yeai'S B. C.) 
ic 1 early to the employment of linear bler- 
ogivpliits in long documents, which sub 
st(jiiently developed iutoa carsive hand called 
Ihv Mil 

Of late years, particularly in our own coun- 
try and in England, there has been an almost 
general demand for a simpler, more compact 
and freer stylethanthat hitherto taught; and 
our best commercial teachers are now seeking 
to modify the forms that have become Ameri- 
canized and render them still more American; 
toimpartHucha style as will occupy less space, 
have more freedom in its execution, and an- 
swer more fully in other respects the purposes 
of business in this day of dispatch. 

The "good hand " of a few years ago will 
not meet the wants of to-dav : and soimport- 
antis an elegant, easy hand- writing considered 
by business men in our larger cities, that the 
aspirant for a position in a counting-room or 
office cannot hope for success therein without 
it, ' • Apply ia your own Jiandwriting " is the 
line whicli strikes the poorwriter most forcibly 
when answering advertisements for a "posi. 

While there are not, at best, chances for but 
few to secure such clerical employtnent as 
most dCoire, there are nonewhatever for those 
who cannot write well. During the next ten 
years we may expect to see still greater im- 

frovement in the hand-writing of the masses. 
I is a desirable accomplishment for all, repay- 
ing many-fold for the time and study spent 
in securing it. 

Tnh IM 

iidicates a rise of the vulgar 

I'll I" iiii.. iiiii^irv use, which took place 
111 I I- of ibeTthcenturj; B. C. 

!!■ : i ■ I iin rntic papyri and inscrip- 
ii' r ! II- lilifd III Ihe vulgar idiom 

' ■ ! I''i ii'iiin and Greek 

ti : i I ■■.■..:■;.,:, , M'ln-of theChrifit- 
M-i i !■ ■! marks the last 

1.1' 1 I t the Egyptian 

1 II ' II' I isitxtinct during 

111. . . I I I ; is ,y for Arabic. 

" " ' ' 111^ the Egyptian, 

II- .11. ;u, niDst important 

l"i''''i ii' ii.-.'.. ■,!,,i..,!, was probably 
(I. I :■.. .1 ' In 1 ■!,,, , ,, ■ ,!, , j.L.ihri. i.he parent of 

;il ' I ' ^ ins of the world, 

'11. 1 I- I : ■ 1 i-ly the phonetic 

e> i..i ■. , .. I .1 ilie first purely 

In l!i.i r I i^,rrs of writing in 

any vii;i|., 1.1 : : ,, i; .. n ( 'oiiqucBt, when 
Lii'i" iiiiii- \ 1 lured, Since then 

ill 'li. I Ml Ailr.ii, that the running-hand 

lii-i ;ii'[r,it, ,1 liiis wiis followed by the 
iiiimJ S;ix..ii :iiiii iin. elegant Saxon. The 
liiiin -.Ml, v\,ii i>ri)iiglii into notice in the 
tcnili ■ < (itiiM ,;i ill Listed for nearly two hun- 
iIulI :i\u\ u\\\ \i :iT-> Sonic of thc finest pen- 
nuii unit i.i >i ou the subject have 

The Uiiiied States at the present time has 
the hirgest proportion of population who can 
read and write of any nation ; and inoreattcn- 
tiiiii is j;iven lo peiimiuiship us a branch of 
I' ■;> i' n < ^^ V 1 \V< have developed a 
v\ (111 i.uninredit for which 

I" If! ij [I I, lursand cominer- 

•-i'' '■■I"- 1. "ii" Imm' made it a special 

sliiil\ , .mil .U wiitit uiucb lulior during tbcir 
lives towiud pcrfectuig a superior national 

Americans may well take pride, not onlv in 
their progress in other things, but in the fact 
that no other country, in the world has so 
many fine penmen and good rapid writers as 
their own. The English, Dutch, Gcrnmii, 
Italian, and Spanish, have each contributed 
liirtfely to chirographic skill by the publtca- 
tmn of many very useful and hiiihly arliftic 
work* on iH-nnianship, which have served a 
good puri)ose in America, as elsewhere la 


Killing Two Birds With One Stone. 

of 1877, just two 
years after I had completed my course in 
Bryant & Stratton's Business Collegg. when 
stopping at the enterprising town of Opelika, 

was in addressing uic in such familiar ttrms 
about my hand-writing. He wanted a love- 
letter written, and he was too bashful to ask 

! any of his former acquaintances to write it 

I for him, as he wautcd to keep his love a se- 
cret. I explained to Mike that he must go 

I into the details of his acquaintance with his 
fair one in order for me to know how to 

' shape the first letter. With some reluctance 
he stated that he had met a Miss Nora Mulli- 
gan (all the way from Dublin) recently at a 
Fenian ball at Montgomery, and that he want- 
ed to "unbosom " himself to her through the 
medium of a love-letter, as he did not have 
confidence enough in himself to do so in per- 
son. He said that Nora Mulligan was living 
in Montgomery and was a house servant of 
Judge Goldfiuiith. I knew that if such was 
the case that Nora must be a person of good 
character, and a cood honest love-letter from 

. the depths of the heart of Mike O'Diltigau 
would do no barm ; so T penned the follow- 
ing letter to Miss Nora iu care of Judge 

I Goldsmith : 

I "Monday mornini,'. July 24th. 187-. 

I "Miss Nora ^fi n i.. \ V- tliLpsyoumay 
be somewhat su I i ' . . . ption of a 

letter from alun. . i^cr. But 

since I met you i i .. u. • K.ill" I have 

been so much lJl^a.^v.i ■.■.i:li>oar a|ipearance 
that I am tempted to ask the pleasure of cul- 
tivating your acquaintance more extensively. 
If it will meet with your approbation I will 

I be pleased to call to see you at a time when 

t will 8 

the one that is a forgery. The cashier of thc 
bank has his eye trained and drilled to detect 
all faulty " hank paper" that comes imder 

I informed Mike that he must not fait to 
call at the appointed time and place. And 
accordingly he did so, and returned more 
overjoyed than ever, and said among the 
. many pleasant allusions to his visit to Nora, 
i was that he closed a contract with her to 
I write to her once a week and get an answer 
I fully as often. 

So Mike prevailed upon me to conduct his 
correspondence for him. I wrote for him 
and read his letters to him, and after I had 
; written a half dozen or more and had received 
, and read to him fully as mony answers, I 
, came to the conclusion that there was "some- 
body behind the screen " besides Nora Mulli- 
gan. I knew that no such letters as Mike 
had received could come from so obsciire a 
person as a house-servant. So one day I 
"tackled" Mike to know who it was that 
was conducting Nora's correspondence for 

He said he would find out during his next 
visit to htr, and I, this time, had become 
impatient for him to visit Montgomery. He 
went and returned, and informed me that it 
was no one less than Miss Belle Goldsmith, 
only daughter of the Judge, that had been 
managing the correspondence for Nora — and 
that was not all. She, this Miss Goldsmith, 
was extremely anxious to know who it was 
that was conducting Mike's correspondence. 

photo-engraved from an original specimen flourishing by I, J. Woodworth, penman, at the Jacksonville; (111.) Bus 

Alabama, I was approached by Mr. Fleiscb- 
uiann, the senior member of the firm of 
Fleischmann. Friedberg «fc Co., who said he 
wanted a man who understood his business 
to "keep his books" and "wanted thc books 
to keep him." I had been out in the far 
West engaged in "class teaching" in pen- 
manship with good success, and I did not 
care if I did accept a job where the society 
was more refined than it was in the wilds of 

I was not long in closing a trade with him. 
One morning, some days after beginning 
there, bright and early, before any of the 
firm or salesmen had entered the building for 
their day's work, a young, robust and giant- 
looking individual, whose name was Mike 
O'Dilligan— an Irish porter, whose chief de- 
light was to roll barrels, lift boxes and do 
anything you told him to do, who was serv- 
ing Messrs. Fleischmann, Friedberg & Co.— 
catr.e cautiously up to me. His broad face, 
keen wit and blue eyes made him a genuine 
type of one of "Erin's faithful sons." I 
was quite busy when 5Iike said : 

"Aud, boss, Ihear'umsay how it was that 
you was the mou that could dhrive a nate 
quill, and no mistake." 

"What l8 that, Mike ? " I said. 

"Indade, the boys all say you can bate the 
mon who made the pen when it comes to 

I encouraged Mike in th's kind of talk un- 
til I found out his secret and what his policy 

, I read this over to l^Iikc, and his joy wasun- 
I bounded %vhen I enclosed it in a tiny envelope 
, and informed him that, if it was favorable, he 

would get an answer on the third day after 
I the date of his first letter. Mike was very 
( impatient and made me promise not to di- 
I vulge his secret, as some of the salesmen iu 
I the house would want nothing better on Slike 
1 than to know of his letter to Nora Mulligan. 
I Ou the third day Mike's answer came and 

it read as follows: 

I "Wednesday, July 27lli, 187—. 

, "Mb. Mike O'Dilligan : Yours of 24th to 
j hand. In reply will say that I must confess 
I that I was somewhat surprised at the recep- 
; tion of a letter from you ; but from the mao- 
' ner in which you write, and from what I 
have heard of you since the reception ol 
i your letter, I will say that I have obtained 
I permission from Judge Goldsmith's family 
for you to call and see me ou Sunday even- 
ing, the 31st instant, 
I "Ilespeetfully, 

"Nora Mulligan." 

Thus it was that Mike was made happy 
again. His fii-st letter had been written and 
answered, and what came of it will be seen. 
He had wTitten his first letter; and how 
manylives of happiness or misery — how mauv 
pivots have turned upon the first letter. Per- 
haps there are some people who do not know 
that there are hundreds and thousands of 
people who can tell who you are, and what 
you are by a glance at thc kind of letter that 
you write. The expert claims to pick out 
from a hundred signatures thrown in a mass 

Since Nora's first letter to Mike the letters 
between thein had assumed an air and phase 
far beyond the compr'-hfiision of lliese two 
Irish lovei-S. Tin \ im i - Inl. i mlnL-Ifd with 
poetry, with Frrn. 1. . ■' ' ■ ■ v hich were 

notconiprehendiil ' ■ ■ Mike. It 

was plain to uie li,. ; ..iivin love 

with some one ib.ii 1 i.. .i i ^ten, and 
that I had become so in n 1113 sterioiie way. 
So I began to inquire who Miss Belle Gold- 
smilh was, and I found out that she was 
none less llian the only daughter of Judge 
Goldsmith 1 .iri.fMHNMi to form her ac- 
quainl;n!. . ; I ' m, I found her a 

beautiful ■ nty. just returned 

from :i I M s' college at thc 

NtMi M r lii'Caiiie frequent. 

1113 1. .iii.iiii[.iiM.. \Mt[i 3[L-.b IJelle thatlspoke 
of liow it was llial we wt-rc killing two birds 
with one stone ; that we were iraking love to 
each other through the medium of other let- 

t often pass the smalt store of Mike's 

National " to begin niy days' business, nnd 
he tackles me frequently to write otlier letters 
for hiui. Mike is still rosy and good-natured : 
and plods along as happy a man as walks ; 
and the writer — well, you must imagUie all 
the rest for yourself. 
Balliinore, il<L 

An 1 .l«)i uv.vr.. 

,p«i.«n4kntfhlf* Iboi 

n'flh Prl-«t of FfMMl -111.1 

In ib>« (la Iraxmao plvdg- tbflir t 

Ttiair taomtfia ucrTd lor bigtier "t: 

8cli3iar ind kbi- 7<>t I" -mor •tl<l 

Moint n' niwoci.lo a. d-ah-o-n fl. 
AD.l«nb«riftIollih/ i^omc. 

Cou*a70 4Dd F*>tbaDd Hope IhcT 

Da-iy. B'O ticrti-xl. Fqual • iRtit* 
Oa>hftr in tial" ol blouUcd llguli. 

pnrflr. Hon«<y. Trn'h thf y MO 

S-part'o royt »i ■nulfui lUUt 

Uinllnn*. Proi'o 

ir bear tboTO. 

to, M<K. tUoyM". 

Cirulo" iDpfiiloberpcDB 

>n, and kn>gU o' tbongbl, 

Educational Department. 

During the post four year* fwvcral vacation 
colonies for sickly children of the poorer 
cU«oa havt bron t-sUbliflhe*! in Germiiny and 
Switzerland, lisTins for Iheir object hcaltliful 
recreation in pure country air. together with 
edutailional advantages. The Bureau of Ed- 
ucation at Washington has issued a circular 
calling allenlion to the merits of such colo- 

The cost of the Quincy schools, in spite of 
the thorough and brilliantly eflcclive teach- 
ing durinn llie pa^t year, was not extraor<li- 
nary. The average amount c^tpondod for 
each scholar was il6.48, against $10.54 in 
1875. The amount expended for each scholar 
of the avemge number in dailv attendance 

M #21.46, against 92,-).19 in 1875. 

Mrs. Stewart and Judge Hilton, as execu- 
_ rn of the late .\. T. Stewart, have decided 
t>crectmale and female colleges in the im- 
mediate vicinity of Stewart's Episcopal 
Calhedml, now nearly finished, in Garden 

ty The e^tmated cost of the institutions 

id their endowm'-iit reaches the sum (f 
$4,000,000. One of the male and female 
college buildings is already under way. 

Rusktn says that he threw up his profes- 
sor's chair at Oxford in disgust because " the 
trnditiona to which I had been tmiiied in my 
mastership were set at na-ight by the younger 
schoolmen who read Spencer instead of 
Plato, gmith instead of Solomon, and 
so'ftshamed of the church they 

of our conglomerate population foradi 
to the high'school. Time was when only the 
brighteiit children of the brighlost families 
unuvrtook to liecome scholars : but now all 
rlasjtes, all grades of intelligence, all nation- 
alities, a'l varieties of hcrwlity, in the pas- 
sive Toice, must be educated, promoted, ad- 
vanced, although it be aa contrary to iheir 
nature to rise intellectually as it was for Mil- 
ton's rebellious angeLs to fall. 

The boy who was kept after school for 
bad orthography, said he was spell-bound — 
Loofli Sun. 

"Thomas, spell weather." said a school- 
master to one of his pupils. ' ' W-i-e-a-l-h-t-o- 
ii.r — weather." **Weli, Thomas, you may sit 
down," said the teacher; " I think it 19 ths 
womt spell of weather we have had since 

An Exeter Academy student who had been 
reprimanded for uncouth spellino:. retorted 
upon bis preceptor with a composition, where- 
in he proved that undar certain ana.o^les 
in our language the proper ortho;jmphy of 
the word commonly written "softly" is 

Those persons who, in attempting to apell 
svich words as pereeivt, believe, etc , arc con- 
tin uallyacrafcWn^ iheir head.1 in doubt wheth- 
er the n precedes the > nr p'c- r i:in will be 

The jovial nobleman, the Inte Lord Pahn- 
er«too, once gave eleven of his associates in 
the cabinet a sentence to spell, and not one of 
ihe eleven got through without blundering. 
The sentence was : " It is disagreeable to wit- 
ness Ihe embarrassment of a harawd peddler 
gauging the symmetry of a peeled potato. " 

A " refonnc<l speller" writes to the Cfdeaga 
TnUr-OcMin: "I see that your contempo- 
rary of the Tribuii\ who professes to hev 
adopted the reform spelling, prints 'dilema' 
and ' assejisment ' in parallel cohtmns. Now 
I. too, believe in reform, and I think the man 
who spells 'dilema* with oni m, and yet puts 
four «'« into 'ascsmont,' ot to rcscrv at least 
one of the superfluous n's in order to write him. 
self doM'n an as. 

"Spell parsnips," said a South Hill 
teacher. "G-i-n. gin." howled the biggest 
boy in the class, "therc'ayourgin. n.«-n, nan, 
there's yournan, there's your ginnan, a-h-u-g, 
there your shu*. there's your uinnanshug, 
ge-r, gcr. there's yourger.'iherc'd your shug- 
ger. there your nan.9lmgger, there's youroln- 
nanshugger— " "For mercy's sake, " ex- 
claimed the horrified teacher, as soan as 
sbi' could catch her breath, "what are you 
doing?" "Spellini! pV-i-nips," aa'd the 
boy. " and tbot's only one of thorn, but 

the old man write 'cm diwn on a postal card 

and send 'em to \\fiT.—BurUngtoti Hawkeye. 

The following cleverly told story furnishes 

Two young women this year carry ofF the 
higUesl honors of the University of Gali- 

Niuetv new pupils have entered the upper 
department of Uoitou's famed Chauncy Hall 
School this year. 

The colored school at Allegheny, Pa., has 
been abolished. Hereafter the colored chil- 
dren will go to the white schools. 

The Board of Education of the State of 
Maryland is doing a valuable work in gradu- 
ally introducing a system of graded ' 

Dr. Dmiol Tyler Colt, who died recently 
in Norwich. C-mn., left $100,000 to Yale. 
and other a^nounts for various clmritablc and 
educational purposes. 

In the public schojis of Americi exclusive 
ofthJiain theeitloiani large towns about 
fifty psr cent of the entire school-time is de- 
voted 10 arithmetic. 

The popularity of the Business College 
course of training has led to the establish- 
msiit of CJ nu) <rclal departments by many of 
the largjr academics and seminarie.s. 

Th3 stuiy of b) >!c.kesping has been made 
C3Hpjls3ry for iwj hours andA-half each 
weak iu th? first gradi of the San Francisco 
grammar schools. — Tea^r't OuitU. 

The DMroit school board are making fools 
of themselves over a resolution to hire none 
but male principals of schools. If women 
do the work as well, wh>- not hire them, and 
pay ihoaias well, too? — Ann Arbor Ct/urUr. 

Prof. Henry W. Paul, a Dartmouth gradu. 
ate, will teach astronomy al Tokio. Japan, 
receiving therefore $4 OJJ a year and house 
rem free. The averiw pay to a country 
school toa:hcr in Japan is about $31 per year. 

The above cut is pholo-engmvcd from 
past has been a successful teacher of writing 

pinna of that they dared not their pupils | pleased 
10 say its prayers." 

H.\.iiv.s,RD UsivEiisiTY.— The friends of 
the Harvard Annex feel that its per- 1 
manenl success is assured. Already seven- 
teen students have been examined for I 
next year's courses, and a considerable in- \ 
crease of the number is expected in the au- 
tumn. The average percentage of marks for 
the students of last year was unexpectedly 
high; in a few cases, only, falling below eighty: 
and the general testimony of the inslnictors 
is heartily and enthusiastically in favor of 
their young lady pupils. In this connection 
it Is interesting to note that a vigorous and 
promising movement is on foot in London for 
(he founding of a permanent college for the 
education of women in connection with 
King's College. The plan seems to be very 
much that of the Harvard \nnc\. —C/irUUan 

That a great difilcuUy In our system of 
schooling is that education is not made suf- 
ficiently^ en joyable is the complaint of the 
PitUburg Oasetie. One of the groat objects 
of going to school is held to be the mainte- 
nauce of au uumovcd position, as if the chil- 
dren were wax-works or graven 

dcr in school is good in its way and has an in- 
timate relation to the acquirement of knowl- 
edge. It is geaomlly frightfully overdone, 
ana the poor children who are cowed and re- 
strained into rigid formality suffer grievously 

The Educational Department of the Social 
Science Congress about being held in Edin- 
burgh, Scotland will discuss "The dangers of 
educational overwork," and "How far the 
teaching of higher subjects in elementary 
Khoob should form part of a system of 
natioual education." 

know that Wee explains it all. The 
letter ( follows I and e follows c. Lice in your 
head may thus prove a blessing. 

A Kansas schoolinarra has introduced a 
new feature in licr school. When one of the 
girls misses a word, the boy who spells it gets 
permission to kiss her. As a result the girls 
are becoming very poor spellers, while the 
boys arc* improving. 

Maybe you have heard that a smart girl 
inVassar spellsTurner thus; Phytholognyrrh, 
and gives this little table to explom her theory: 

First— Phlh (as in phthisis) is T 

Second— olo (as in colonelj is UR 

Third— gn (as in ^nat) is N 

Fourth— yrrh (as m myrrh) is ER 

Spelling matches are very demoralizing. 
Jones had been to one the night before. His 
wife is awakened durini; the early morning 
by some noise below stairs. "John \ John : 
Burglars! " she adled. simking liirn. Burg 
lars—b-u-r-g-l-o-r-s— burglars," said he, and 
rolled over to sleep again. 

When spelling is "reformed" she'll write: 
'* I'm saling on the oshun, 
The se is hi, no sale in site. 
It filz me with emoshun." 

'spell" will not change' 

For she'll be se-sik jest the s 

An old lady who found much difficulty 
it pronouncing wordsso that her grandchildreu 
lo whom she was giving a spelling lesson, 
could understand her, came tothe wordEg>-pt. 
and, after several unsuccessful attempts 
at pronouncing it. hit upon this— E-g-y-p-t 
(E-gee wy pec tec ), after which the entire 
" ■ '• correctly a 


admirable spoiling lesson for advanced 
scholars :— 

■' The most skilltul ganger I ever knew was 
a maligned cobbler, armed with a poniard, 
who drove a peddler's wa-.-on, using a mullcin- 
Btalk as an instrument of coercion to tyrannize 
over bis pony, shod with calks. He was a 
Galilean Sadduccc. and he had a phthisicky 
catarrli diphtheria, and a billioua intermltlent 
erysipL-liis. A certain sibyl, with the sobriquet 

eal her unparalleled embarrassment, 
makin<'arough courtesy and not harassing him 
with rnvHiihini:, nin'fviny and Hliipcrying. 

Kosciusko, u k;ili'iUoMii|ii-. ii driiiii |»liiiil uf 
ipecacuanha, a it-aspoonlu! i»f imj)hUiu, for 
deleble purposes, a fende, o clarionet, some 
licorice, a surcingle, a camelian of sytnuictri- 
cal proportions, a chronometer with a mova- 
ble balance-wheel, a box <»f dominoes, and a 
catechistn. The ganger who was alBo traffick- 
ing rectifier and a parishioner of mine, prefer- 
ring a wooden surtout (bis choice was re- 
ferrlblc to a vacillating, occa-sionally-wcur- 
ring idiosyncrasy), woefully uttered this 
apothegm • 'Life is chequered, but schism, 
apijstasv, heresy, and villainy shall lie pun- 
ished.' The sibyl apologizingly answered, 
* There is notably an allegeable difference be- 
tween a conferrable ellipsis and a trisyllabic 
diierecis.' We replied in trocheci), not im- 
pugning her suspicion." 


11 BouvorloSt (FloelSl.)' 
LjndoQ, Eaglaad, 

r Conit>uadlum at Ornamcatttl Penmau- 

«l 4«. 0(1 

>■ by book post, 1 &b. 3i 

by book post, 88. h-I 

lUge) iniiv bo romtilcd dtrwilly in u! 

" Alphibota 
L EagliBb or U 



It^B Fame has Gone Abroad. 

Upon (Ik- subsnriplinn list of the JorHNAi. 

llicre are now ihiiiutous siibscribcra from 

England. Ireland, Scotland, France, South 

America, and all the Briliali American Prov- 

Since September first we have added more 
names to owr subscription list than in any 
other equal period of time since it8 publi- 

Wc venture the assertion there are few, if 
any, cducntinnal or class journals published 
having a wider jind more numerous circula- 
tion than lias the Jouknal ; yet, where there 
is now one subscriber there should be many, 
and certoinly would be were n copy of the 
.loi'itXAL presented with a kind word in its 
behalf. Will not its frie'ids bear this in 

King of Clubs. 
C. W. Boucher Manager nf the Business 
De|>artment of the Northrcn Indiana Nor- 
nial School. Valpamiso, Ind., sends a club of 
ofM hundred and Ucenty-Jive »ub»br>beri* which 
is not only the King Club for the mouth hut 
s the largest single club ever sent to the Jour. 

nal. Mr. Boucher' 

securing this 

large number of subscribers to the Journal 
fairly indicative of what may be accomplished 
by a live working teacher by an energetic pre- 
sentation of the Journal and its merits. We 
do not say that all subscribers are as favorably 
situated for securing clubs as he is. but cer- 
tainly their are many who are equally so, and 

little effort secure cluhs 
I we believe that in 
so doing they would do their friends agenuinc 
favor, especially wthiBlUe fact with teachers of 
writuig. By inducing their pupils to subscribe 
they would supplement their own efforts by the 
Journal, which would continue the interest in 
writing which they may have awakened, and 
place in the hands of their pupils, the best 
means, for continued improvement, as far as 
we are able to judge it has been the best and 
and moat popular teacher of writing who have 
sent the most frequent and immerousclubs to 
the Journal ; such teachers so inspire their pu- 
pils with a genuine love for the art as to lead 
them to seek aids for further study and im- 

Tliere is a large number of teachers who, as 
a rule, forwanl a numerous list of subscribers 
from every class they instruct, while others 
seldom send a subscriber, although professing 
an earnest desire to do so, alleging as a reason 
that they cannot get their pupils sufllciently 
interested to induce them to subscribe; in 
most of such cases we can but suspect, that 
there is an equal want of interest on the part 
of the pupil in his writing lesson and his 

The second largest club forthe month comes 
from the Lowell (Mass.) Commercial College, 
sent by L. E. Kimball ; it numbers sixteen. 
Clubs have been lively and are becomiDg more 
so. Who will favor us with the King fornext 
month ? 

Our Book List and Purchasing Agency. 

The wide distinction between the great 
leaders of the worid and their humblest fol- 
lowers is often due quite as much to individ- 
ual effort as to original force of intellect; a 
patient and persistent seeking after knowledge 
and attainments in any department of human 
labor or research will ultimately bring dis- 
tinction to a mind of even moderate powers of 
understanding and world-wide fame to a 
mind truly great. 

The intelligent, aspiring young man or 
woman who is a leader in any commimity, 
becomes so, in most instances, from their 
superior industry. At school they are stu- 
dious and faithful in the performance of all 
their duties, while their leisure time is devo- 
ted to reading and the acquisition of informa- 
tion valuable to the line of their industry, 
thought and ambition ; books and other 
reading matter will be carefully selected and 
read, treating upon those subjects ; they will 
thereby gain strength and power for further 
and greater advancement to greatness and 
distinction, while their equally intellectual 
companions, who waste their time and vitiate 
their minds reading exciting tales of romance 
and fiction, wiU soon bemoan their compara- 
tive obscurity, and wonder how it is that 
Providence so smiles on one and frowns ou 

Napoleon said "Providence was on the 
side having the most artillery." We believe 
that He is jdways on the side employing the 
best and most potent means for any end. 

Books containing the garnered thoughts 
and wisdom of the past, next to the live 
genius of the teacher, are our best and great- 
est aids in the pursuit of useful knowledge 
and personal advancement. 

In view of which fact, and for the purpose 
of rendering such aid as we may tj our read- 
ers in procuring valuable and standard books, 
we, in this number of tbe Jouksai-, announce 
a general purchasing agency, through which 
any book published in New York will be for- 
warded by mail on receipt of the publisher's 
price. Books published elsewhere, at a rea- 
sonable coat. We have also compiled a list, 
in our judgment, of books more csspccially 
valuable for young men, giving with each the 
publisher's price, to which attention is invi- 

The Automatic Shading Pen, 
Patented by J. W. Slokes, Milan, Ohio, and 
advertised in another coliinm is a very in- 
genious and convenient in%'eution. By its 
use n. heavy and light shade is produced 
with the same ink at each stroke of the pen, 
producing the effect of a heavy black stroke, 
perfectly and delicately shaded. 

Send for our special cash discounts for 
clubs of subscribers to thej Journal. 

Book Review. 
We have received from the well known 
publication house of Ivisoii, Blakeman, Taylor 
& Co., of this city, copies of several books of 
exceeding value, either as text books for 
schools, or band books for clerks and business 

Towtiaen^a Commercial Law which is a com- 
pact and concisely written work of G07, 8vo. 
pages, treating upon commercial law. and 
commercial and legal forms. It is not only a 
most complete practical text book for schools, 
but is a valuable hand-book for a business 
office and library. 

Tvtt/isend's Analysu of Letter- Writing. 
Designed for the use of Commercial Colleges, 
Normal Schools, Academies, Seminaries, and 
private learners: with a large number of ex- 
amples of Model Business Letters; 180 
pages. 13mo. This is a work of rare value 
to every young lady or gentleman, and 
should be in every business ofQce library in 
the land. 

Towmend's Analy»i» of Civil Ootfrnment, 
including a Critical and Tabular Analysis of 
the Constitution of the United States,' with 
annotations, etc. ; designed for use in Gram- 
mar, High and Normal Schools, Academies, 
and other institutions of learning ; 13mo., 340 
pages. Wliile each of the above works are 
designed more especially as a text book for 
schools, they will be equally interesting aud 
valuable for private study, reading and refer- 
ence by anyone seeking self-improvement. 

The American Debater is a book of 300 
ISmo. pages, giving full information regard- 
ing the best methods of organizing and con- 
ducting all deliberative bodies, giving exam- 
ples for their constitution and by-laws. Par- 
liamentary rules for conducting debates, etc. 
It gives over one thousand appropriate sub- 
jects for discussion, with skeleton or outline 
debates which will be of great assistance not 
only to beginners but experienced debaters. It 
alsogives many choice selections for declama- 
tion. Upon the whole it is a most complete 
and valuable guide to any one aspiring to or 
having to do with debating or literary soci- 

The New Bryant arid Stratton Counting- 
Ifftme Book-Keeping, by S. S. Packard, of 
Packard's New York Business College, is a 
complete and exhaustive treatise of 304. 8vo. 
pages, upon the theory and practice of ac- 
counts. It contains an exhaustive treatment 
of the philosphy of Double Entry from the 
standpoint of political economy, recognizing 
the vital principles of the subject without in- 
volving the student in merely matapliysical 
speculations, and is a valuiible and popular 
work, both as a text hook for schools and col- 
leges, and as a guide and reference in the 

We are indebted to Messrs. Clark & May- 
nard. Publishers, No. 9 Barclay Street, for a 
copy of Young's Government Clans Book, 
which consists of 271 8vo. pages, and is de- 
signed as a manual of instruction in the Prin- 
ciples of Constitutional Government and Laws. 
It is not only an appropriate and valuable 
text book for schools, but should be read 
and studied by every youth and citizen of the 
United States. We commend it to every read- 
er of the JoDRN-Ai,. All the above described 
works will be found among our list of valuable 
books in another column of the Joobnai-, 
with the publisher's price at which they will 
be mailed from the Journal office. 

Pen Portraits of Garfield and Hancock. 

Persons desiring the most attractive por- 
traits of cither of the Presidential nominees, 
for framing, can receive the same, by remit- 
ting to us fifteen cents. 

In the August issue we announced our in- 
tention to also publish a portrait of Mr. 
Weaver, but we were unable to procure a 
good likeness of him, and, besides, there has 
iiol been a demand sufficient to warrant the 
expense. Those who have sent money, for 
copies of his portrait, can have the same re- 
turned or applied for other purposes, as they 
may choose. 

Fine School Stationery. 

The Acme Stationery and Paper Company, 
117 Fulton Street, New York, manufacture 

very fine asortment of school stationery and 
blanks. Send for their descriptive price list. 

Catalogues and College Papers 

have been received from Baylie's Commercial 
College, Dubuque. Iowa; Behm's Chatta- 
nooga (Teun.), Business College; Bryant, 
Stratton & Sadler's, Baltimore (Md.) Busi- 
ness College; Faddis' St. Paul (Minn.). 
Business College; Gaskell's Manchester (N. 
H.), and Jersey City (N. J.). Business Col- 
leges; Thomas Powers' Fort Wayne (Ind.), 
Business College ; Lambert's Winona (Minn.), 
Business College, Wright's Business College, 
Brooklyn, New York; The Davenport (Iowa), 
Business Collegt* ; Eaton and Burnett's Bal- 
timore (Md.), Business College; Gem City, 
(Quincy, III.), Business College, The New 
Jersey (New»rk, N. J.) Business College ; 
Taylor & Go's Business College and Writing 
Institute, Rochester, New York, and the Or- 
chard City (Burlinglon. Iowa,) Business 

We are pleased to note that in a large pro- 
portion of these the Journal has been very 
kindly mentioned — for which we hereby 
return our thanks. 

Alllng^s Inks. 
Some months since we called attention to 
these inks which will be found advertised on 
another page. Since then we have given 
them a more complete and extended trial 
which has tended to strengthen our first 
favorable impression regarding them. We 
believe them to be equal to the beat inks in 
market, while, as will be seen, prices are 
very reasonable. 

Not Kesponaible. 
The columns of the Journal are open to 
all meritorious and courteous communica- 
tions, but it should be distinctly understood 
that its editors are not to be considered as re- 
sponsible for, or as endorsing anything uot 
in its editorial columns. 

The New England Card Company, 
Woonsocket, R. I., keep a full line of card 
stock which they furnish at very reasonable 
rates. Send for their price list. 

How to Hake Business in Penmanship. 
With a desire to solely encourage and assist 
many worthy teachers of writing who do not 
make money, the following is presented for 
their consideration: It is universally con- 
ceded that the wcrk of teachers of the art is 
supplanted by the use of copy-books in public 
schools. It is also known that writing as 
taught in these schools, amounts to a farce, 
and that an easy, graceful writer never is 
produced by them. In almost every com- 
munity there is a feeling that the common 
schools fail to make good penmen, and it is 
this feeling that we wish to encourage pen- 
men to take advantage of. We have in 
mind a penman, who lives in a large com- 
munity, where writing is not well taught in 
the public schools, and yet he blames the 
public because he lacks patronage. Believing 
it for his good, we put the following questions 
to him : "Why don't you get specimens of the 
writing of pupils of the public schools and 
exhibit them in frames, and ask the public if 
they believe that in those schools their sous 
and daughters will ever become good pen- 
men ?" "Why, I should be afraid todo that," 
said he. "Afraid ? Afraid of what," said we. 
"Wby it would get the teachers dcwn on me. 
and possibly the school board." "What of 
that ?" said we ; "what tarmcan erne of it? 
Do they put one cent into your pocket; are they 
not monopolizing your busines.'* ".nd prevent- 
ing the youth of your community from jc- 
comiug good writers ? As matters now 
nd, are you not allowing this thitig to go 
because you dare not attack the fraud and 
sham." "But what would the public think?" 
said he. "The public, which numbers at 
least five hundred persona to each teacher, 
would take sides with you. They know their 
children are poorly taught, and once con- 
vinced of tlie uselessness of depending upon 
poor teachers — blind leaders of the blind — 
make good writers, will patroni/e you — 
penman who tan. The public are, in 
fact, asleep in this matter, and only need 
aking up to see it. Every community 
admires a man who has the courage to at- 
tack a fraud. Such a man, they think, has 
backbone, and, If he is in the right, he will 

win with tbc thinking people, wboae paU 
ronagc b tlic moKt vBlnablc." 

In a Unm of oommunittM are penmen who 
want IjiiRinctw, hut dare not "go for it." 
Sclinol boaMit anil teaclicnt who damage the 
writing of a M'hok community, whirh niiKht, 
undcrgood instmclion. wTitc well, are allowed 
10 go on, when their abominable work should 
be Btruck stjuare between tbc eyes and laid 
out lutforc the eommunlty. The penman, 
whofc eminent fiklll ercrj'body acknowledge*, 
has it in his powr-r to strike fliich a blow. No 
teacher will dare defend such an attack or 
defend their miMrablc ability, and their 
silence will be an ocknowlcdgment of the 
truth of the penman's claims. 

We once had a friend whose patronage at 
hin biisincM college was injured by the intro- 
dnciion of liook-kwping into the high bcIiooI 
of Ills city. At our advice he attacked the 
s)iallowncA.i of the book in use, challenged the 
teacher to pass an examination before a set of 
accoiinlants, nnd completely broke up what 
he made the public sec was n farce. 

In every light which we view it, we believe 
it ihc duty n person owes to hinuielf nnd his 
comuiunity, to attack poor leaching and do 
all in his power to convince the public, by 
good work, of his supreme right to their pat- 
ronage. The morliflcalion of a school board 
and a few tcacliera is of no consequence as 
canipnred with the benefit which rausl come 
to peinnau when the public la led to see the 
hopclcwncss of their children brcoming good 
writers under teachers who generally bate 
Ihc subject. We believe there is a good busi- 
nc9.s ill every town of leu Ihousuud for any , 
good penman who dares to tight poor tcmli- 
ing and can show superior results from In 
works. A. II. IIiNMA-- 

Tbe Wont of the Age 

We believe that ilie want of the present 
and the imperative demand of the futun age 
is new system of writing. This proposition 
may slarlle some and more especialU those 
who arc s.miowi]at acquainted with the nu 
nuTouN Fy-iitcmH of writing now extant Even 
in Canada we have over a dozen authors and 
publishers of penmanship in one form ar other 
nnd yet, if the publications of those men 
( works of the author inchided,) «trt c\ani 
incdwith the express determination of ofTtnng 
to the world a syslem of writing suited to its 
nect'sily, the elTort would be vain. 

Looking at llie wants of every professional 
and business man of Christendom, wherecver 
the English languiigo is spoken and the pen 
used, there is the longing for a change. And 
descrying out on Ihc horizon no penman bold 
enough, nor invcnlorinventive enough, tosup- 
ply the need, men have resorted to an expedient 
whereby it shall be supplied— the help of the 
pbonograpber wa-* asked. The iuunediate re- 
sult of this is the simple query of not a few: 
sbnil Phonography supplant Chirograpliy? 

Longhand v.n. shorthand— which? And. in- 
deed, when we recognize the pmgress sborU 
band has made, when we witness the intense 
intfn'!»t all young people take In the art 
( an interest far that ;akon in long- 
limul ). when we Icani what a concourse of 
business men feel its ( present ) neccsity, 
when we contemplate its gri'iit utility in the 
nineteinlh century of prodigious cCfort ond 
gigantic progicw, when we rellect that nine- 
tenths of oursystcniB of longhand are gradually 
drifting; away and fast becoming lost— buried 
in shroudi of ornate tlourisbing— then, indeed 
wf iinist cunfess the situation appears truly 
crilirnl.^' going any further with Ibis disquiai- 
linn it inigbl be well to inquire from which 
state of things wilt the better rosullsariscttvm 
ii>talaupn,'macyofphongrftphyor, professional 
shorthand writing and n new system of brief 

After considerable thought over the query 
we honestly say the latter and subjoin our rea- 
sons for thus deriding. 

The change toiotal supremacy of shorthand 
would Iw fnrtooswv<>p'nga ralauuty for even 
the nuv*t ultra-radical ly inclined. Waring our 
position, if phonography prevailed, our spell- 
ing would soon degentraie: this would, of 
conrse.necessitate nnolber mighty stride.nanie. i 
ly the adoption of phonography, or the repr«- 
sentAtton of language in our printed books ac- 


cording lo sound- lone avocation, but will allow reporters 
1*«.'°? 'l*^^ '.*"* "clusivcness enough to guarantee them "liv. 
ing" rcnumeralion ; that, in spile of what pen- 
men may say. instead of ruining tAn'r profes- 
sion wcare ennobling it, placing it above nicdi- 
ocrity, where it will command rtwpect. and 
remuneration. Every ambitious blockhead 
will not then run headlong into these lart two 
professions, and yet the art will flourish and 
sue for our unbounded admiration. 

Josh Billings' 
Then would follow 
the whole of our lit- 
erature to he printed 
in the same style. 
Knowing it will be 
allowed that such 
reforms would be 
necessitated we feel 

our former position. 
Again, in supporl 

of i 

The following are/rf of a scries of tu-flrf card designs which we 
are now preparing for publication, and which will be completed 
ond ready for sale by November 1, when wc shall be prepared to 
furnish cither cards or the cuts. We will forward electrotype dupli- 
cates of cither cf these cuts, by mail, on receipt of $2.60. 

may add tlint all 
merchants denitind 
is a system of writ- 
ing which will en- 
able them to do their 
correspondence, etc. , 
with less labor and 
in shorter time ; all 
phonographers de- 
mand is u system 
of writing so Iwief" 
that they may render 
transcripts of their 
notes with less me- 
chanical labor and 
speed; all tele, 
graph operators ini- 
less work 
and greoter speed 
while receiving mes- 

udents wish for is 
system of writing 
will enable 
them to catch and 
fix on paper the sub- 
stance of lectures, 
without neccsaitat- 
ing paralysis or 
hand - cramp; all 
lawyers plead for is 
a system by which 
they can write swift- 
ly and legible 
enough to be read- 
able by their clients ; 
all editors wish for 
is writing that shall 
be n/iort enough for 
them to write their 
^iffa 80 that the 
printers drcii shall he 
happy ; and flnolly, 
and most weighty of 
all, is timt ministers 
all prat/ for a system 
so brief that their 
sermons, composed 
of hnff division may 
be written in I'/iart. 

Hence we infer 
that phonography is 
not, nor need not be, 
in demand for other 
than professional re- 
porting, where every 
word and sentence of 
arapid public 
speaker must be se- 
cun*d that the abbre- 
viated longhand, as 
il will be, issuflBcient 
for the purposes of 
Law, Medical. Theo- 
logical, Science, stu- 
denisandall business 
avocations; that, in- 
stead of injuring the 
course of humanity, 
in keeping them 
from the general 
study of phonogra- 
phy, we are bentfll- 
ing them that, in- 
stead of ruining the 
cause of pboncgni- 
phers themselves — 
ttiat is to say, pro- 
je*^oTutU — we are 
elevating their cause 
to that of a science 
and art peculiar to 
themselves, and that 
poor copying hu- 
manity will not be 
always striving for 

1 Penmaiiship. 

A fev 

ice a gentleman who desired 
to obtain a class of pupils in writing, entered 
the High School department of a certain 
educationol institution, nnd requested the 
teacher in charge to select four pupils whom 
she considered among the best writers, and 
allow them to write upon the blackboord a 
sentence which be would dictate. Although 
somewhat surprised, the preceptress innnedi. 
ately called upon the desired number, who 
promptly responded to their names, and took 
positions at the board, prepared to dash off a 
sentence in what they considered tine style, 
though rather curious to know what senti- 
ment they might be called upon to indite. 

All being in readiness, tlie gentleman quiet, 
ly desired them to write, "This i» a xpeeimen 
of my handwriting.^' An amused smile at 
the absurdity of the rct,ue8t played over the 
countenances of one or two. but all at once 
complied, and as the last letter was finished, 
the writing-master remarked : 

"That will dc. I only wished to observe, 
and point out to the school the lack of sys- 
tem shown in these specimens. I have no 
wish to criticize unduly, nnd in tlie present 
instance, perhaps, have no right to remark up- 
on any deficiencies, but would like to say that 
it is very apparent these student,'* have never 
confined themselves strictly to any particular 
system of penmanship, but have adopted 
various styles or different methods, mingled 
with some originality. The handwriting of 
these four is probably better than the average 
of pupils in similar institutions, hut none can 
attain any great degree of perfection by fol- 
lowing one system of penmanship for a few 
days, and then adopting anolber. and so on. 
If a scholar wishes to learn Algebra, he is not 
apt to take a few lessons in that study and 
then leave it entirely, and devote his attention 
to some treatise on Geometry for perhaps a 
week: then return to his Algebra, and con- 
tinue to study the latter science in this man- 
ner simply because both happen to be 
branches of Mathematics. This may not he 
fair illustration, and there may be an occa- 
sional genius wlio«can combine nJI branches 
n the manner described, but the majority of 
itudents are not yet educated u,l to that 
itandnrd. Of course, the study of Mathe- 
matics should not be pursued in exactly the 
same manner as one learns penmanship, bo- 
cause one author's idea as embodied in any 
branch of the science may more clrarly 
elucidate some knotty point than another's, 
while the merits of any system of penman- 
ship may be readily determined without any 
remarkable degree of reasoning. Select some 
style which pleases you, and don't tr>' to copy 
the excellencies of evrry system, you see, for 
you will only succeed in imitating many of the 
faults of all, with few of the merits of any. 
My young friends, I have Qnisbcd ; please 
pardon me for thus intniding on your lime." 
So saying, he bowed to the teacher in at- 
tendance, and with another sweeping obei- 
sance which incbi<led scholare, desks nnd 
stove, be vanished from the department in a 
" blaze of glory." 

For the benefit of inquisitive individuals 
who always wish to know what becomes of 
everybody, we will say that the pupils were 
so charmed with the wonderful candor, and 
peculiar style of criticism of this distinguished 
stranger, that they nished after him '-on the 
wings of the lightning," and implored him 
with streaming eyes and beseeching glances 
to form a writing-class, and correct the fear- 
ful errore in penmanship which they bad 
unconsciously acquired. It is, perhaps, need- 
remark that be consented, and the 
rushing rivulet of tear-drops was stayed for 
the time. 

Now, this i 

•■ story, "and ] 

) hum- 

if it has not happened mor 
I because the schcwimftster 

Hornce D. Wells is teaching writing at 
Wanconda, III. 

Chas. B. Ward is teacliing writing at Fort 
Fairfield, Me. 

George McConncH «....".^„« 

to open veiy soon a school for drawing and 
writing at Waltham, Muss. 

G. W. Michael who has for some time past 
conducted a writing institute at Valparaiso, 
Ind., is now teaching at Delaware, Ohio. 

Messre. Miller and Stockwcll of the New 
Jeraey Business College, Newark, N. J., 
report ovtr one hundred and fifty students in 

W. W. Watson, who is conducting a Busi- 
ness College nt Weatherford, Texas, is highly 
complimented us a penman and teaclier by a 
late issue of the Weatherford Hernia. 

The Courier Journal of Louisville, Ky. 
pays a high compliment to H. S. De SolJar 
for hia fine penmanship and succeasfiil in- 
struction in the Southern Business College in 
that city. 

J. C. Miller is teaching large writing 
classes in Perry County, Pa. Mr. Miller is 
■ most accomplished "— -~'' 

Tins work IB universally 
geiK filly to be the most comprehensive practical and artistic guide to ornamental pen 
manilup i,\cr published bent postpaid to any address on receipt of $4 50 or as a 
■premium for a club of twelve subscribers to the Jooenal 

The above cut represents the title page of the wok which is 11 \ 14 m size 

J. R. Goodier, formerly of Indianapolis, 
has taken an interest in the Mayhew Business 
College at Detroit, Mich. Mr. Goodier is 
an accouiplishcd penman, and will midoubt- 
edly win an honorable success in his new 

J. F. Whiteleather has been engaged as, 
Professor of the Penmanship Department of 
Fort Wayne College. Prof. Whiteleather has 
been a special pupil of P. R. Spencer of 
Cleveland, Obio, and goes to bis department 
highly recommended.— jVcioa QUaiier. 

The Rev. Addis Albro, principal of the 
Maumce Bn^incas r'nllr-sc Fort Wayne, Ind. 
has Ihtoiiic ;i-^Lii-i:irc.l with tlie editorial 
nianagniinii ..i n ■^pn-lnlv <-(iucntional paper 
calletillic l-jhir.ftinn.'i \> trx GUaiier, pub- 
lished ini.lcr 111.' ,in-|iiirs <if tbe Fort 
Wayne (Ind.). rnll<-r S|irciincn cupy 
received is highly iniu' -iitiL:' I "ill I'dited. 

A. N. Palmer, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, in- 
closes a package of gracefully executed flour- 
ishing and card writing. 

A specimen of very attractive and novel 
lettering executed with tbe automatic shading 

S:n has been received from J. W. Stokes, 
ilan, Ohio. 

W. E. Dennis, of Wright's Business Col- 
lege, Brooklyn, New York, sends a package 
of elegantly written copy-slips. See his add 
in another column. 

C. E. Newman, penman of the Pacific Busi- 
ness College, San Francisco, Cal. , sends 
several specimens of writing which, for real 
ease and grace, are rarely excelled. 

F. B. Davis, with Cady & Walworth's 
Business College. New York, favors us with 
several superb specimens of off-hand writing 
and flourishing, and bis photograph for our 
scrap book. 

J. C. Miller, of Icksburg, Pa., sends an 
imperial photograph of a large specimen of 
flourishing and lettering, the original of 
which was 32x28, and, as far as we can judge 
from the photograph, was a very skillfully 
executed piece of work. 

Several specimens of flourishing and vmt- 
ing executed by Knowlea & Maxim, wil'a 
several kinds of ink manufactured by them 
at Columbus, Oiiio, have been received, which 
are creditable lx)lh in their skill as sUngers 
and manufacturers of ink. 

J. A, Waico, Lovilia, Iowa, who has just 
completed a course of writing at tbo Geui 
City Business College, Quincy, 111., writes a 
handsome letter in which he incloses several 
creditable specimens of card writing, and 
elegant specimens of off-band flourishing. 

S. C. Alalone. teacher of writing at Fair- 


skiUloliy executed specimens of 

M^ tmxxxva a Vt fn 


' I \r 

V~"^°— '" i 

ded by the press professional penmen and artists 

The Elevating Tendency of the Study of 
Artistic Penmanship. 

That the study of artistic penmanship, 
whether made up of gracefully formed letters, 
bold free-hand flourishes, or the finest pen- 

iwings, is calculated to purify and elevate, 

not a question to those who have given 
that phase of the subject attention. As the 
cultivation and indulgence of man's animal 
tends to degrade, deprave and brutal- 
the gratification of his love for, and 
study of the beautiful, is conducive to 
•aiity, refinement and nobility. By 
chance the young man wbo is accustomed to 
spend bis evening on the streets or in debauch 
n the bar-room, becomes interested in the 
itudy of the beautiful ; very soon vulgar 
stories, bar-room scandals and billiard balls 
begin to lose theu- attractions. 

The mind must ever be full of something, 
and if it is not full of that which is elevating, 
it is filled witli that which degrades. Let no 
one ever imagine that he can harbor evil 
thoughts and not become an evil doer. On 
the contrary, when the mind is filled with 
pure thougUts, noble deeds follow as surely 
as daylight follows the dawn. After the 
study of the beautiful has been pursued until 
it becomes practical employment, then the 
possessor begins to realize that pure life is 
necessary to a high degree of skill in its exe- 
cution. Any person who is addicted to the 
use of intoxicants, soon feels the need of 
a better nerve; consequently his "cups" 
are sacrificed. Then the usual late hours are 
perceived to be affecting the health. Next 
tbe use of tobacco, which perhaps has always 
been regarded as harmless, is found to be in 
a large degree a hindrance to that perfect 
control of the hand, which is so very neces- 
sary in the execution of intricate and highly 
artistic penmanship. Thus the work of 
reformation goes on, the cultivation of the 
taste, toning up the moral faculties, and the 
necessity of a steady nerve building up phys- 
ically, until the individual once morally de- 
formed, stands forth in all bis original purity. 
Then he begins to realize the capabilities of 
the soul for enjoyment, and wondei-s tliat he 
should ever have tried to find pleasure in the 
acquisition, cultivation and gratification of 
passion and appetite. 

The use of tobacco above mentioned is 
especially destructive to the nerve force 
needed in executing artistic penmanship. 
But aside from its practical hindrance to pen- 
men and otber artiste in attaining the highest 
degree of excellence possible for them, it is 
regarded by persons of refined sensibilities as 
entirely inconsistent with genuine manhood. 
Webster, the autbor, says that "No man car 
be quite a gentleman and use tobacco.' 
The reforming tendency of the study of 
artistic penmanship as a branch of art, \i 
because it awakens and exercises the suscep- 
tibilities which naturally exist in the soul of 
every lover of the beautiful. The bad, which 
has been fostered for years, 
lost by practice in, love for, and admiration 
of the beautiful. 


For the Journal. 


Writing is forms which are the result of 

ibject to law, and by common, 

eprescnts ideas — and with which 

every thing clearly conceived may be clearly 

The ancients considered writing a divine 
gift — Josephus believed that even Adam was 
acquainted with the art of writing. Ideogra- 
phic writing, profusely interspersed with 
sacred carvings, popularly called hieroglyphics 
was the prevailing style up to about 
500 B. C, at which time writing took the 
phonetic turn, and an alphabet of sixteen let- 
ters was adopted in Greece. Finding the six- 
teen letters insufficient eight more were shortly 
afterwards added. Centuries have passed, 
and tlie ceaseless cycles have witnessed alike 
the prosperity and decline of many nations. 
Empires, with Platonic rule, are becoming 
things of the past. 

Catholicism with its blackness of dark su- 
perstition and ignorance is waning and the true 
light now illuminates the whole world. The 
progress of Literature, Art and Science has 
been unimpeded — the tread of their ceaseless 
march quaketh alike religions and skepticism - 
and the mountains re-echoing, cast upon the 
smiling valleys, to be bounded to the cradle of 
the deep-Excelsior! 

Spoken language has developed from rude 
dialects of savage people to the acme of classi- 
cal expressions. So the art of writing has 
developed from the rude hieroglyphic of an- 
tiquity to be the most enviable art of modern 

While Church, State, Art, Literature, and 
Science, each for the other have a dependence, 
more especially are all iudepted to writing. 
Qdinot, III. 

Editors' PenmarCs Art Journal : 

The above is clipped from the Delaware 
(Ohio), Gazette, and is a fair sample of the 

people would take time enough before rusli- 
ing into print, to write again to the adver- 
tiser giving him an opportunity to save liini- 
self before these terril)le blasts take place, 
we are inclined to think the threatened party 
would dive into his books and straighten the 
matter out. But why not, at least, give a 
man the benefit of a doubt. He may be tol- 
erably honest after all ; and just possibly, 
mean to do tbe fair thing? All advertisers 
are not dishonest, and letters frequently fail 
to reach them. By writing them promptly 
after a reasonable wait, they may be enabled 
to correct tbe irregularity. 

G. A. Gaskell. 

We still have remaining a few of all the 
back numbers of the Jouknal since and in- 
clusive of tbe September number, 1877, in all. 
thirty-six numbers, which will te sent with 
eitlier the '■ Lord's Prayer" or " Eagle " as a 
premium for $3.50; both premiums and the 
"Centennial Picture of Progress" for $3.00. 

Ybeka, Cal., July 10, 1880. 
Editors Penman's Art Journal 

Dear Sirs — beemg a correspondent as! s m 
your paper a few n onths ago who is the 
most distinguised penman livnig? I think I 
can answer him \ccordmff to mv notion 
General Garfield is at least he has the most 
honors accorded to hmi and w ill have more 
next Novembtr 

Yours respeclfulh 

J H Magoffet 

Some one has made a %crj curious calcula 
tion of Tvhat Mr Aandcrbilt could do with 
his nione\ William H \ anderluli s mcomo 
from bis investments in $51 000 000 four per 
cent Govermeut bonds is represented at 
$"5 000 which is $2f)8 2-) per hour $3 47 per 
minute or over 5 cents per second Assum 
mg tli'il Ir is pud b^ ihc second he cannot 
possibu I n I III in I \ i ti \ il 1 not 

ikt 1 


worked all through the twentj fou hours 
without rest be could only dispose of one 
half bis income Bj living economic illy 
sa\ mg up for four s ears he could placing bis 
tive cent pieces side by side, make a nickel 
belt around I he earth or by con%ert]ng his 
savings into one cent pieces and mounting 
theui m a pile lie would in twenty lears 
eiect 11 road to the moon iind have $500 to 
invest when he got there. Should bis amuse- 
ment take a charitable twist, he could out of 
a year's receipts donate to every man, woman 
and cbiM in the United States twenty cents 
and have money left over. Other vast possi- 
bilities occur to the glowing fancy of the 
calculator. In one day lie could go to 8,000 
different circuses, eat lO.OiiO pints of peanuts, 
drink 5,000 glasses of lemonade, and have 
left to get his boots 

1 first-class funerals. — Ithaca Jour- 

Ingenious Fraud on Montreal Banks. 

Several parties have recently been victim- 
ized in Montreal l)y Ihe passing of a spurious 
■^10 note, seemingly of some bank's issue. 
The fraud is ingenious. Il is done by neatly 
slitting away that half of Ihe thickness of a 
genuine $2" or ■*5 note covering the words 
and figures indicating its denomination, and 
atly the words and figure 

This |. 

lills nt 

Parties remitting stamps for the Jourxal, 
or merchandise, will do us a favor liy sending 
ihem in one and two cent denominations. 

Prof essor Reed, of Loml 
the exact age of the worll 
600,000,0(10 yeai-s ; but, ii- 
the day of the month iii 
there is very little ■ 

i made with lead pencil a 

BEVELEDGE CAm<i->CPdto «i50por S.'On for* 
Jni im ned, %l 63 |.er 1 i>, S.OOO for Vlti. A samp e 
ifan^ve sijl.B, T"fiUiai(l.T5u. TUu siook utcd 16 
'ory b*t Crrnm WrddinQ Pu'l' d Briali.!. Wc also bi 

diz-'n, poalpaid, : 

w Oclobwr Price L 


rOMPLtTK couitsi: 


Accounts, Willi Ai illiDiplicnl rroblfiiis. 



l's.-.l 111 »II the C..]l.i.'.-ti In the coui.lry ft"'' 
.in.urp..s«o 1 .8 « u-sl.i)o>.k, Spccmi™ c«p... B.nt od 

S "wltQiOP Aa/U;^^rei/J*. LlJ.^ Aim.m. ic ^i.udine 


I m. E\him 




A WEW Ai>0 jAAi'KoVtu »oUK <n> MfniiNK^f^ cALv>tfi-.A.Xi.ui>a Willi VALUABLE p 



n bavc decM^ 

<D)tl' Bonk-B. I »<iiaoc<^Fi-c,Uai 



.pin ton I 


Ta->»niu frniu tl. K.*, 
Prom I'ii.t. CuotiOliK. Pf-ntfiii 

H^vo adop'p 

-L. I.. Wii 

k t:xobanBe 

, ForF'go Hud IJomd ic EicUaQge aud Arbi 

o' ■u»'jecli' «ow pr*»«ot*d In ibo pnbllc. 
uud more ub:;, txliaUbllvely und •yaicinatl- 

OBCr — An 

. 33, ISS'^. J. C. Biiv<NT& Son, Prop'lelort 
Q more Atlibmeuo from SniiUr'a SpcclmcQ 



■end no l<^o copies al on 

RHon*e ArltliDji 
.Mflpl. \J, iSSO-IinDw-wPHiileaiM-il wiili jour n«w OounilDR Houae Anihmet'.c Ihat 1 ahatl 
jrk. So«d mo lor lOn covU-. 


W. H. SADLER. Publisher. 

NO. 6 4. 8 NORTH CHARLES ST., Baltimore. 



ne.b.|0|i ..o.r 
iripldli aaib • 

rlKl. by HirnlDg a ihomb 


li or lu.'Bfiul. TJlO vqiltn 
«■■> '.rdl=,« to flDlab, langlb 


-- ' - -!-- - ■_: ■"-' 

T«c »r» 



J . nun, «.A Hnwlw,.)'. 

SMhTv Ubjccie. UQ-irC»t« 


^iT^Ub^'LU ^ct'^ow 

TBArDER'S *OlKr\_T.«ri 

Iv.OO »!• '-T- •cb*'« A^Mtcj," t 
Biuadmjililc* Xwk. 

8WUT, Marluoruie, Oaonaaga 


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na>l8ti>r a-'d D'afKoivi, 
Am. B^bk Sola Co.. New Yoik. 


VbwToui. Sept. S.IB'O. 
Awes. Bm.— nni- .«'-■ Ono ..f >oQr(rti-niT 
bi* bten 10 coo-iani u«-^by tn^ tot -omc 

Vary itulj yoa«, fccwiED k. Joubb. 

Wllb D. Appl«Uia * COta 


Superior Writing Inks 


One Dosen <'ardit wrlttco to Oold aod Colore. 
irguiiO U. 35 com.. Carts b«i qi.lli)-. Ti 

lO-lt. Piko CouLiy. Suotiois, P». 

I. go-Hi B -oin-i-s C-»il<«e «n very rea«>D4bl« Umis 
by jrtrtr »Miw W D STRONG. Ot'umwo, Iowa. 10-31 

iitV4r lali to pleasel Oaedox^n nni ton cards 
:r. Sjrciintu OCT-btQi] FiourtsUuig, Uc. AdJrcas A. 
»ALU£]i iMar Rapids, I^wa. , IQ-iL 

H. W. Kibbe, 


\o. 7 UOBART ST., 

rxicA, K. T. 

Blaktman. Tar^or & < 
dil40 0rfttid Si. Aew V 



:E*Titolisliea iio:ixtia_L3r, at; 205 Bi-oad-wrasr, foar ®1_00 :per "year, 
" EnUred at the Pott Office of Nob York, N. T., as tecotuUloM matter." 


VOL. IV. NO. 11. 

D. T. AnES, 


imlner of Qiiostloned Hnndvrrltln?. 

<>. II. NiiAi'rt;cK, 

(JrnorftI Ag nt Sp-ncorlan Copy B 


107 Ohimberi Sireet. 




. 80IIOOL, 
:. BriMiltlyn.N. Y. 

COLLEGE, lUHH Miinm.,Phlla<U.]|>b.u.l-a. 

IV. II. 8ADEER, Pre 


persons learning or practicing writing vncil- j tlrnn real, prflctical methods of 
Inte between from two to six different forms such as will develop resalts. 
of the capitAls, nnd as many as are possible themselves, have not me to stm 
the small letters, apparently in the belief borated theories. They 

that variety is the chief element of good 
writing, which is a double mistake, as it de- 
tractfl from the good appearance of the 
writing nt the some time that it enhances the 
difficulty of leominf; and of executing it 

For example, we have known writers who, 
in executing a short piece of writing, would 
for many of the letters make use of forms as 
varied ond numerous as follows .- 


and use more or less variety in all of the let- 
ters, thus requiring study and practice upon 
ahout one hundred ilifferent and unnecessarily 
complicated forms for the alphabet, in place 
of twenty-six. Thus the labor and uncer- 
tainty of becoming a skillful writer is magni- 
fied four-fold. A single and simple form for 
each letter, capital and small, should be 
adopted, and with a few exceptions, which 
we shall explain during this course of les- 
sons, should be invariably practiced. Their 
frequent and uniform repetition will impart 
that nccumcy of form, grace, and facility of 
execution which constitutes good writing. 
Wc will introduce our present lesson wi 
the following movement 



Lesson in Practical Writing-. 

with I 

It is a trite and tme saying that "n jack of 
nil tmd.<8 is good ot none." This is so from 
the fact that working nt many things neither 
tho baud or brain can nthiin to a high order 
of pwrtoit-noy or skill. It is the specialist 
that advances the stnndard of progress in all 
the dinwtions of human discovery. Concen- 
tnUiim of thought and action makes the 
Rrottt masters of the world, while by a diffn-. 
sum of the sAiue the gn'alest gentuB is dissi- 
pated and fails to attain to a marked degree 
of emiufnoc. 

So in learning to write, the pupil whe 
vacillatM between many sv»(tems and multi- 
tudinous forms of letters, must inevi- 
tably fail of becoming nn expert and skillful 
writer. He has too much to leftm /o /enrn it 
well, and like "the jack of many tindes" 

k maltor of frequent obsemtion that there 

which should be carefully practiced, making 
nse of the combined movement of the fingers 
and muscles of the fore-arm, not forgetting 
to maintain the correct position of the pen, 
band, and body, as dcscribeU and illustrated 
in loHson No. 1. 

After having practiced this movement at 
least ten minutes, and longer if time is not 
limited, the following copy may then be 
practiced : 


It will bo obsLTved that we begin this copy 
with that capital letter which is made by a 
slight addition to that of the previous lesson. 
Hence it is n little more than a review of our 
former lesson. Our next copy will begin 
I, it being our plan to present the let- 
groups most similar in their coustruc- 
Kemember ever in your practice, do 

(7b be coniinutd,) 

pie, natural, and practical— not a stumbling 
block for themselves and their pupils. Is it 
practical to make a subject, which in itself is 
simple, intricate and puzzling? For in- 
stance : pupils can very easily be taught to 
recognize the straight line, the right curve, 
and the left curve. These simple names ex- 
plain themselves . There is no probability of 
confusing the terms. When a child once 
knows the straight line, he will not be likely 
to call it n curve ; and when he once knows 
the right curve, he will feel it to be a misno- 
mer t . call it the left . urve, or vice versa. 
All this is simple, and easy to talk about. 
Now, instead of these simple names, we will 
call these simple lines elements, or prhic.lplen. 
The straight line shall be either element I 
or principle 1, as you please ; the right curve 
shall be element III, or principle 2. and the 
left curve shall be element TV, or principle 
3. Let us have a class of pupils, and drill 
them on this figured nomenclature. We will 
take small i. Here are two right curves and 
a straight line. The first right curve joins 
the stn\ight line in a point at top ; the struight 
line joins the second right curve in a short 
turn at base. Then you dot the letter, and 
that is all there is to it, except to make it so 
to please the eye. Now let us weigh down 
the letter with el-mentsan 1 principles. Let 
us explain to the pupil that there are three 
principles as well as three lines in i. i com- 
bines principles 2, 1, 2, or. still more scien- 
tifitally, thus : the parts of i are element III, 
first principle, and dot. Here we have the 
complex. Now, when you ask whot the first 
line of i is. the child must not answer. " The 
right curve ;" that would be too direct and 
simple. He must say. either principle 2 or 
element HI Both of these tonus are purely 
arbitrary ; and neither of them, in itself, 
gives the least idea of what the line is. A 
right curve explains it^ielf ; but principle 2 
and clement lU need exphination ; and thun 
ore likely to be confused with other figured 
elements and principles. 

Let 1 

It will he seen that the letters ( 

has seven lines; this is easy understood; 
butwhenyoutalk about seven principles, and 
give a string of figures to designate the sim- 
ple lines of the letter, you confuse what is 
simple, and overlay the subject. Again, ni has 
three parts, the eye seizes them at a glance. 
There is harmony to these parta. But when 
you talk about second, second, and third prin- 
ciples, you overlay the subject with principles 
and numerals. There is really but one princi- 
ple in either n or m. Cut m into its three easy 
and obvious divisions. Look at these parts, 
see the harmony of foim and movement. 
Three similar waves rolling together in rhyth- 
mical motion. Combining an upward left 
curve in a short turn with a downward 
straight line is the sole principle of the letter- 
This same principle runs clear through the 
small alphabet, and gives to our American 
handwriting the f 
tradistinction to 
German and the 

It is easy to speak of the three part*) of m 
to the pupil, and it is easy for him to reoog- 
nize them. He gives an upward rolling mo- 
tion to bis hand in making each port, and fin- 
ishes the last with a short turn and upward 
curve to right. It would be m just the same 
if his pen stopped al 
lost curve to have a 
next letter when he \ 
no new principle involved, 
if you make a downward straight Hi 
combine it in ashort turn at base with an up- 
ward right curve, as in small i and u. You 
get the semi-angular form just the same, only 
the rolling motion is xnuler instead of oyw. 
The tendency of making principles of simple 
g these multiplied principles 
for onulysis. is to reduce to a dead lev.l the 
distinguishing features of n large cluss of I^t- 

rs. For instance : m combines the prin- 

ple of the left curve, the principle of the 
straight line, the principle of the left curve, 
the priucii»le of the straight line, the prin- 

ple of the left curve, the principle of the 
straight line, and the principle of the right 
This is what it nil means. Now whot 

Inr style, in con- 
;lar style of the 
nd hand of the 

; but he adds the 

cting line for" the 

\ word. There is 

Neither iH there 

Practical Analysis in Penmanship, 


obviously a revolt among clear- 
headed educators against the great amount of 
dry, technical analysis which is overloading 
the subject of penmanship. Is it really nec- 
that the child, in ocquiiing writing, 
should learn all this tedious detail? Have 
tenebors throughout the country found a 

mntbomaticnl formula helpful in penmanship? bines principles 3, 1. 3, 1, 3. 
The cry of teachers is, •■Give us helps, not ciplfs for one small letter.* StiU again, 
^ in our teaching." At present, are told that the parts of m are second. 
place in the school-room for other ond. and third principles. 

simpler than their explanations. The figured 
nomenclature needs a key to elucidate it, 
while the simple tines of the letters, and the 
natural parts or divisions of the letters speak 
for themselves at a glance. This is clearly 
illogical. Is it not better to call these lines 
by their right names, ratherthantoget up an 
arbitrary technology for them, diversified by 
Roman and Arabic characters? Take small 
n. It is easy and natural to divide it into 
two parts. Show these parts to the pupil, 
and talk about them. Tell him how much 
alike they are. what lines they are made of. 
how you join them, and how yon write them, 
Again, take the n, and let it combine princi- 
ples 3. 1, 3, 1. 2, or say that the parts of n are 
second and third Prins. Does this sound easy? 
Does it look easy ? It overshadows the letter 
with too many numerals and principles. The 
letter looks ea.'^y without this analysis; but 
with the latter, it assumes an oir of figured 
mystery painful to contemplate and dis- 
couraging to the pnpiL 

Poor m snflers stiil more. You must not 

think its three mejisured cadences easy until 

listen to some words of wisdom : m com- 

nuch I kind of an idea of the letter have \ 



UB look at small o. This letter combines the 
principle of the left curve, with the principle 
of the left curve, with the princijile of the 
right curve, with the principle of the right 

What kind of on idea of the form does this 
give you? Does not this making principles 
of the simple lines of the lettt-rs, and then 
stringing them together with figures for each 
small letter, reduced them all to a dead level, 
and completely destroy their individuality? 
Does this long list of verbiage call to mind, in 
the least, the characteristic forms of the let- 
ters? It does not seem to simplify the mat- 
ter if you teach that the parts of small o are 
elements IV, IV. H. III. V. and hori- 
zontal curve. This, translated into our Eng- 
lish vemacuhir, means simply that small o 
has two left and two right cuni-es, and an 
upper and lower turn, occurring in a certain 
order. Why not say so, and give the child 
some chance of understanding what you 
mean? Does this lost method elucidate the 
form or construction of the letter ? In either 
case you have nothing but fmgments. Sup- 
1 pose, instead of this, you should write small 
(I on the board, and cut off the beginning and 
final cur^'es. Every pupil would recognize 
the main part or oval, and would call it o. 
from its resembla.^.e to the Roman letter. 

Yon now t*Il them that in writing sniftll •». 
yon Blant the oval or n part ; that you begin 
the letter «-ith the left cane, allowing the 
slanted oval to touch the left cnrve at top, and 
finish with a ehort carve to right, to connect it 
with tho following letter of a word, Thcoh- 
viousnnd practical annlyflis is simply separa- 
ting the ovnl from its introdnctor>- and final 
cnrveii. This method lets in a little light to 
the pupil, inBt^•ftd of setting him gropin« 
among Roman and Arabic Ago res to deoiphor 
the form. Analyze the oval ns mnch as yon 
plitwe. Tell the pupil that the right side is 
the right cnrve ; tho left aide, the left curve ; 
call attention to tho sliorl turns at top and 
base. You have something definite to talk 
about. BometLing-that speaks to the eye. 
Let us not take tho beautiful forms of writing 
and serve them op in a dry and deadening 
onalysiH. What we want is a little l\ff and 
Vujht thrown into these odd methods. 

Educational Notes. 

I OiiL- jiupil s.iiJ iic thought the tTews get out 
and drew them over, and another said he 
had read that a canal had been dug through 
" What is the name of the canal V" was 
asked, "The Suez Canal," was the reply.— 
.V. T. SchooUrntmai. 

205 1 

.S'ffmi-nnries only Iialf teach anything. 

■ ' A teacher who will preserve order or 
break heads" is advcrtieed for by a Kansas 
School Hoard. 

" Will you name the bones of the head ?'' 
" I've got them all in my head. Professor, 
but I can't give them."— ^j-. 

A factory has been connected with Eton 
college, England, so iliat llie students may 
get a practical kii'n\l( rij^ I iunN 

advantage in tin- I l'. a - rlmt they 

■write to liis parents •■" •■Wi n ili it ii ^■Avrs liiin 
the trouble. 

Jay Gould has had sixteen Indian girls 
brought from the Indian territory, and will 

Siiy the expense of their education at Mr. 
[oody's Seminary, Northfietd, Mass. 

Ijockycr says educated men hardly ever 
nse the word "scirnfist " Onr own experi- 
ence tenchea that ATr T MrVv-r t.lN the tnith. 
AndhomigUthi.vr , I I i-h.t . I,,. -.ted men 
hardly ever use III' > i I ' Nunmx." 

A little bov. vii' '. "- 111 ' iiiiiin- of the 
sehool-house until tlu ihh"U> ■.! the thing 
had ceased, started down the stieet, saying: 
"I'm glad the old thing's burned down; I 
didn't have my jogfry lesson, no how.' 

A scientist informs us that " the skulls of 
the African negroes are dolichocephalic, me 
soccphalic, prognathous, platyrhine, and me- 
Hoseme." No wonder the West Pomt offlcera 
think Whittaker clubbed himself. 

On the platform before the joiu-ney. He— 
"For my part, I don't see that it matters 
whether a girl is well educated or not." She 
— ■' Some men are not sufficiently well edvi- 
cated themselves to know the difference." 

A prominent dry-goods merchant in Boston 
worked half an hour on the following projw- 
sition, and failed to give an answer: "If 
four men build a hIom wall in nine days, bow 
long will it take five men to build a like wall 
in SIX days ?" 

" Please draw upon the blackboard an in- 
terrogation point," said a teacher to one of 
her pvipils. "Can't make a good one," re- 
plied the boy. "Draw a boot -but toner,'" 
said the teacher; "that will answer." Th<' 
hoy took the crayon and drew a hairpin 
Sharp rebuke by the teacher. Other pupil.-- 

Art Class. — Inspector—" What is a 'land- 
scape painter?'" Studeat— "A painter of 
landseapes." Inspector— " Hond What is 1 
an ' aniniid painter?' " — ■■ Xpniut.! 
of animals." Inspector— 1 • -W- -r \\ ii ii 

Inepi I I \ I I I I 

Go mid tell it to them i i i n ^i .i-- 
(Exeunt students.) 

Those who are somotinies troubled to know 
how to pronounce tho termination " ough " — 
so troublesome to foreigners— may see how 
simple and easy the following makes the 
task : 
" Wife, make me some dumplings of dough, 

They're better than meat for my cousjh ; 
Pray let them be boiled till hot through. 

But not till they are heavy and tough. 
Now I must l>e off to my plough, 

And the boys (when they've had enough), 
Must keep the flies off with a bough. 

While the old marc drinks at the trough." 

A TEACHER in a public school has been ac- 
customed to require her pupils to say, "The 
e<iuntor iB an imaginary Ime passing around 
the earth," etc. It never occurred to her that 
the boys and girls had no idea what an im- 
aginary line meant, nntil 

of writing teachers in Lon- 
don, England, after a year's experiment in 
teaching drawing with writing, assert that 
the amount and progress of the writing 
has increased by this union. 

and abandoned the vocation of teaching. 
Early in 1880 there were no vaci 
stiil ihey come. To avoid profifh 
pondence, we would 

withhold the 

John Wheeleb. D. D.. in X K of 
JihicaJton. says : "There are but four classes 
that cannot learn to draw— the blind, the 
idiotic, the insane, and the paralytic. Of 
the remainder exactly one hundred per 
cent, can learn. Drawing having the same 
alphabet as writing— the straight and thi 
.1 .:_. — I -[^g as certainly learned *" 

E. P. Connor is teaching writing at Den- 
ver, Col. 

Jos. M. Kent is teaching writing at Mont- 
pelier, Vt. 

J. F. Mooar. teacher of writing at Hibbard's 
Commercial School, Boston, Mass., writes a 
handsome letter. 

C. W. Robbins is teaching writing at Can- 
ton, Mo, He incloses a perfect little gem of 
off-hand flourishing. 

The Pacific Business College. San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., conducted by W. E. Chamberlain 
and T. A- Robinson, issues a very attractive 

.Jos. FoellerJr., is teaching writing classes 
in Asldand, Pa., and vicinity. He reports 
that he is having excellent success. He is a 
superior writer. 

A photograph ot an elegant and highly 
artistic specimen of writing, lettering, and 
pen-drawing ho8 been received from J. C. 
Miller, Ickesburgh, Pa. 

I. N. Picrson, penman at Brj'on's Colum- 
bus (Ohio) Business College, sends several 
superior specimens of writing and flovirishing. 
They are seldom excelled. 

R. S. Collins, teacher of writing at King's 
Mountain (N. C.) High School, incloses sev- 
eral well-written cards ; also a skillfully exe- 
cuted specimen of flourishing and drawing. 

F. M. Bahcock, teacher of writing anil* 
book-keeping at Alfred University, Alfred 
Centre, N. Y., writes an elegant hand. His 
letter goes into our best serap-book. 

W. N. Cox. Mendon Centre, N. Y. a Inie 
pupil of J. J. Warner, Rochester, N. Y. 
writes a handsome letter, in which he in- 
closes an attractive specimen of card-flour- 

John E Oifh.ird. SohiiUTladv, N. Y., a 
ckrk ill III- Ti.v. ;,!=' r;f< -uul Acccident 
In^iH 1 ' -...,. ,„„i hand, and 

ha-- ^"11 . I LI - ■■ !:.■■ ■■: ■ii-|.l!iyod pen- 
maii--li , '. :■,■ ■■ :"iled to his 

ginally flonrished by -John 1) Willm 

id is copied Irom Williiinis & 

B. F. Kellet, Esq.. New Yi 
Dear Sir : I notice timi vm 
tional items for yiiiu ■ ii' n 
and as I read ovci lii 
criticisercriticisiiiL' i 

I think affords an it< m 

" I think the man who spells 
one m, and yet puts four «'« 

■ dilcn 

it It 

assessment I 
at least one of the super- j 
fluoufi iCh in order to write himself down an 
as," Now if tlii.'i critic had not 'tried his 
liiind' lit reform, by spelling nught. ot, and I 
"rrs(.i\c" wiihoui'it* ciihKimury final vowel, 
I Mill iiii-Jil M!ppo=c hiiii not a reformer; but 
)i,Mii.r ,iili-t,.i :iiid buckled on his armor, 
\\ I, ,' ii '. - ' I in ihe very flush of tlu* first 

for 8 

George Morris Nicol, principal of the Old 
Doiiiiuion Business College, Richmond, Va., 
1- h ^hiv complimented by the Richmond 

I - ll.inies is teaching writing at Ann 
All 1. .Muh. The Daily Argus pays his 
work luul skill as a teacher a flattering com- 

H. C. Clark, principal of the Pottsville 
(Pa.) Business College, has recently opened 
a promising branch schooi at Shenandoah, 
Pa. He has associated with him Jos. C. Kane. 

W. P. Gregory, who is conducting the 
Knauss Business College at Easton, Pa., was 
rccentlythe recipient ofa higlily eompliment- 

formers" ai 
those who 1 
and have no 

I I I HI* making 

luo. Now while 

II this much-talked 

I I _ I ii.i-. never been my 

M I I ,i\ iriicles on the svd)- 

I I I < < I m| this kind, viz.: 

I M 1 UM itiJ une-half old style. 

iir lu suspicion that the " re- 

largely reinforced, at least, by 

*?,_. _- ' Nasbian ' spellers, 

■ing and 

XM I ■ II - .|s of Newport. 

Kv • I, ni p n I 1 s.-hool in that 
cil\ I'll it.iiluiig NMUiii„, .li.auug, and pho- 
nogruplij. Mr. Sttaru.s is u popular and 

■ for tlR 


■ they thought ships got 

Gk)od Fens. 

Tho ■' Penman's Favorite " is a pen that has 
been made on onr special order lor business 
and school purposes. It has been manufac- 
tured with more than ordinary care, and is 
believed to surpass 

smoothness, quality of line and durability. 
Quarter^oss boxe 
gross boxes, $1.00. 

, bv mail for 30 c 

E. A. Goddard, Auburn. Cal., incloses a 
handsomely-flourished card. 

G. Bixler, Rayersville, Ohio, sends several 
creditable specimens of card-writing and 

A. V. Fife, Conung, Iowa, sends a skill- 
fully executed specimen of off-hand flour- 
ishing and a handsomely written letter. 

beveral very attractive and artistic speci- 
mens of flourishing have been received from 
Fred. D. Ailing, Rochester, N. Y., which are 
executed with gold, silver, coVialt, and black 
ink of his own manufacture. The specimens 
speak well for the ink. Send for samples. 

Several well-executed specimens of flour- 
ishing pen-drawing and card-writing have 

1 been received from R. L. Meredith, teacher 
of writing at the Western Reserve Normal 
School at Milan, Ohio. 

' Thos. .1. Ervunl, principal of the St. 
Josi ]>ii - M.. liii-iiK s.; College, sends several 
v,.r\ I I .'LTiipIiic specimens of 

I pr.ii r ii iital penmanship. He 

I rcpiiii- Nil I ■ '1 success in the colleg(^ 

I Exchange Items. 

The Biiok-Kefieprr and Penman, published 
by J. F.Davis. Altoona, Pn.. makes a v.ry 
■I creditable appearance, and is well filled with 
' interesting reading matter. 

Bro\vne"s Phonotjraphie Monthly is a well 
rondncted journal devoted to phonognipl'ic 
writing and brief long hand, publish. <1 tor 
$2 per year by D. L. Scott-Browne. TM Bi"f"l- 

The Student's Journal, published for Sl'^^ 
per year, by A. J. Graham, author of SUmfl- 
fird Plxinnriraphy, 7U Broadway, is iihvuyw 
full of snli'd meat, and is peouliariy valm>l>lo 
to all pel-sons interested in phonogrnphv "r 
brief long-hand writing. 

The 'rcttfliers' yuw/e. published monthly l>y 
J. D. Holeomb, Mallet Creek. Ohio, iniprnvps 
with every issue. It is now one of our iu"st 
interehting and highly-prized edui-ati"""' 
exchanges. It has eight large quarto pnyS 
and is mailed for fifty cents a year. It >'' " 
good investment for any teacher. 

The Book-Kfeper continues to put in itj 
semi-monthly appearance, and is not otiiy 
attractive but highly entertaining. It« ^'''"?': 
Mr. Selden E. Hopkins, appears to be the 
right man in the right place. The "ft'^^JV' 
publication has been removed to 94 Lii'i^X 
street. We are glad to learn that its sabscnp- 
tion list is fast increasing, and that its v - 
manency is assured 

The Jacksonville (.111-) BtwiaWft- '^'"^Jj 
Journal, edited by G. W. Brown, is one 
the most attractive and sensible collf y V 
; pera that comes to onr office, and speaks y" 
for the literary taste imd accomphshmeDt w 
its editor. The DaUy Stale Journal pay^J"}" 
'Brown and Messrs. H. B. Chicken and i.- 
' Woodworth, his assiBtants. a verj' flattcnus 
and well-deserved compliment. 

^^Tti ^Ja 


BMtlnp««o«! Ibr ■trlff 1* do 

Soal'a ooa)pM«D««« IbOB twal 
lo K blab«r •pbsm at Ufa. 

Art's pur* lonfflns tb«n la fad 

Trlamph'a boandlraa |j wed 

8Uok«« for Irtitfa r»a ncvar die 

OrcrwU) rrotB paUaoca arar II 

B«aQtr. thronrd abovp tba aky 

H rmtranc* bring; 

To tb7 credit aball endure. 

Air of bMtiiy woo Ihy flight; 
FUlod from fount at ODdlaaa llalil. 
Navonnore tlofoAt or at^ara. 

Purlly'a bluh d 

The followine iiro n, r of n serifs of /icWye card deaigns which we 
Me now propnring for pubtic-ntion, and which will be aoon completed 
ami reftdy for sale, when we Hhnll be prepnred to furnish wither cards 
or the cuta. Wf will forwnrd electrotype duplicates of either of these 
cuts, or those in the October number, by mail, on receipt of $2.50. 

Wafta thy aoul on Ilgbt«r hi 

IbKlnleaa aplrlt koop thy lllgb 

Bonl of ftvedoni, ' - ■ - 
Irac4t and baanly ji 

Qroct Iby lioi 
Raat Id poai*e o 

ftvedoni, jo]r h 

tUy liandal 

3. D. WiUiams. 

Thi" -ti,...,)..) t-Mi,-.i- was widely known ; 

pro .1.1. K i, ^.,v il-mblo niimhor who 

'«■»'' ' I '■ I . ..'imlly. He was at 

one In,, , ,1 ;|,, uiitcndcnt of Oma- 

"**"*'!'' ' ■ "-' M' ' ' ilie liryant <t Strat- 

ton ch.iiii Ml collrt'-s." aud was undoubtedly 
ono of the llnest ponnion the world ovor pro- 

■■JohnD.,"a8 hiBfi-ifindrthvjiv.M)dt.Ml him 
■WOH in boyliood a tailor's iipjir. nti. . ,i, j ,', 
Tory "«hiftU'S8, uaolesHf-ll. - i ■ ; ' , , 
tiBod to Bay. who wa<(t«il Iji 
ing on«Ieii. flourighino «\sjiii i, i . i,,, 

ing tho t^iilors. Mr.Dutl*. ji ^sinn, t ,. ij, i 
who had opened a coniuuTrijil sT' ' 
Pittaburgh. dropped into the tailor's 
and. happening to sue the lad and 
hw ehnnt-markB. was surprised i 
1ow"h Kkill ; and, as his euiplovcr was 
thoro.ighly oonvincd ho would never make 
n tailor, Mr. Duff tol.l him that lie could 
attend his school and learn to write This 
was juHt the chance the boy had long 
wanted, and hf made good use of his oppor- 
tuuity. Ho became a t»-acher in Dutt ■»! and 
subsequently taught liirge and stiocessful 
cloasos in that Ti('iint\ 

Afterword he w !■-■ .-'..Tni. ,!, .! ,.\\\. ..f 

the loading biism .).-.' , i [ ,, i, 

with Paokard'N, m \ \ [: 

whilo aMsooiat<.'.l v m i ^ i 

in connection will. n.. i... ii . i^ 

" Qcuis of IVnii.,,..^..,,, ,.( 
■• Williams A Packard k Goid*-. 
Mr. Williumn's stylo of writing w 

. --imeof 
t the fel- 

Ho p,,i,.,.' 
ioide> Ahi, 

tiallv the Knmo u^ that olT other i.n, n. 
the bfittftr olosa, he was much oppos.-.l t. 
exact stylo some follow, of submitting e 

stroke to geometrical 

iult> bis penmanship 


natural than that of most peume 
fin© themselves exvdusivelv to oopy-writing j 
and "spt'otmen work." Mr. Willmms w^ 
of the first to adopt a simpler form of ' 
dooing the prinaiplc>s to the sim- t 
^ouod curves and the straigh 

Ime. a grent improvement on tbu copy-book 
systotuR. He was born in the city of Pitts- 
burgh m I8a*t. and died at Albany. N. Y in 
J«n»wry. 1871. 

The Pen. 

'■ Oh I nitura'a noblcM Rlrt— my gr»y gooac qnlll, 
Stava of ray titoaghta. obMll«.ut to my wtu : 
Torn from Ihy parant bird to forni a p«n 
Tbat mighty iDalruiurul of Ultl» mac " 
Thus sang the iinmorlAl Byron, the prince 
of modem Urrls. aod.nHhough bo has docked 
his ••qoiU' with the lotwe-flowing robes of 
l>oetry. it is seldom that we find a tnicr sen- 
timent. OTA more impressive fact expressed, 
either by philosopher or sage. 

The Pen is indeeil. a "mighty instniment.- ' 

Let u^ look at some proved the iiuvst powerful d< fender of th.^ 

of Its conquests for Gospel of Truth, supposing tbat her" twch- 

proof of the aaser ings did not coincide with the truths of Scrip- 

tion. Go back with tnre. But this delasion is fast vanishing bo- 

me to the sixteenth fore the incrmsed dissemination of ber bril- 
century. when her i liant light, and wen of all classes and all 

handmaid.the Press, creedsare acknowlejging that " Science" and 

first commenced - Revelation," the work and the worti of the 

snccessftil opera- sjuiie God of truth, am never disagree. And 

tion, and let usview ere long, having bonnd themsolT«G in an in- 

the enemies with dissoluble union, and united their efforts for 

whom she bad then the accomplishment of that glorious object, 

to contend. and the amelioration of the condit-ion of man. for 

whom she has been which they are both, even now. so diligently 

since, jind is still Iftboring, they will go forth in one unbroken 

trampling under band, "conquering and to conquer," until 

**"**■ ^Tery opposer shall have been crushed to thd 

The giant, Igno- earth, 
iiince, protected by L. D Pbickott. 

the almost impene- •^•••-. 

treble shield o 
superstition, hit 
brow encircled bj 
the brazen helmel 
of fierce fanaticisoi 
made long and des. 
perate opposition tc 

Answers to 


of her 

peaceful scepter, 

another •■ son of 
Anak." arrayed him- 
self in hostility to 
the extension of her 
empire. conscious 
that her rise must 
bo his downfall ; 
threatening with the 

(luisition. and the 
liorrors of imprison- 
ment evi-ry ste p tbat 
might not coincide 
with dark and hel- 
lish designs. 

See yet another, a 
hydra-headed mon- 
ster, surrounded by 
the ■ ' blazing torches 
of intolemnoe," and 
stained with the 
blood of martyred 



herself that holy 
name. Religion, for- 
tified in the death- 
dealing castle of per- 
secution, long stood 
the silent, but pow- 
erful attacks of this 
'■ mighty instru- 

Saoh are some of 
the enemies that the 
Pen had to encoun- 
ter, and which so 
long withheld the 
blessings of learning 
from the world. But. 
rising in the might- 
iness of her strength, 
she has driven them 
from their strong- 
holds, and made 
them captive to her 
power. Ignorance 
flees at her ap- 
proach. Tyranny 
hiys down the scep- 
tre at her fect. Per- 
secution shrinks 
from her presence, 
and true Religion 
bails her as a sister 
and a friend. 

Thus has the Pen 
been contending 
with her real foes; 
but they were not 
her only opponents ; 
for, strange to tell, 
amongst those who 
shoald have been 
her truest friends 
those who profess 
the true religion of 
the Bible, and take 
Revelation as their 
standard, some have 
been seen to declare 
themselves at war 
with ber who has I 

-E. H. \V.. Wheeling, W. Va. Ink ond 
fluids of all are excluded from the 

niiil mI ,s. . ti ■nly send them by express 

■^ ^ V ~ I ,,,,.. Mo. Wedonotthink 

It n.]\ 1^ ii.|. t. II,. ii stub pen while learning 
to wiilf. inn; nt nuy time, by persons who 
wish to retain a good style of professional 

H. C. D., St. Louis. Mo. We have no 
reason to suppose that any issue of the 
Album oiPm Art has been made since the 
number you mention, viz. : January and 
February number. 

E. M. H., New Orleans, La, AH drawings 
or specimens designed for reproduction by 
photo-engraving should be made twice the 
size of the desired cut, and be made with a 
jet black India ink. 

of the Chicago Convention has been pub- 
lished. It was expected during the month 
of August. We have not yet seen it. 

H. Jr. D.. HuriiKburgh, Pa. A verj- ^ood 
inkifor flourishing and specimen work is 
made by mixing any good Japan ink with 
Arnold's or Carter's lluid in equal quantit 
or sufficient fluid to i * 

N. H. K., Stonevill 

well of A.J. Graham's system of ph. 

graphy. and it is probably as extensively 
used, if not more so, than any other system. 
His office of publication is 7J4 Brna.lway. 

A. J. W., Northfleld. \i \tl l,.,.|, ,111, li- 
bers of the JoDRNAj, ■■in. -> I.; I ( . |s77 
to January'. 1881, in ill , A,ii 

be sent for $3.U0 iii.-lu.i ,n.; im ,,,il,le 

jjlemiums. The " Couimuu .Scun.. liuider" 
included, $4. GO. 

M. H. G,, Lowell, Mass. All subscrib- 
8 to the JotTiNAL are entitled to a 
of three premiums, viz. : "The Lord's 
"" 19x24: •■Flourished Eagle, 

Mich. Wethink very 

30. 'or 

al Picture of Progress, 
id for fifty cents extra all three ar 

Jo say all who 
soliciting for 

It Pays 

to advertise in the Jodr-nal. ! 
have tried it. We are doing n 
advertisements. All. and evi 
than we desire to spare for that purpose has ■ 
been steadily taken, and much of it by per- 
sons whose advertisements have stood from 
the first issue of the Joubnai^ nearly four 
years since. O. M. Powers, of Chicago, pub- 
lisher of the Comjihte Accouniant, and Fred. 
D. Ailing, the noted ink manufacturer, of 
Rochester, N. Y., are extensive advertisers. 
Both speak of the JomsAL as their best pay- 
ing medium. 

New-Year Cards. 

The New England Curd Company. Woon- 
socket. Conn., have issued a series of twelve 
designs for New-Year cards, which are unique 
and attractive. Send for circular. 

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Principals of schools and t.'achf rs of book- 
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of any kind should send for the new school 
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w is the time to sabscribe for the 
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_ _io«. emos. lywr- 

lammn »a«oo turn im jo »"w w 



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aixsa or ihf " c 


cDilinK Ih* 

slnK «-A w 

Iho rollowlrg pii 

miiuK lli(« 

Dcat BpoolmoDB 




I (if EnRMi 

Congdoira Nurni 

1 Syhi«m i^ 


>y nniially llbi>ra1o 
u siioclal list of c 

306 Broadwar, N(>\r York. 


•ilcutloDB, «lll bo rccvlvcd and promptly 
1 to by (ho 


London, England, 

JompOQdIuiii of OrnamoBtal Peomnii- 

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.1 " by book post, 1 6s. 3<i. 



Delay of the Journal. 

PhtntJ-like it rises from Us Ashts. 
The compouitiou of the present number of 
the joura'ui wus complete for an early issue. 
but, when Dlmost ready for the press, the of- 
fice aD<l printing muterial was destroyed hy 
fire, with the exception of the displny cuts, 
which, foi-tuufttely, hud not been hnnded in, 
or the delay nnd loss would hnve been much 
grenter. It is through no ordinan,' cost nnd 
effort on our pnrt thiit the journal is mailed 
thus promptly. We shall cudenvop to mail 
the next number not later than December 
10th. All matter designed for that issue 
should be in by the first of the mouth. 

Iixposure of the Oreat Political 

The OblDoas Cheap Lnbor Lt^Uer— alleged to liuve 
be«D wrlttvn by J, A. Oirfie Id— compared willi his 
Admitted wrltlug. 

Since the foundation of this nation, there 
has been no case, baned upon the genuine- 
ness of Uuudwriting which has been of such 
intense interest and vital importance to every 
Ameriran citizen as this. 

If Jos. A. Garfield, being a candidate for 
the ohief executive oftice of the nation, had 
entertained and uttered such sentiments as 
were therein expressed, viz.. that our present 
treaty with China should not be abrogated 
" until our manufacturing and corporate in- 
terests are conserved in the matter of labor," 
Le was certainly unworthy of the high posi- 

>^c>-— ^cl 

^ /^-.^ Y-^^ ^^^^- ^-<^^^ ^^ 

The above is a photo-engraved fac-siraile of the "Chinese Cheap Labor Lettpr " alleged to have been 
James A. Garfield to H. L. Morey, Lynn, Moss. 

tion for which he was a candidate, and de- 
served defeat. If, upon the other hand, he 
did not write the letter, it was a wicked and 
monstrous effort to substitute forgery and 
fraud in place of the hnutsi ballnt as an in- 
strument of election, and was dealing a 
deadly blow at the very root of republican 

In view of these momentous facts, itwould 
indeed have been a wonder if such an issue 
had done otherwise than it did — intensely 
move the entire nation, and fill it with the 
gravest apprehension and alarm. 

Although the election is now past, and the 
letter, whether genuine or forged has done 
its work so far as was its direct object-, the 
intense public interest it aroused remains, 
and demands aU the light possible upon the 
whole affair. If the letter was genuine, con- 
sequences more grave than those which result 
from the sentiments expressed therein rest 
upon General Garfield, for to bad sentiment 
he has added falsehood and deceit. 

If it was a forgery, there must have been a 
forger, and probable abettors ; and no energy 
or effort should be spared to hunt down 
forger and abettor, and make of them an ex- 
ample that shall deter that species of cam- 
paign work from again entering into Ameri- 
can politics. 

In order that oar readers may be able to 

form some intelligent opinion regarding the 
genuineness of the Chinese cheap labor letter 
(which we shall hereafter designate simply 
as the "Chinese letter"), we insert on this 
page a /ae simi/e copy, and for comparison, 
insert upon the opposite page a fac siriiUe of 
Garfield's letter denying its authorship. 

It has been alleged that, having previously 
written the "Chinese letter," General Gar- 
field has designedly changed his ordinary 
style in the letter of denial in order that there 
should be no apparent identity between the 
writing of the two ; but we have examined a 
large number of letters written by him be- 
fore the publication of the " Chinese letter," 
and find on comparison that there is no de- 
parture from his customary and habitual 
style in the letter of denial. We therefore 
afiBrm that it is a perfectly fair sample of his 

Before drawing any comparison between 
the writing of the two letters, we will briefly 
consider what may be termed the internal 
evidence of the " Chinese letter " against its 
own genaineness. 

First. The three instances of bad spelling, 
viz., the words " ecomoney " and " Companys" 
in line eight, and/* reiijeously " in line twelve 

are hardly consistent with General Garfield's 
educatien and experience. 

Second. The misplacing of the dot to the i 
in Garfield by placing it to the left of the/ 
and over the r is a mistake quite natural to a 
hand unaccustomed to making it, but a very 
improbable and remarkable mistake for a 
hand accustomed to writing it from a lifi-" 
long habit 

Tfiird. The great and conspicuous vnriii- 
tions in the size and form of letters. As a 
specimen instance, see the three Vs in tlie 
fifth line. Variations so great in such close 
connection seldom occur in anything like an 
educated hand. 

FbuHh. The very long, fall, and difforenllv 
formed lopps in the first lines of the letter, 
as compared with those in the latter part, 
and their varying size and shape througbont 
the letter, present extremes too great aU'' 
forms too varied to be consistcntwitha h>iD'l 
so trained and skilled as that of Gen. Garfiil'l 
is known to be. 

Fiflh. The widely varying degree of pc» 
pressure is inconsistent with natural writing- 

SLOh. The Jin the signature has a -'tlopf 
inconsistent with the remainder of the signfl' 
ture and the surrounding writing. It is ^^^ 
too angular at the top, and too set and stiff 
throughout to be the result of a natural Bweep 
of a trained hand. 






The ftbovo is n plioto-engrnved fac-simile of General Gnrfield's letter denying the nuthority of tbe ■' Chinese Letter." 

Wo mny safoly oasumo that if Qen. Gnrfleld 
wioto tho "Chincso letter" lost January, 
there wos at that time no motive, and conse- 
quently no roaeon to suppose that he vrrote 
it in any other than hiit ordinary and natural 
band ; and, ns wo ha%'0 before said, we know- 
by an extended and careful comparison that 
the letter of denial is in his perfectly natural 
baud ; these two letters should, therefore, be 
oonsiHtcnt with each other. 

Are they so? 

h\rs\. Take tbe general pictorial effect 
and appearance of the two writings. They 
are without characteristic resemblance. 

£!fcoiid. Observe tbe nnconseious babit 
with roforenoo to the base line of the writing 
in tho "Chinese letter." It will be seen that 
tbe words as a rule begin considenibly above 
tlie base line, and then tend downward to or 
below it This is the case to n rarely excep. 
tional degree, while nothing of the kind is 
observed in tbe other letter. 

Third. Thor.-! in the "Chinese letter "are 
of variable length and shade, crossed in all 
manner of ways, while in the other letter 
tbey are nearly uniform in height and shade 
and are nnifonuly crossed, when single, by 
n short, deliberate line near tbe top and to 
tbe right of some, rarely touching the st4>m, 
lA and ft only being crossed. 

Fiiwi'h. Tbe loops in the ••Chinese let- 
ter" touch tbe extremes for length and size, 
and ore utterly without uniformity or coo- 

while they generally lop forward ; 
and the/'s and p".t are considerably bowed. 
In tbe other letter the loops are rather short 
and thin, frequently closed, or single lines ; 
as in the \iS, g's, and y's, there is very little 
tendency to lop forward, while/'sandp's ore 

Rflh, The general and nnsconseious habit 
of grouping and spacing the letters, as man- 
ifested in the two writings, have no similari- 
ty. In the •■ Chinese letter " a peculiar and 
striking habit of grouping will be observed 
in on, in "Personal and confldc^ntial," line 
one, and wonls "should," lines twelve 
and fifteen, and elsewhere, which does not 
accord with Gen. Garfield's habit. There is 
an'appeoronce of this at the end of one or two 
lines in his letter, but it occurs from being 
crowded npon the margin of the original 

Sixth. The writing in the "Chinese let- 
ter " is more compact and angular than in the 
other; the p's are entirely different in form 
and finish. 

Sn-fitth. The variable slope of the writing 
in the two letters, that of the " let- 
ter" being in the average about seven de- 1 
grees more sloping than in the other. | 

Rghth. The signature to the "Chinese 
letter" is a clumsy imitation of Gen. Gar- 1 
field's autograph; obser\-e the stiff formal 
initial line— sharp, angular turn at tho top, 
absurd slope and general stiff appearance, | 
while tbe shade is low down upon the stem. ' 
and compare with the free, flowing move- 1 

ment round turns, and consistent slope of 
the same letter in his genuine autograph. 
We might extend the comparison, with like 
result, to all the letters in the signature, and 
to a multitude of other instftnces in the 
writing of the body of the letter, but want of 
space forbids. 

ind that 

Manypersons, and some professed experts, 
have remarked whot appeared to them strik- 
ing and characteristic resemblances between 
the '■Chinese lctt«r " and Gen. Garfield'a 

Before commenting upon these 
remark that it should be borne in 
if the letter is not in the genuine ha 
of Gen. Gartleld, it has been written by some 
person whose purpose was to have it appear 
so to be. That being the case, we should 
naturally expect to find many, even more 
forms than we do, having a resemblance to 
those used by Gen. Garfield. All these re- 
semblances appear to us to be either copied 
or coincidences in the use of forms. There 
are no coincidences of the unconscious writing 
habit, which clearly, to our mind, prov&stho 
"Chinese letter," as Gen. Garfield well 
characterizes it, a very clumsy effort to imi- 
tate his writing. Indeed, the effort seems to 
be little more than an endeavor on the part 
of the writer to disguise his own hand, and 
copy a few of the general features of Gen. 
Garfield's writing, adding a tolerable imita- 
tion of his autograph. The letter is by no 

means a good forgery, not is it a skillful 
simulation of Gen. Garfield's hand writing, 
and we are strongly impressed in tbe belief 
that in the absence of very famrst dtsirt to 
Kftvt it grnuinf, no one would ever hove be- 
lieved it to be Eo. 

For the purpose of showing how easily 
tho'«e who have pronounced the letter gen- 
nine were dereivtd, we will note a few of 
the supposed resemblances. For instnnoa, 
the initial Cs which occur frequently in 
both letters, are said to have a striking 
resemblance. So they do. but no more 
so than the same letters will have in 
three out of every five writers, that being 
form, yet we will call 
one point which even 
turns this refemblance like a two-edged 
sword upon the alleged forger of the let- 
ter, and for the defence of Gen. Garfield. 
and that will be observed in the peculiar 
initial of the C in •■Coufi.lential," line one. 
and the word "corporate," line eight. These 
are characteristic ("s, and are nowhere found 
in Mr. Garfield's writing, but are duplicated 
over and over in Kenward Philp's manu- 
script, so tho peculiar b's in by. line fourteen, 
and elsewhere in the "Chinese letter" are 
habitual forms in Phi'p's writing, and only 
have a resemblance to Gen. Garfield's. 

Whatever may be the final result of the 
effort to fix the authorship of tbe letter, there 
is not the slightest ground for bolieviug that 
James A. Garfield did, or even could have 
written it. The hand writing, and all the 
circumstances attendant upon its production 
and publication, stamp it osamostinfamouB 

We would also ask the Hon. A. S. Hewitt, 
who swore that while he did not believe the 
letter was written by Gen. Garfield, ho 
thought it bore his genuine signature, to 
compare tho J. A. iu the date of the letter 
with tho same tetters in tho signature, and say 
if ho should not apologize. 

In the opinions herein expressed and the 
conclusions reached, wo are substantially 
sustained by three of the most experienced 
and reliable hand writing experts in the 
country, viz,. Joseph E. Paine of New York, 
Albert S. Southworth, of Boston, and W. E. 
Hftgon of Troy, N. Y. 

Should any of our reoders think that they 
have good reasons for disagreeing with us, 
in any of the foregoing conclusions, the 
columns of the Joubnal will be at their ser- 
vice for making such opinions known. 

Note. — The preliminary examination be- 
fore Chief Justice Nosh Davis, of the case of 
Kenward Philp, the alleged forger of the 
"Chinese letter" closed on Tuesday the 9th 
instant, and the decision of the court is to bo 
rendered on Saturday the 13th inst. Which 
decision will cover not only the question of 
the genuineness of the said letter, but the 
Bufiiciency of tbe evidence implicating Philp 
OS the forger. We shall give the decision of 

Personal Identity in Hand-Writing. 

The frequent occurrence of cases in courta 
of justice and elsewhere, involving the genu- 
ineness of hand-writing, to determine which, 
recourse is had to professional exports, baa 
led to many and sharp controversies regard- 
ing the reliability and real value of such con- 
clusions, as may be reached by experts from 
tho examination and comparison of hand- 

We are not among those who claim infalli- 
bility for the experts, neither are we with 
others who deny that there is any reliability 
to be placed in the opinion of a skillful ex- 
pert regarding writing. 

The hand, with the pen, constitutes a ma- 
chine for the mechanical execution of writ- 
ing. The pupil, while learning to write, 
may be said to be learning to operate that 
machine. He at first operates it slowly with 
difficulty and hesitation, but gradually with 
practice and cure its operations become more 
and more mpid, skillful and certain, until at 
length from the sheer force of habit, ita oper- 
ations become olmoet automatic; with only 
slight variations in forms and character, it 
performs all the operotions of writing, inde- 
pendent of conscious aid from the mind, 
which is wholly absorbed in the preparation 
of matti^r which the pen transcribes. The 
hand thus disciplined from long habit im- 
parts to writing certain marked peculiar, and 
habitual characteristics which are fixed and 
arbitrary, being as independent of any direct 
mental operation or intention as is tho 
peculiar gate or motion of the hands and 

--'%■ u'j-i-a Ji<=iav>'i\?r^ 


-'^^^^r-'-^'^^-.u^^^" - 

H-I.ilr wnikll 

i.V Ihi" 

ties the writing i« fts cosily and certninly 
identified, an is the writer of the same by his | 
fignro. jibysioKnoiny, voice, aorl other pecn- 
liar pentooal obaracteiistics. 

This force nDiabit impnrtK not only n pe- 
cnlinr Renenil appearance to writing, bnt to 
theHCveral letters' peculiar, forms, mftkes pe- 
caliar RhadeH, tarns, connectionti. spnces, 
and combinatioDH. hiw a certain method in 
beginning and ending words, crossing the 
t's. dotting the i'h. Ac. Ac. These pecoli- 
nritieH being Imbitnal. independent of the 
will, and entirely unobserved by the writer, 
constitute what may be termed an unconBious 
writing habit which cannot Rnddcnly and at 
ploawure be siifBciently concealed or avoided 
to escape identity any more than the writer 
himself could avoid persoual identity by 
change in dress, txine of voice, Ac, although 
he might thus deceive urnne persons unfami- 
liar with his personal appearance, among his 
intimate associates such efforta would be too 
thin : he would not only be recognized but 
subjected to ridicnle. 

To understand and be able, by analysis of 
handwriting, to discover and point out those 
pei-uliar Imbitnal characteristics in hand- 
writing, and t/> draw the correct inference 
therefrom, is the office of an expert. 

As one may very easily make a general dis- 
guise of his person so as to deceive unfami- 
liar persons, but with difficulty his more in- 
tinmtc associates, so a writer may easily so 
change the general appearance of his writing 
lis to deceive the casual observer, and still 
rrtain almost every habitual chamcteristic, 
which will be at once apparent to the eye of 
iiti expert ; the use of a widely different pen, 
II variation from the usual speed in writing, 
a change from the customary slope instantly 
nmkes an entire change in the general ap- 
pearance of writing— these are changes which 
any writer with a little thought 

1 introduce 

.1 maintain 

11 his writing at pleasure, but 

cannot con 

ider at once and avoid all the 


niiil innonHcicus pronliarities 


re. but will 
eliable for the identity 
physiognomy for the 

of ImudwritinK, 
personal identification of the 
believe that a skillful expert 
to be mistaken or deceived 
the other. 

The Chinese Letter Forgery. 
ronsi.Iernble space in our present issue 
has lu-fu devoted to the illustration of, and 
commi'nts upon, the handwriting involved 
in this fhr forgery of the niueUienth century. 
W« hiiv." refioined from comments upon or 
eouipftvison of, the forged Ictli 
with tlK- writing of the alleged forger, ] 
ward Philp, not wishing to. in any de< 
prej udice his opportunity for a fair and 
partial trial, wo have coufinot 
to the internal evidence of the letter itself 
being a forgery, and its comparison with 
Gen. Garfield's admitted writing ; fromtheao 
alone we adduce facts, which to our mind 
are conclusive against the genuineness of the 
Ictti-r. But added to these, are the proven 
facts that no such man as H. L. Morey, the 
party purporting to be addressed, or such 
organization as the Employers' Union, of 
which he was an alleged officer, ever had an 
existence in Lynn, Mass., and also that the 
letter was not post marked atWashington and 
delivered fhmi the Lynn post office as it 
purported to be, but that it was post-marked 
at Washington upon a much later date than 
that of the letter, Jnn, 2;)d, and delivered from 
some sub-post office station in New York, as 
indic*t«d by the New York P. O. stamp 
upon the back of the envelope. The name 
H, L. Morey, Lynn, Mass., is written entirely 
upon an erasure on the envelope, while the 
dates in the post marks have evidently been 
ero-sed. The indications are that the envel- 
ope was originally addressed from Washing- 
ington, D. C, to some person in New York, 
and tliat the whole superscription and date 
of post otBce stamp had been emsed. and 
H. L. Morey. Lynn, Mass., written thereon. 
This is very apparent from the erasures 
themselves, and the fact that the ink has run 
out into the disturbed fiber of the paper. 
In addition to all this we have the positive 


generally to be the luoil ou prche s v prac al and irtisl c ^mde to ornamental pen 
manship ev r [ ubl si cd '^ent postpa d to any address on rect pt of $4 50 oi aa a 
premium for a clul of twelve sul scr 1 ers to the Joubval 

The above cut represents the title page of the work, which is It x 14 m sizt. 

rOMl'LETE rot USE 


< . niiiii-. M nil Ariihmeticnl I'roltlems, 

»»( K.s ||(.>>S IN COMMERCIAL LAIV. 

rse.1 in mil the Bualness CoIIprps In (be country, nod 
iisurpassel as a text-book. Speclmoa copies sont od 

S. S PAfKABD. Publisher. 
805 Broadn-ny, Ne«v Vork. i it 


Tlie foll-wing is » cyefHlly compilod list ol popi.Ur 

bk not ou ttie list, publisbcd iq Now York, will be 
wbere tlie co»t nt poitage will ba added to Ibo pub. 
j Towneeu'l's Analjsis of Letter WritinR $1.26 

denial of Gen, Garfield of having WTitten 
the letter. 

That the letter is a forgery, is now estab- 
lished beyond possible doubt. Wbo was the 
forger and his abettors is now the question. 
The investigation is in able and determined 
bands, and we feel assured that every pos- 
sible effort will be made to bring to light the 
entire inwardness of this most infamous of 
forgeries, and to inflict upon all parties con- 
d therein the fullest possible measure 
of legal punishment, and popular odium. 


t yet. 


, Bryant's New Coiintine Hm 

George Stimpson, Jr., 
Who modestly styles himself -'the expert," 
has recently twice caused us to be questioned 
while upon the witness stand regarding our 
opinion of him as an expert? We will oblige 

A few days since, while under cross-ex- 

aination, he admitted that on the morning 

of a certain day he had in strong language 

pronounced the Garfield-Chinese letter an 

idoubted forgery, and in the afternoon of 

e same day he had for $25 made his affidavit 

a directly opposite opinion, His own ad- 

asion happilyand fully expresses our views 

of his pretensions and reliability as an ex- 

A Succesful Advertiser. 
Tiof. Giiskell bfgins in this issue of the 
lURSAL a scrit;s of advertisements of his 
Compendium, in which, from month to 
month, he proposes to show the young men 
of America what may be done by home prac- 
\ without a teacher, with the proper ma- 
terial at hand. The same will also appear 
regularly in ScnbJi*r^» Monthly, St. A'ieholan, 
YouUCa Companion, Toledo Blade, Chicago 
Inter-Ocean, Cincinnati Enquirir, Atlanta 
{Gil.) Sunny South, New Y'ork Sun, World, 
Witness, MetfiodCnt Chrivtta/n Advocate, Frank 
Lenlie's Pleasant Hours, and Popular Mtmtfi- 
ly. Seaside Library, and Montreal Witness 
and Weekly Star. Gaskell calls the Pen- 
man's Akt JoTiitSAL one of the best of his 
mediums. He lias been one of our contribu- 
tors, and bos always spoken a good word for 
us. No other penman does business on so 
grand a scale as he, and with such miitornily 
good results tinaneially. 

A Grand Prize. 

To the person who shall send the largest 
number of subscribei-s to the Journal, within 
one year, beginning with the September 
number. 1880, we will present a copy of 
Ame.s' Compendium or Williams & Packard's 
Gems, or their equivalent in any other pub- 
lication that they may select, additional to 
the regular premiums announced elsewhere. 

)f cbea]i Florals reduced fi 

dozou, postpaid, 80c, 


N'ew XHaniial 

if tile BugllaU Lao- 



3R©-%7T-sec3- and 

THB complete: 

lully ^rown io public 




lely i 

growlug ik'iuuDd. Tbi' KiClh Gitilioa CBmi- from the press iu April IhaI and 

Tbopopalatityof THe COMPLBTE ACCOUNTANT is lie best rccomtaeDdation. 

Retail, Wholesale, Farming, Commission Lumbering, Manu 

iboatingand Banking 

Selail, fl.60, 8ampl«'lortK.mltialio 




Back Numbers. : 

We still have remaining a few of all the ' 
back numbers of the JotrRNAi, Kince and in- 
clusive oi the Septembernumbcr. 1877, in all 
thirty-six numbers, which will be sent with 
tiiher with the " Lord's Prayer " or " Eagle " 
OS a premium for $2.50; both premiums and 
tht^ "Centennial Picture of Progress" for 

No King. 

Clubs have been numen>us, but no special- 
ly large one has been received during the 
post month. Several of twelve names each. 
and many smaller ones, have been received. 
Who sends the next king V 


Series of 


•*fc'j-^^'2f S;ai£ a/Mil D£/^LFffs 
'^^opc^i^„sr£fi.PSA/s/A/ user ■■ 


itHH H^^\ 'ix ^^^^ 


m m-im f\mm- 




— ,^ ii' iiirli'B wid(7.per7«rd,alaledoi)bntbBlU<g i 2ft 

^^ X , L«i>i<i)B'«ii>sit)vb(st tnufli-. forwnllBurwoodtin 

X I bogtrds, per gallon 6 00 

< Vy J»-No Roods ••nt by m*ll until rath bai b»n rt^ 


robsudise or work upou postal o 
r. A»na.gft»Bro»dwffty. New Ynrl 


APPROVED BY ALL EDUCATORS. I 'rw "."igjio/wmfoi VllJ^°'cSi"(SSl!fg 




Counting Hon^e Uook-keeping. 

Gmbraclng Dm Tlicriry and Pni<aico of AecouDU ; anil 
tt.lftnl"d to 111- UBP8 or busluriM cojtcgt*. the blither 

Htructioa. By S. 8- rACKiRo o' X^w York, nud H. 
B. BHTJL-.T. ChloMo. Prkc, by m.ll. » I 60 


S I Lie A T E 

Ilhu'k lliaiiiiinil 


Xj ^A- IP I LI 3Sr TJ ]vn 


EriEH™r;r^=dtrc^|205 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, 

.'1o7o!i"Sr„"hS£pX'!^""''"''[ HEADQUARTERS 

Iviion, Blakeman. Taylor & Co., | ton si 1 1 j[i<>i: 


CorporalioDs aod NatioDal Seals. 

MtTU STAMPS A\D \)\y\ 

Jersey City Biuifnek« College. 

33 ana 25 Ntvrirk avenue, Jersey City, N.J. 

Belt Material, Beat Skill and Workmaoibip. 


205 BROADWAY, N. Y, 
j»-8eDd Po«Ul f-jf parlicDiars. 


Dmdvay, Nev York. 

• ODly one lo Ibo c 

>g» For (AxiicaUfE »f P'r b) Oonusercial College, < 


Superior Writing Ink 


Alling's Japan Ink, 

AUlng'B Gold, SUver & White Inks 

now rrpolF, ronJpriBg the ligbtem strokcB perfecll/ 
l.gim. ■oil enure, do not rob or spro.d. rtnO can to em- 
■''"'wril'iD'''" ™°"""°'' '""'°«' ''""• " ^°''- 




as It vrrltcB blnob, flovrs fk-ecly, possesaes 
and fully tcslatn the ncilon offt'ost 


Jftpnn liik.inT pint bum- b- express %\ 00 

Whi.ol.ik, ;i ijuuco bottle by oxpr sa 25 

Gold i.rSlluT Ink. >4 ounce boitlo by cxpr^BS DO 

Poniiian'a Ink Cabinet, No 1* 

Oontalns the fillowlnR Inks: 1 oz bulllo each of Japan 
TUrecqiiArier ounce liotilc WUitcInb and S oz bollle 

PeniuOrU'Bt Ink Cabinet No 2 

PftlOK, »3.00 



lot ond ), 


S|i,.lal K.>Ucc tf> Agontll 


.iWril,TS,Sh.<i.'DlB. orToac 

b.r. o( p.nm»ii 



Vs Will nn furiilgbpil (n quani\tia al special re 
KTM, airarJIug lo caivtLsaers a lucrallio | rofll 






ks! Blanks!! 











CorrcepondoQce solicited. 


Kibbe^K Course oi Instruction in 

x^:e ]srn>^-A-3srsi3:i:p 

sons nPlanWrillDg Flourl I nf- 




Every Variety of Pen Work Promptly Executed in the Most Perfect Manas 
Also, Connse. given as Expert on Handwriting and Acconnts. 


itrotf pe Plates will be eent by mall to soy address, at low prices. Inclose stamp 



The Coninion Sense Binder. 



Improvement in Handwriting from using 


The best improvement this month comes from Henry Collins, A. M., Pi-incipal of Gallia 


Automatic Shading Pen 

Ornamental Lettering. 

Seod for Cttrcular itnd Sample Writ log to 

J. W. fflOAKES, 

Penman's Companion, 



on Ohio. 

1 goo,! BoBtOMs Oolleae on 
b J iddr -oln,, w D. 8TR0SQ. 01 

o oqual p 


V lowlog r5l<S*pJr dl™ "i 
la dtHbrcnl .losigoB. rocslmiles o 
p-o-noor.bod. $1. Soniplo, V6 o 
M6 Broa-lwuy. S. Y 

ent by m 


.' kellet! 

SEND 7S ct*. and Ket 1 Dob. eleiraut car.U wrttlen 
wtm the Za/«rt S..^Uy, tl.o Amomai fc Shading Pen 
9 31 B. W. CHIU). 61 Fodwal Su , Boston, TAub. 

Photo and Photo-Lithographs 

H. W. Kibbe, 

No. 7 IIOBART Sl\, 



GASKELIj'S compendium Is the most Elccanl. romplple. and Perfpcl System t^r Self-Instruc- 

*b"re "^Ad^^ Penmanship, elc . etc. PR10:^'on1;' "dOLLA^ for which T"mirUed,"p'repald.^ny 

Prof, G. A. GASKELL, Principal Jersey City Business College, 

BOX 1534, NEW YORK CITY P. 0„ 

people , 


FAitolistLSd. Moii-tliisr, at 205 Bi-oaa.-<x7-a3r, for Sl.OO per "Z-ear- 
" Bntcrtd at IM Pott Offloe of Nm> Tork, N. Y., m taxiuUloM matter." 

0. T. AMES, EoiTOK > 


VOL. IV. NO. 12. 

D. T. A-HE!*, 


Biimlnrr of (Jneslloned HnndwrlllDft. 

O. il. KilATTIICK, 

Oomral Ag nlS|,-nc.rl.oC..pj U 




BnvAN'l' & KTUATTOm nil.SINE.1g 

W. 11. SAnLEIK, 





l«a»HMil.»iSi .Bmiklyu, 


Lesson in Practical Writing. 

In previous lessons we endeavored to 
impretts upon the minds of our cluss. the 
importance of limiting practice to a single 
and simple form for each letter. We wish 
now to impress the (act, that well construc- 
ted letters alone, do not^constitiite goo<i 
writing. One might be able to execute 
faultle«sl;r ^Ach single letter of the alpha- 
bet, and yet be a moitt miserable writer. 
Writing to be really good must be har- 
monious in all its luirts ; letters nmst he 
proportionate to each other, properly con- 
neoted, spaced, have a uniform slope and 
degree of pen-preesure etc., and with all 
there must be an easy and graceful move- 
ment, la the present leason we will direct 

our attention more especially, to the very 
bad effect of disproportion in size of letters; 
which we will illustrate in the following 

in which it will l>e seen that each letter 
taken by itself is creditably accurate in 
form, and yet when associated with each 
other in a word, they present an appear- 
ance as ungainly aa would an ox yoked 
with an elephant. We have often seen 
writing in which the letters were really 
badly formed, yet so harmonious in their 
combinations, and easy in their construc- 
tion as to present an attractive, not to say 
an elegant effect; while upon the other 
hand we have often seen writing in 
which the letters were well formed, and 
yet so awkward in their combinations, and 
labored in their execution, as to be really 
painful to the flight of persons having a 
refined and correct taste regarding writ- 

Each one is therefore requested to give 
special attention in connection with the 
present lesson, to the relative proportions 
of the letters. 

We present the following cut, for a 

movement exercise which should be fully 
practiced, employing the forearm and fin- 
ger movement combined, before practic- 
ing upon the regular lesson. 


The importance'of a free movement can- 
not be over-estimated. 

In order to ensure improvement, careful 
study and criticism of your o\vn effort to 
imitate the copy, should be made each 
time before the next trial. Remember you 
can make no intelligent effort to mend a 
fault, until it is discovered. First study 
to know your faults, then strive to cor- 
rect them. 

Practice makes perfect, if perfection is 
the aim of our practice. 

Business Penmanship. 

hand is of the utmost importance, while 
to the book-keeper, or the young man who 
expects to engage in business, good pen- 
manship is indispensable. As an accom- 
plishment, beautiful penmanship stands 
at the head of the list, for. unlike other 
acquisitions, it claims admiration for its 
practical utility, as well as its beauty and 
manifest skill, and is becoming more gen- 
erally recognized as a necessary accom- 
plishment. Nothing that a student learns 
while obtaining a geneial education, will 
be more highly estimated than good 
ppnraauslup. It wins and secures con- 
fidence and approbation for work done in 
other branches Good writing, like good 
spelling, is a sort of general voucher that 
whatever else is done will be well done. 

This is perhaps so from the fact that 
care is required in its acquisition, for it is 
well known that the degree of success or 
failure of any calling, depends chiefly upon 
the amount of care or attention it receives. 
Therefore, he who possesses a good hand- 
writing commends himself to the public 
without word or comment. 

The remark is often heard, " I never 
could learn to write well." " I do not pos- 
sess the special gift," etc. Now certainly 
Nature has not arraigned herself against 
one in tliat way. The probabilities are, 
that they never gave the subject real 
thought or" attention. 

Lord Chesterfield said that "any man, 
who has the proper use <>{ his eyes and his 
fingers, may learn to write whatever hand 
he flesires." This may he overstating the 
matter a little, but it is in a measure true. 
Certainly a little care and perseverance, 
undertheguidaoceoffiome skillful teacher 
would develop a degiee of legibility and 
freedom, not to say beauty, that would be 
truly surprising. You say you cannot af- 
ford it. You cannot afford to be without 
it. You have not time ? You have time 
to do everything that needs to be done. 

It is conceded by all that an education Is 
incomplete while the hand writing is a 
misenible scrawl. In fact, the value of a 
liberal education is often greatly diminish- 
ed by a bad hand-writing : frequently de- 
desirable positions are closed to such appli- 
cants, which might otherwise be secured. 
A "gtKxl hand" or a "bad hand" often 
turns the scale of success. 

To ihe teacher, the minister, or the pro- 
fessional, aa well as to the farmer, the 
mech&mo and the artist,, legible 

Illuminated Manuscript. 

It is commonly supposed that the art of 
illumination was peculiar to the monks of 
the middle ages. This, however, is a mistake. 
The pnirlice was well known in classical 
times. The classes of illuminftlora were often 
iHiilfdisliiicI from that of the scribes, as we 
ace by tin* circumstance that manuscripts 
oflcu Uiwe lihuiks It-ft in them to be filled up 
with dcNJLriis. Even porlmits were intro- 
duced, and Pliny gives an account of a work 
by Varro containing the biographies and por- 
tniits of seven hundred distinguished llo 
„m„s— a book which, hud it had the goml 
fortune to «!irvivf f 11° w-^iiM he of singular 
interest to III' .1 n.i. i^u '.1 physiognomy. 

Of coiir- '! ■ ; i '. nf specimens of 

the tenth and fourtei- 
was iK-Tliaps, at its lowest, whereas the Greek 
illuminations prior to ihiit date, arc compara- 
tivly of considerable merit. 

Illurainalors and scri'ies were not content, 
as our printers ure, with white paper. Their 
parchment or paper was oft*n stained as 
their fancy prompted — a custom which had 
also descended to medireval from classical 
times. Ovid tells us that it was fashionable 
in Augustine's lime to write on purple paper, 
perhaps to display the writer's loyalty to Im- 
pt'rialism. as the modem Bonapartist does by 
wearing the purple violet in his buttonhole. 
The title of books or chapters were frequently 

written in red, whence our word "rubric,* 
which recalls so many acrimonious contro- 
versies. By the fourth century — when, proba- 
bly, fewer books were written than in Ovid'a 
Umc—fdiUoiia d£ lujx v/crc invented, taking 
the name of gold and silver letters upon 
purple or crimson paper. There are a few 
.'ipecimens of this kind in England. Uf coune, 
■ remarkable 


id. after the 
ilV. uMiallv CO 


ptanco of 
the Gospel«. 
nj<iyed so tractable 
piT. Fortunately, 
■ Oriental nationi 

iiiiitii .i t I 111' M'lidiile stone, discovered 
iint ■ r , 'I' ■■■•■■■, aa well as for those re- 
in n 1 ■-. ilsucha word can be 
iippli'l I' ii;-i 111" il bricks, which the rc- 
seurrlus of Assyriulogists havo lately 

The Greeks and Romans generally prefer- 
red brass, at least for their laws, or for such 
records as they were especially desirous of ren- 
dering iicrmanent. Many engraved brazen 
Iftlitcts of this sort have at various times been 
purposes wood was 
A thin tablet was 
vritten upon with a 
called a "stylus." 

frequently employed, 
waxed over and tlicn 
pointed pencil of iron 
When the writing was t 

111. nil II led pencil. 

I I - ii into the ser- 

vic-r.,iiii. -iriiM' 1 If . "111 M-, iiie vegetable 
iimlLiiul liiKilj ci>i]».>j>vl iu^-' liecn the papy- 
rus on which most of thu Egyptian records 
were ke|it. It was also much used by the 
Romans, and many folds of more or leas 
charred papyri have been at various limes re- 
covered from Pompeii and Herculancum. 

The natives of India and Polynesia have 
very connuonly used hark ; and indeed the 
Latin word for book, Ubtr, is also the word 
lor the bark of a tree, though Koman writing 
oil that material is exceedingly nire. Leaves 
were also sometimes used, and the Greek 
word "petalismos," which was used to ex- 
press ''banishment," was formed from the 
word "pealon," a leaf, because the names of 
criminals sentenced to banishment were, in 
some of the Greek colonies, written upon 
leaves. We may mention the new naturaliz- 
ed term, "ostracism," which was origiiuilly 
derived from the practice, at Athens, of 
writing upon Bhells. or "ostraka," the names 
of those whom the sovereign people desired 
to exile. 

rihe, and 

ufaclure, a subject of 
iiiiifli -cMi'iOiiM) The Chinese, of course, 

r't^>iiii I > il iw I u inventors, and there Is 

liH ; . riite, that it was fintt 

liroi I 1 1 . hywayof Spain, from 

ih. J I ' 1 h' ' writings on paper 
proper in ihis (-lUiilry belonged to about the 
14th century. 

What a vast difference there is between tho 
material.') al the disposal of these ancient 
scrihes and their brethren of to-day. And 
yet their manner, and, what is more sur 
prising, their inks we 

utl Printer and SUilioncr. 


In our language, as in al! others, we have 
the choice of two methods of prem-nting our 
ideas and thoughts ; these two modes have 
been denominated spoken language and 

In the first place it is nccessarj' that we do 

Secondly, thinking, we desire to express 
our idcHS imd thoughts, that others may 
know ihem, or that they may be perpetuated 
onward to and for the coming ages ; but in 
executing the latter, man, by his own inge- 
nuity, has invented that, which above we 
have styled written language, so that this 

tbouelitfl uiid desires may t>e teft iu some 
latiinble form fur the uae of others. 

Id order that lauguoge Diuy be so expressed. 
It is necessary, in every language, tbut such 
• Byst«m of cliaracters be lortued and tised 
•a tliut tljc oral sounds of the voiee, used in 
•xpressing thoee thoughts, may be fully 
ftnd udeqiiutely repiesentcd by the shU) char- 
acters. Now, if neccMary to think before 
expressing our thoughts, it is equally so 
in the matter of formuig the clmraelers be- 
fore spoken of. It 18 absolutely necessary 
that we have an idea of their form, size, 
shape, &c., before we con express that form 
bj any means whatsoever. It is necessary 
that the perceptivea have viewed the eliarac- 
tcr at some previous time, and that a mental 
conception has been formed of it ; that inem- 
ory has stored it away, and that recollection 
is able to reproduce the fonn. Here then 
are a few of the facts necessary for the form- 
ing of any character. 

Again, from infancy we have been training 
the hands to perform the will, given by and 
from the mind. How beaulifiilly this illus- 
Inites the only and true dcfiuition of life 
opon which biology can be hased — thai 
" Life is the imion of soul and matter." 

The hands thus having been in a training 
school for years arc reody instrumentalities 
lor the execution of this desire, namely, the 
expression of our thoughts and ideas. 

Now, ilii II, if wriiint; would be properly 
tautrlii. 111! f'irni niu-i lii-sl be tought, and a 

nu-iiti.l ' -i'l I" formed. Let a true, 

bciuitifiii iiml 1 It L^iiiu i(kitl form be fixed in 
the miiul. uiui thu li;iiiiJ will not be long in 
following it. This has been and now is 
beautifully and most impressively illustrated 
in the use of our tracing copy-books, by 
which the mental conception or ideal of some 
other has been plated before the pupil, and 
he asked to imitate it. wliicU he does with 
many discrepancies, slill forming a iiuiili bel- 
ter letter or copy than could have been ob- 
tained without the use of the printed form ; 
however, if in leaching writing the teacher 
would teach the true ideal and have the 
pupil form a mental conception first, half the 
work would be already done. Have your 
pupilB form an ideal, a tnut ideal, and then 
have them express it, and rest assured your 
pupils will learn much more of vvriting and 
ftcquire a more elegant style than can other- 
wise he o\A?L\imd..— Allegheny Teacher. 

Bourbon Penmen. 

The name Bourbon is a well known signifi- 
cant term, and when used in a political s 
no one has any difficulty whatever in e 
comprehending its meaning. Unfortunately 
for mankind, there ia no profession or calling 
but what baa more or less trouble with Bour- 
bons, and penmanship is by no manner of 
means exempt : but tlmnks to the enlighten- 
ing influence of our penman's papers, the 
Bourbons are fast dying out, or taking their 
proper places in the backwoods districts. 
There the Bourbon lives in clover and flourish- 
es and expands, his one "idee," to use his 
own language, to the extent of his capacity. 

Your genuine Bourbon penman resembles 
others of his species in other vocations, in 
that he never learns anything, and never for- 
gets anything, for the truth of the matter is, 
he knows but precious little to forget. His 
gigantic conceit and his imaginary knowledge, 
forbid the idea of bis learning anything new. 
In short, the fossilized, mossback Bourbon 
believes, everything new under the sun, 
which he does not understand, a fraud and a 
humbug. For a person that is most thor- 
oughly disagreeable in all respects, commend 
us to tlic Bourbon penman. 

Diuing the years that I spent in traveling, 
teatrhing penmanship, I bad occasion to meet 
several of these gentlemen, and it may possi- 
bly interest some of your readers to relate 
my experience.. 

While teaching a day school and evening 

writing-school, in the toAvn of G , in 

Northern New York, some twenty years ago, 
I received an invitation to attend a writing- 
school kept by a Mr. Beal, and it was also 
intimated that I might receive some very 
valuable hints, and thereby greatly improve 
myself. 1 was then young and just com- 
mencing leaching, and cagi-r to learn, in 
every way I possibly could, and I consented 
to go and listen to the profound instruction 
that I supposed, was in store for me. To 
pass the lime as agreeably as iwssible, 1 took 
along a copy of a book entitled, "Penman's 
Panidise," and a few specimens of Business 
Penmanship, that I had recently received 
from P. R. Spencer, and what 1 considered 
some very fine flourishing thai I had that dav 
received from John D. Williams, and I sup- 
posed that I would have a warm admirer 
in the profes.-»<.r in praise of Spencer's 

and WiUiams' work, which was then 
the theme of admiration of penmen far 
and wide ; but who shall surmise or attempt 
to enumerate the whimsical eccentricities of a 
Bourbon penman ! On arriving at the school- 
bouse, which was in a backwoods district, I 
was somewhat early, and thought 1 would 
have a pleasant chat, and opened the conver- 
sation by presenting Spencer's and Williams' 
specimens, and my "Penman's Paradise,'' 
and aoked what he thought of them. He was 
verv sarcastic and bitter against both of them, 
and said that he thought them the worst kind 
of impostors. Upon inquiring who he 
thought was the best penman in the United 
States, he bustled around with a very conse- 
quential air, and said that he himself claimed 
that honor. I then asked him if he had ever 
heard of Spencer and Williams, to which he 
answered, "No," and that he did not want to 
know anything of them, and he considered 
them fuil-blowD pettifoggers, to u^e a legal 
term, and that his system of writing and 
flourishing was infinitely superior lo either of 
them. This was said with such a sarcastic 
swell that it would be utterly impossible to 
describe it. I became very much disfjusted, 
and was about to leave without any further 
ceremony, when the friend who had sent me 
the invitation, and who Vas something of a 
wag, came in and with a knowing wink urged 
me" to stay, and also to seciu-e a specimen of 
the professor's writing and flourishing. I se- 
cured several specimens of his so-called birds, 
and flourishing and business writing, which 
were the most miserable productions that I 
ever saw. The school-house was soon filled 
with all the young people of the neighbor- 
hood, and the idea of learninK to write seem- 
ed to be farthest from their mind. I re- 
quested the professor to give me an iUustra- 
touof his wonderful system on the black- 
board, which he did in a manner that would 
put to bliish the most extraordinary exploits 

Granville N. Busby is conducting a 
Writing Academy at Camden. N. J. 

E. P. Connor is teaching large classes at 
Colorado Springs, Col, and vicinity. 

A. W. Madison is teaching Writing and 
Book-keeping in Wright's Business College. 
Brooklyn. N.Y. 

D. M. Wingate is teaching writing at 
Newton, N. J., and vicinity. He is hiKhly 
complimented as a teacher by the New- 
ton Herald. 

J. B. tJarrigus. Mansfield, Ind., aendsa 
club of twelve subscribers for the Journal 
and becomes a happy possessor of a Com- 

W. W. McClelland, a pen artist of con- 
siderable skill and celebrity in Pittsburgh. 
Pa., has recently been appointed special 
teacher in a Polytechnic School organized 
in Allegheny City, Pa. 

G. W, Michael, formerly of Valparaiso, 
Ind.. has opened a Writing Academy at 
Delaware, Ohio, with very promising suc- 
cess. The press of that place pays him 
and his school a flattering compliment. 

Jacob Schwartz teaches writing in the 
public schools of Zanesville, Ohio. He is 
a superior writer, and we infer that he is a 
good teacher, as he interests his friends to 
subscribe for the Journal. That is at 
least a good sign. 

Prof, Ezra White. Principal of the East- 
man Business College, Poughkeepsie, N.Y 
was elected recently Mayor of that city by 
a large majority. 

C. L. Ricketts, special teacher of writing 
in the city schools at East Saginaw, Mich,, 
writes a very handsome letter and for- 
wards a club of fourteen subscribers for 
the Journal. We are certain that it does 
not prejudice us in favor of the stjle of 
writing to have a letter commence: "In 
closed please find a money-order for four 
teen dollars, etc.," but we confess to a 
weakness for that kind of phraseology. 

E. A. Morgan, Worthington, Ind., sends 
several well written specimens of cards. 

H. M. Houser, of Reynolds, Pa., incloeei 
several creditable specimens of card writ- 

A. W. Daken, Tiilly, N. Y., writes a 
very excellent business hand and incloaeg 
a creditable specimen of flourishing. 

A. E. Dewhurst, New Hartford, N. Y., 
sends an attractive specimen of flourishing 
and several well executed card specimens. 

John E. Orchard. Schenectady, N. Y., 
sends a specimen of lettering and orna- 
mentation, which possesses considerabW 

Del a 

of Don Quixote. While he was going through 
with this operation, the school-room presented 
a never-to-be-forgotten pandemonium. Ink 
bottles were crashing against the wall in every 
direction, and their contents flying over every- 
thing. I had seen sufficient of this Bourbon's 
system of penmanship, and also his method 
of keeping order, and immediately left, fully 
convinced that the words of Solomon were 
substantially true : The fool is wiser in bis 
own conceit, than seven men that can render 

And vet I'd i 
Fur doxtroua 

bop's miter down, 
iiarch'B costly crown, 

fb hfe tbe shtnliiK plow:1 
k Fortuna still 
iiind to guide my quill, 
tbe bero. prince of r 

a handles best 

How off wft've seen the night unroll 
The hpnnty of her starry scroll; 
Po be who iveB>8 t^uch niode!>i iilume. 
The plainest pflrebment Pim Illume ; 
viih diiinty touch thereon can trace 

Who b 

he ord.r luusi 1.. .. :.; ,, M,(.hl.W|. 
I (be book will bv 8i-ut by renirii luuii at my 
■ ■uwili flod the Princtplm. Ittiifit, Mrdel Pel 
rrb (o you nioru ihuD twice the coat of the 
Address, D L. Mussbi.uan. M a., 

GemUuy lJuaiDe88C->llppe. 

Qulocy, Itt 

A. A. Randall is conducting a Business 
School at Poultney, Vt. He writes a 
very good hand, and sends subscribers for 
the Journal, which shows that be is a 
man of correct tastes and is interested to 
share a good thing with his friends. 

Fred. D. Ailing, ink manufacturer, of 
Rochester, N. Y., sends us some finely 
flourished cards. He requests us to say to 
all parties who desire to receive speci- 
mens of cards flourished with his Japan 
and fancy inks, that they must enclose six 
cents for postage. 

H. Russell, of Joliet, III., Business Col- 
lege, who is a frequent contributor to the 
columns of the Jouiinal, reports that he 
is enjoying an unusual degree of success 
in hia College. He incloses some very cred- 
itable specimens of penmanship from 
some of his pupils. 

Messrs. Weidler & Mosser, of the Lan- 
caster. Pa., Busineps College, say: "In- 
closed please find $I2.0(J. for twelve copies 
of the Journal, and send Ames" Com- 
pendium." We are favorably impressed 
with Messrs. Weidler & Mosser. They 
know what is good for their pupila. 

I. S. Preston and H. W. Bearce are teach- 
ing a large writing class at Ithaca, N. Y. 
from which place Mr. Preston sends a targe 
club of subscribers for the Journal, and 
reports that they are having two hundred 
:.nd twenty-Qve pupila, besides teaching 
writing in all the public schools in the city. 
Few teachers of writing are more ener- 
getic and successful in organizing large 
cIj Bses in writing than Messrs. Preston 
and Bearce. 

F. F. Judd, teacher of penmanship al 
Jennings Seminary, Aurora, III., sende 
well executed sets of standard and Italian 
capitals, and several well written card 

F. P. Preuitt, who conducts a commer- 
cial college, at Fort Worth, Texas, incloseB, 
in a well written letter, an attractive spec- 
imen of off-hand flourishing and rapid 

C. E. Rust, Brandon, Vermont, eende 
quite an extensive variety of skillfully ex- 
ecuted practical writing ; also a collection 
of handsomely written cards. Mr. Rust 
is a skillful writer. 

A. W. Woods, a student in Musselman'* 
Business College, Quincy, 111., writts a 
very handsome letter, in which Le inclose* 
a card photo, of a skillfully executed 
specimen of ornamental penmanship. 

W. M. Watson. Principal of the Lone 
Star Business College, Weatherford, Tex- 
as, sends several sets of superbly executed 
capitals ; also some superior specimens of 
business writing. He is a graceful and 
accomplished writer. 

M. B. Moore. Morgan Station, Ky- 
writes a superior hand, which, he eajo. i» 
the result of home practice aided by th* 
Journal, He also incloses a well executed 
specimen of flourishing. It is all very 
creditable, and scores another for tb* 

C. W. Robbins, Principal of Commercial 
Department of Christian University. *-!'"'' 
ton. Mo., incloses photographs of tivo 
Bpecimene of penmanship, which e^i 



coiuiderable originality of design and 
skill in execution. He aluo nctidB a hand- 
momt' club of lubncribers to the Jot'BNAL. 

R. A. D. Han. teacher of writing at the 
DaTenport (Iowa) Business College, sends 
two of the mostexquiaitely executed speci 
mens of off-hand flourijihing received dur- 
ing the month ; he also writca a verj ea^, 
grac«'ful lett4?r. He is evidently a Simon- 
Pure knight of the quill. 

I. P. Ketchum )fadi»on. Wis., incloses 
for our scrap-book a package of superbly 
written cardii. The sU le varies from the 
bf»ld, off-hand style, forgenta., to the most 
dolicalt! and refined style for ladies" visit 
ing cards. We ha%e rarely seen a mor< 
ohoice and tasty collection of card writing, 


Answers to 

A. C. D., Denver. Col.— Although it is 
desirable that subscriptions should begin 
and end with the volume, it is by no means 
nereiwary that they should do so. They 
can begin with any number since Sept., 

J. D, A., Austin, Texas.— Inks and all 
fluids are excluded from the maiU. which 
tipcessitates their being sent by exprees, 

A. M. Ct., Jackson, Mich. — A little white 
HtiRur or gum-arabic added to your ink 
will give It the gloss you desire. Care 
iiiuHt be bad not t:> put in too much — the 
ink will be sticky, and crcok easily when 

H. F. C. Salem, Mass.— A little French 
whiting, or chlorate of magnesia, rubbed 
nv(>r your parchment with a bit of cham- 
ois skin or cloth will cause it to take ink 
lis readily as does paper. 

W. H. M..Thoma8ton. Me.— The email 
r find II oro given one-fourth of a space 
nlniv(» the other contracted letters, on ac- 
count of the fact that the shoulder of the 
p and the upper point of the 

and if they 


c.Mier li- 

the apjiearance of dwarfs beside 

King Club. 

Aii»l ft king, iiuleed it i«, numbering one 
hundivd niinu'B. and comes from C. W. 
lioucbcT, of Northern Ind. Normal School. 
Valparaiso, in the commercial deiiartment 
of which institution Mr. Boucher is a 
ti-acher of writing and book-keeping. This 
club makes a grand total of two htiudred 
and tptenty-Jlve subscribers sent by Mr. 
Itoiicher to the Jouhnai. within a period 
of some three months, and he clearly out- 
does any other person in an equal space 
of time since thi.> Journal was published. 

This speaks well not only for Mr. 
HoucIut's energy, but indicates that he 
has a strong hold upon the cunfldence and 
esteem of his pupils and friends, in the 
school and elsewhere. A few such workers 
as he is would soon place not fifty, but 
mini// hundred thousand name* npon the 
Hub^criptiun list of the Journal, and ren- 
der it the widest and best circulated 
periodical in the world. 

Mr. lUmcher not only helps to circulate 
the JoruNAi^, but be is thereby doing a 
good work for bis pupils and friends, in 
whose hands he has been instrumental in 
placing it, — many of whom have so tes- 
tified to its publishers — he is awaken- 
ing an interest in the subject of writing 
which, when the hundreds now fitting 
H» t«^chi<rs in the Indiana Normal School 
Hhall go fourth to teach will be made 
manifest in the schools of that State. 
Certainly we eommcnd the example of 
Mr. Bi>ucher to the teachers of writing, 
and all teucbera, for that matter, in normal, 
as well as all other educational institu- 
tions, and we believe the publishers of the 
JvU'RNAt. will be under no greater obliga- 
tion to such teachers for their aid than 
will be those persons whom they may in 
duce to Wcome subecribers to and readers 
of the Ji.URNAU We invite the attention 
of teacbeni aud pupils who are disposed to 
take an inteiv«t in good writing and the 
JovRSAL. to our special club rates for 
schools in another column. 



This work is universally conceded by the preits, professional penmen, and artists 
generally, to be the most comprehensive, practical and artistic guide to ornamental 
penmanship ever published. Sent, postpaid, to any address on receipt of $4.50. or as 
a premium for a club of twelve subscribers to the Jouknal. 

The above cut represents the title page of the work, which is 11 x 14 in size. 

Ames* Compendium 
of Practical and Ornamental Penmanship 
is designed especially for the use of pro- 
fessional penmen and artists. It gives an 
unusual number of alphabets, a well grad- 
ed series of practical exercises, and speci- 
mens for off-hand flourishing, and a great 
number of specimen sheets of engrossed 
title-pages, resolutions, certificates, memo- 
rials, etc. It is the most comprehensive, 
practical, useful, and popular work to all 
classes of professional penmen ever pub- 
hshed. Sent, post-paid, to any address on 
pt of $4.50, or as a premium for a 
club of 12 subscribers to the Journal. 

The following are a few of the many 
flattering notices from the press and pa- 

I have never seen a work cootalnlue 
y alpbabflBuaddeslgQBot exquisite beat 
volume becomes ai ouce a tiuodard cc 

We lieartlly comment this great wi 
H<u "/ t^ttucnlion 

work will E 

(1 (.-Big o 8 . — JVat Uj n 
meet tt 

B (uUy t 

>r publUbutl. 

ittUBhlp.— 6t<ir I'/ Hope, WUliamuiMnl, I'a, 
It givos U3 all the old oblrographlo effects aod 
ew pditcrus. Wbouver wisuea to luarn tbe 
ijHivryut Uiio aud beuvy ItuiS. tloutisboti, and 
11 w. uili'tful pen artittuequtiB win Ilud us mucb 

Puiimeo aud artists bave boie Bpocimens o( 

Jiupiote bandbook uf urua- 
I exiuut. _ Id Chu preparaiioo 

American, i\(i('V<.t7(. 
"iis '.it rcmttrknbly lloe pea 
thObe seckiug tu du Que pua 

le la a modi-1 oi beauiy, aud 
udblp at liB proper 

—Daily i'tttirrafn, Xew 1 


i. Is gut up lu Doat uiid ulossU; style, 

meet cx>mpleie aud pruui 

I ol Ibt) Uuest publlctiUouB uf 

art eviT pul)Ueb«d.— 
! and artiatlc work uf 

i'rot- £. £■ iJiocJunan, LiOncotter, fa. 

I ooiiBlder your CourBMDlOM a xxiiuahlc cm 
tnbutloD to the Hat of penmanship publication 
one which Jubtly exblblta. not only tbe autnor 

our tlmeS.-Pro/! H. C. Spencer, WMMmln^ 

D. C. 

: of great practical merit, pc 

flcld uf pen art more fuJly tbi 

- - have ever examined.— Pru^ 

B. DiAhtar, New York. 
I I bink It far superior to any work of th 

other work I hav 

published. Ii 

-Prof. A. A. Clark.NTwark.N^J, 
exprecB my opinion. I can only eay 
bout \t.~Prnf. L. 

r, Rett \ 
Tt fontali 

I expected 1 

uansblp.-Pro/. A. H. Hin. 


;eedsmy bl^ti< 

depurtment of 
A. H.Hinman. 
Hilxtnhit work. It 

It is the I 

,nd I hav© ever seen.— Pro/. 

examined a work of bo 
< penmen.— Pro/. H.,W. 

I am delighted wi 
pleto work uf the k 
W.V. Sandy, 2Voj/. 

I have Dover before 
mucb praocioal value I 
Kifjfjf, r(ka,iv.r. 

It IB certainly the book of all books u; 
art of peomauehlp —Prof. G. C. StacHwc 

It in remarkable for Jts scope. 

ig mall ty.— fro/. C. C. CurttM. MinncapolUt, 

It lathe best known work on penmaasbtp pub- 
lUhiHX.—Prof Urtah McKu. Oberlin {ColUge), 

than I anticipated, which 

-Prof. M. E. BtfUhman, Woi 
s a work that no penman tn tt 

, Mai 

r. OarrcUti 

Exchange Item. 

After the establishment of the Jouknal, 
among the first of exchanges to make its 
way to our sanctum was the Notre Dame 
(Ind.) Scliolastic. since which time it has 
been a regular and very welcome visitor. 

Although primarily the organ of the 
University of Notre Dame, and designed 
to be of special interest to the alumni and 
patrons of that fumed institution, yet tbe 
scope of its editorials is by no means con- 
fined to subjects pertaining alone to the 
institution, but questions of general inter- 
est are ably discussed. 

In addition to its editorials are choice 
poetry, essays, the current art. musical, 
and hterary gossip, together with personal 
notes and general local news of the uni- 
versity, including a list of students who 
have distinguished themselves by excel- 
lence in recitation or good conduct. 

The Scholastic is a neat 16-page weekly, 
well printed, on good paper ; shows mucb 
thought in its preparation, and taste in its 
arraagement ; in short, compares favor- 
ably with the best of our college and edu- 
cational exchangee. 

Terms, $1.50 per aimum. 

I>' the councils of many there is wisdom. 
Let this be verified through the columns 
of the JouRiiAL. If you bave a practical 
thought or a gem of pen art, send it 

Complimentary to the Journal. 
As an evidence of the great popularity 
and universal appreciation of the Journal, 
we take the liberty of presenting through 
its columns a few of the multitude of kind 
and flattering sentiments expressed on its 
behalf by the press and its patrons : 

The Pkkman's Art JotraitAu published by D. 
T.Ames and D. P. Kulloy. 306 Droadway. Now 
York, at tbe low price of tl per year, is undoulit- 
edly the baodsomoAt and be«t periodical of Its 
kind published in the English language. We 
have no hesitation In saying tbnt thrte numbem 
lying before usar^ worth a year's »ub9crlptl0Q> 
It contains articles from tbepnusof several of 
th© leading penmen and commorciftl loaobera of 
the country, together with carefully ediicd min- 
or articles and notes of great Interest to penmea 
and teachers. Wo heartily commend this excel- 
lent paper to all sludonts, but eapeoinlly to those 
In tbe eommerclnl department of IbIs Instlttitlon, 
and advise ifacm to form clubs at once and send 
on their 8ub8criptlon8.-[The Notre Damo, lod.. 


I papers 

appearani;e la indeed One, and tho beautirul de- 
signs and flnely flnlshel cuts lllUBtrailve of tho 
art of penmanship are a credit to the publishers. 
Any pers(.nB wishing to receive a big return on 
their Investment will feel well paid by sending 
$1 for iho Pbkuan's Art Joumnal.- [Great 
Western, Omaha, Neb.] 

It has been our privilege (o have perused some 
of almost all publlcatlous that have begn before 
the public on this subject for the past twonly 
years, and we bave never yet seen anything to 
equal the Pbnman's Art Jocrnai, lu artlatlo 
design, and valuable Information In reference to 
practical and ornamental penmanBhlp.-CTeiTe 
Haute, Ind., College Journal.] 

It gives most practical lessons In penmanship. 
All Its nieibods are explained lu the most 
BtraUbtforward manner, and, Inslead of tho 
great amount of technical analysis that has over- 
loaded the subject of penman&hip, tho Judhnal 
simple, natural lessons.— [Tbe Pleasanton, 


It Is evidently edited by one who understands 
hiB bueloees, who la not only a calMgraphlsl him- 
self, but who also knows bow to get up matter 
for a really Interesting paper for hia brother 
penmen. The low price of subscription ebuuld 
secure It a large circulation. -[Notre Dame. 
Ind., Scholastic] 

The Penman's Art. locRNAL Is devoted to tbe 
d omamcnlul In penmanship. It la 
talnlngjijurnal, being tilled with much 
ng reading matter aside from ibut per- 
taining to the art of penmanship, aud completo- 
ly"Qlls the bill" In Its llne.-[Vt., Argus and 

No professional penmao or aspirant for pen 
honors can afford lo miB8 a slnglu copy. The ar- 
t'clcs are from the pens of some of the best poo- 

cnougb to say that Prof. Ames bus cburge of 
that department. LTroy, N. Y., Datiy Press.) 

There is probably no man on tho continent 
better qualltled than Pruf. Ames to conduct 
such a perludlcal. The produois of his skillful 
pen are many and beautiful, and show that he Is 
truly an M. P.~not Member of Parliament, but 
ManUr of Pe»Miaruiri(p,-[Studeui'B Journal.] 

Ills a splendid eight-page monthly, containing 
lessons In penoianeblp. fac-simUc»ot the Unest 
pen work, and carefully written articles on poo- 
munshlp and the commercial bninche?, making 
It a most valuable and Interesting Journal.— [Tbo 
Teachers Guide.] 

It Is tbe leading publication represcDtlog pro- 
fessional penmen, aod an exceedingly uttractiio 
and helpful Journal for all who would bocomo 
good writers. Its numerous beautiful speclmvos 
are, alone, worth several times tbe cost.-[Hurk- 
ness' Magazine.] 

It is a handsome-looking elght-pnge quarto, 
full of good reading on penmanship and other 
kindred subjects. Those deelrlng knowledge In 
the art of penmanship will tlnd much m tho 
Pknuak's Aht Joc«NAL.-[Ellziibeib, N, J., 
DAlly Journal.] 

No better paper of tbe kind bos ever appeared 
In this country, and lU circulation la already bo- 
comlDg large and well distributed. It deserves, 
and will no doubt receive, the hearty support of 
every enterprising ponman.-[Humo (iutsi-l 

It ia ably edited and skillfully lllusinited. Iis' 
editor, Mr. Amee, ia a maaier In his pruleaalOQ. 
ad will uudoubtedly make tbe Jouhnal tbe 
lief of Its class, and a valuable aid to uU teaoh- 
raof wrlUng.-[New York School Jouroul-J 
The Penman's Abt Jodkkal Is an Interesting 
ad l>e8uttfully illustrated paper, devoted ex- 
uslvcly to tbe Art of Penmanship, Mr. Amea, 
i Its editor, is a pen artist of marvelous sklU.— 
[The Enterprtae. New York.] 

It Is evidently a good thing for tboae who 
would learn to write. Wo Imagine wo caa no- 
tice an improvem'^nt In our hand already, from 
having even a sample copy.-LGalesburgb, lod.. 

It ifl«neof thebe«t publlcatlooBof tbe kind 
ever issued.— [Oalesburg, 111., HepubUcoa.] 

It U a live, practical Journal, devoted most ex 
olualvely to penmansbip. It U profuecly illus- 
trated, and handlea thle mucb neglected Bubject 
Id s tnastorly maaDor.— [CacadiaQ School Jour- 

It fofltcre and extends a lore for good penman 
?bl|), and contaios beautiful apecimena of the 
art wblcb should bo eecn and studied.— [Kings- 
ton. Ont.. Dallv News-l 

ItiBoaeof the oeateet and most interesting 
publloatlons we have had the pleasure of i erus 
iDgloalongttmc.— [NuclfjirsCo. Herald \eIson 

It la a valuable paper for all lovers of pen art 
and Ibroughout we can see the genius of Ames 
which l8 saying enough.— | Penman's Help] 

It is beautifully printed, and illustrated with 
fine penmanship, and is of great value to e\ erj 
' body.— [New Hamden, Ohio, Enterprise.] 

It Is the only first-class e.xponent of business 
educatton and the art of penmanship m thU 
country.— [Packard's College Tell-Tale.) 

The Penman's Art Jodhnai., of New York 
requires no critic to recommend it.— [loung 
Canadtan, Montreal, Canada.] 

It Is an excellent paper, filled with good prao- 
tioal lesBona In writing and pen drawing —[Ma 
toon. 111., Journal.] 

It is an exceedingly handaome montlil> — 
[Boston Home Journal.] 

It is a valuable publication.- [Kansas City, 
Mo., Pioneer.) 

Henry C. Spencer, Spencerlan Business Cut 
logo, Washington, D.C.: "The Journal is the 
medium of fresh news, useful informatloD bebt 
ideas of Kenial, irlcar-headed teachers and pen 
men Id regard to their profession, and a rcposi 
tory of beuutiful and aitractho illustrat una of 
pen art from your own purlfollo, and otb rs 
Without thought of flattery. I say slnceiclj I 
thlnli you have the talent, breadth, tact and 
spitiC of Kood will requiBlte for the maOHgement 

I Detroit, Mich: "I have 

e filllDi 

the first numbe 
important miE 
inly aid penmausbip 

I trust It will hereafter do 

as au Art, but that applicti 

merclal brunch, shall, by Its Influence, maieriul- 

ly promote the interests of business education, 

whose great importance Is not yet fully appre- 

W. P. Cooper, KingBville,0,: "I can Imagine 
nothing more elegant or belter. It abounds in 
choice articles that revive old memories and (ost 
frieruU; and Is rich in wholesome instruction ; 
while its embellishments are superb hits of art, 
not only redolent of progress, but warmed by 
the ever-creative brain and cunning hand of 
genius and trained skill " 

J, C. Bryant, President of the Buffalo Busi- 
ness College: "The Journal is so beautifully 
gotten up, and so well filled with sensible and 
spicy matter, that I feel It almost a duty to dou- 
ble my subscription. I need not express a hope 
that it will be a permanent success, for there 
can be no failure if you keep up the present 

G. A. Gaskeil: " The variety of excellent fac 
similes of your pen- work you are giving, as well 
as Its choice reading matter, makes It, in xny 
opinion, superior to any of its predecessors. No 
penman, old or young, veterans or beginners in 
the profession, can read the journal without de- 
riving great benefit " 

J. W. Swank, United States Treasury Depart- 
ment. Washington, D. C : "Tour JouiiNAL le a 
•Jewel.' Itlsthe best dressed, the most ably ed- 

ited, and 

matlon in its columns than any paper of its class 

that has ever been published In this country." 

D. J. B. Sawyer, Principal of Dominion Busi- 
ness Institute. Ottawa, Canada : " Your paper is 
doing a great work by keeping up a spirit of em- 
ulation among penman. It Is whole-souled and 
absolutely unselfish. Succeeding 

oof i 


which In i)oiut of artistic appearance and gen- 
eral adaptation to its work, Is not excelled by 
any publication in the country." 

H. Russell, Joliet Business College: "I am 
more than pleased with its fine appearance, and 
it certainly seems that since we have at last g-ot 
the right men at the helm, wo shall have what 
has long been needed, a good penman's journal," 

C. H, Rnnnells, Chicago, 111.: "The Penman's 
ART Journal Is such a publication as the art 
which it advocates demands. It is able and 
beautiful, and should be In the hands of every 
teacher as well as admirer of the art " 

Zerah C. Whipple, principal of Horns Schools 
for Deaf Mutes, Mystic River, Conn.: " I am de- 
lighted with it. Every teacher and all others 
who are Intomsted in good penmanship should 
come forward to its support." 

A. J M. Hosom. of the Ohio Valley Business 
Oolloge, Parkersburg, W. Va.: "We were so 
mucb delighted with the Jodrnal that we shut 
dowubusinessandreadevery llneof it." 

CBayll^principalConimerclal College- Du- 
" ' - * Q delighted with your Joub- 

1 prosper." • 

The above cut of a title page is photo-engraved from our own pen and ink copy, 
and is presented in the Journal as a specimen of lettering and ornamentation, as 
applied to practical commercial purposes. The pamphlet of which the above is the 
cover, is an interesting story of "a live school." sent free to any address on application 
to Packard's Business College. 805 Broadway, New York. 

The above cut is a fac-simile reproduction of a page of part four of the new Spen. 

■rian Compendium, reduced about one-half from the original size. The cut rep. 

sents a page of exerciserfnovements ; the other nine pages in this number are devoted 
to capita] exercises, a page of which will appear in our .January number. The copy 
of this compendium is prepared by Lyman Spencer, the prince of pen artists, and is 
superbly engraved on steel by Archibald McLees. No pains or expense has been spared 
by either author or publisher in the production of this remarkable work. For more 
and full particulars see advertisement in another column. 

Dare to due write," as the book-keeper 
said when he made out the hill.—Boatou 

Father: "Charley, I see no improvement 
1 your marlis." Charley: "Yes, papa; it 

high time that you had a serious talk with 
the teacher, or else he'll keep on that \vay 

How to Remit Money. 
The best and safest way is by post-office 
order, or a bank draft on New York, nest 
by registered letter. For fractional parts 
of a dollar, send postage stamps. ]JIoney 
enclosed in a letter is always at the risk of 
the sender. Do not send personal checks, 
especially for small sums, or Canadian 
postage stamps. Dominion of Canada 
notes may be sent. 

F. F. Judd, teacher of Penmanship at Jen- 
ings' Seminary. Aurora, 111.: "You have made 
lePKNMAK's Art JotTRNAL HO honorto the pro- 

A. C. Blackman, Green Bay (Wis.) Business 
College: "I have learned more from the few 
numbers of the Journal received than from al' 
the penman's papers ever published. " 

M. E. Bennett, teacher of penmanship, Sche- 
nectady. N. Y.: "We have seen no publication 
pertaining to pen art that has suited us so well 
as the Journal. It is admirable." 

J. C Miller, Penman at the Keystone Business 
College, Lancaster, Pa.; " Of all publications on 
the subject of penmanship, I find the Jocrhal 

A. J. Taylor, Principal af Business College. 
Rochester, N. Y: " It is not only of great assist- 
ance to those learning to write, but really a ne- 
cessity with teachers and adepts. " 

P. J. MoQee, Principal, Toledo (0.) Business 
CoBege: "It is now acknowledged by all pen- 
men to be the best peuiQan's paper ever publish- 
ed, it Is the penman's best Irlend." 

H W Flickiuger, Soule's Business College, 
Philadelphia, Pa.: " Your paper is far io advance 
of any periodical which has yet been published 
on the subject of penmanship." 
IIH. C. Kendall, Boston, Mass.: "The matter, 
the style and general appearance throughout is 
certainly of a higher order of i 

A, B. Freeman, teacher of Writing, North Ca- 
lais, Vt : " I consider your papersupevior to any 
other that has ever circulated in this section." 

J. French, Effingham, 111 ; "I must say I am 
delighted with the Joohnal, No teacher of 
writing can afford to be without it." 

J. C. Whitlow, Jamesport, Mo.: "I am impa- 
tieat for its arrival. Every number is filled with 
new and valuable information." 

J. C. McDougall. Waresboro", Ga.: "I can safe- 
ly say that it is the beat paper of its class ever 
published in the United States," 

C. L. RickettB, teacher of writing, Malta, 0.: 
"Penmen, If you wish to meet with success, 
subscribe for the Journal. " 

O. P. DeLand, Fon du Lac, Wis.: "The Pen- 
man's Art Journal is the best of anything in 
its line yet published." 

J. n. Brown, Fletcher, Ohio: "It Is just what 
penman want, I would not do without it for 

G. T, Opiinger, Slatington, Pa,: "The Jour- 
nal is very Interesting. Just what we have 
long needed." 

A. D. Dewhurst, New Hartford, N. Y,: "i 
more than get my dollar's worth out of every 

J. B Cuudiir. New Orleans, La.: *' My admira- 
tion and delight augments with each succeeding 

e greatly, I \ 


S. M. Corson, Carroliton, 111.: "As an instr 
tor to the profession of penmanship It has 

J. Q. Overman, Pee Pee. Ohio: "It Is wo 
more to me than any other paper I ever read, 

Mr, E. Blackman, Wo-cester, Mass.: "Il 
cost double the money I would subscribe." 


, Coin 


who knows its value will be without 1' 
K, L. Boggs, Charleston, W, Va.:"J would 

not do witliout it for ten times its cost." 
G. R Kathbun, Omaha, Neb : "Your paper 



QuiNCY, Ill,.Dec. 1, 1H80 
Mr Ames: 

The Penman's Art Journal as a medium for 
advertising anything in the educational lino 
may be more fully appreciated when I tell you 
that the little complimentary notice you gave 
my new Practical Bookhccpino last summer, has 
been the means of selling over 130 copies of the 

I send you herewith a small " ad " which please 
Insert in Decembernumberof the Journal, and 
which DO doubt will be sufficient to sell olf the 
balance of the first edition. 

Very respectfully, 


Not responsible. 

It should he distinctly understood that thf^ 
oditurs of the Journal are not to be held as 
indorsing anything outside of its editorial 
columns ; all communications, not objec- 
tionahle in their character, or devoid of in- 
terest or merit, iire received and pubiisbcd; 
if any person differs, the coluiiuis are equally 
open to him to say so and tell why 

Now is the time to subscribe for thi' 
JoDRNAL, and begin with the new volume. 

Inclose ten cents for a specimen copy of 
the Journal. A single dime is a trifle, 
but when aggregated to thousands it is not 
a trifle. Again, you wish a copy of the 
Journal, which is of value to vou and 
a cost to us. The cost of a single copy "• 
you is a trifle, but the cost of many '-^ 
much to us. 




n the puiBfiAntneffl, the 

aentialnem. the quiddity of faAcinating, 
enchantirij^ and bewitching the rude, un- 
cultivated. tAwny denizen of the forest, or 
of iv.-diicing the adamaniine rock to a con- 
dition of utt4Tand conniiromatc liquidity, 
and, in addition theret" nnd niinultaneourt- exercittc the hereditary and indefeasi- 
ble prerogative of difflevering the con- 
glomerate alimentary particles which are 
thoconstituentjiof that luxuriant specimen 
of vegetation iwj highly appreciated when 
devotod to culinary pur[HMeH. the delicious 
aroma of n-hich. during the process of 
ebullition, so delights the olfactory nerves 
of all with Teut4)nic proclivitiefl, and which 
transc«ndH all in the gastronomic art when 
anHummg the form, the odoriferous noes and 
the ego of Sauerkraut, and which is also 
the pHeudonym applied, symbulicaliy, to 
th'it classification of the genus homo, vul- 
garly conceived to represent the fractional 
part of a man. 

The idea, which I have thuB l)eautifully 
elaborated, has been happily conveyed to 
us by the " Sweet Singer of Michigan '* in 
t\w following coupiet, the language of 
which, for terseness, combined with eu- 
plioniousness, flndx no parallel iuour lan- 
guage or anybody else's, to wit : — 

Not only is the marvelous statement 
with which I commonco this article strict- 
ly and literally true, but we also know that 
Orpheus tells us (through his liar) he fre- 
ipicntly pngiigt'd inanimate objects in live- 
ly Ti'i[>si< horeaii divertiflements. Nor is 
the nuigic find benign* influence of this 
divine gift shown in any less degree over 
man. Wherever music lends its cheerful, 
iuKpiring tones, there earthly paradise 
ri-igns, P»T»onn accustomed to singing or 
[tljiyinn an- Jihvayn actuated by the most 



to be reronh'd where, the least jealousy 
hittiTncss of fcvling has existed between 
tho«e who have devoted hut even a small 
portion of their time to this inevitably re- 
lliiing, ennobling and purifying pastime. 
And how generous and self sacrilicing its 
votaries become— how desirous that others 
instead of themselves shall be appointed 
to solo parUt, and how thoy are gratified 
by the applause given to others. Yea, 
verily, it is wonderful; yes, it is "real 

Now, if this be, I think every one of 
you should Kiraiglilway Pitch in on u large 
Scale, con anima, and not be such a Flat 
that some one more Sharp may cast a Slur 
upon you and say you remiud hiiu of drift- 
wood because you drag along the Bars. 
hut don't amount to a dam— from the 
Tenor of which remarks you may pro- 
nounce him Thorough Base, and will be 
inclined to show him the Leg-a-toie) move- 
ment, which in a 5leasure Iteats his Time, 
when of course it is Saturai that he should 
in a Staccato Tuovoment of his Staff, give 
exampleti of Che^t. Medium and Head 
ReHtjitiirs, when you will cry Hold, do 
not Da Capo; don't Duet ; and then he'll 

Vnur onko is ttnuoti. 

Wtihuut u 



8hould you desire to attain to such 
i-ollence as to be ansured against such 
lent demonstrations its 1 have just 
en. you will rvtjuire a long course of skill- 
ful training, with nn amount of energy to 
overcome the severest obstacles, and under 
the guidance of one fully that 
ehroumticisspellcd withc-h-r-o, instead of 
c-r-o-w,and that the chromatic scale should 
l>e »uny not raitNid. And of the leader or 
toacher it should not be said he or she 
" singa a /«ir airs and puts on a great 
many." And now. that I may not be con- 
sidervd a Beat, and that Harmony may 
prevail, 1 moke n«,> more Strains of Music, 
for I cannot Bracf utyself up to listen to 
the couuuand of indiguaut auditore, " Give 
us a Rest" 

Educational Notes. 

It is estimated thai the new dictionary 
of the English language, edited by Dr. 
Murray, of London, EuKland, will require 
at least seven thousana pages, consider- 
ably larger than those of Webster's or 
Worcester's IJDabridged, and will contain 
about five times as much matter. This 
work, toward which initial steps were first 
taken in IHTil, will yet require ten years, or 
more, for it*i completion, when it will be 
issued from the Clarendon Press. 

Tlie Province of Ontario has a fund for 
superannuated teachers. 

The Harvard Annex for Women now 
has al>out forty students. 

The educational world is becoming 
more and moreop[)osed to the exaltation of 
the natural sciences over a knowledge of 
languages, and especially over the litera- 
ture of one's own language. President 
Kobinson, of Rrown University, says :— 
" Valuable as may be the study of the nat- 
ural science-s, both as a means of mental 
discipline and as a source of most useful 
knowledge, no amount of such discipline 
and knowledge can ever compensate for 
the absence of that culture which linguistic 
studies can alone impart." This opinion, 
variously expressed by eminent scholars, 
is heartily endorsed by most of the educa- 
tional journals of the day. 

Several of our educational and other 
exchanges adopt or create what they con- 
sider a reform in spelling, but. as they 
usually act independently of all other?, 
considerable confusion is the result. Would 
it not be well for this array of independ- 
ent reformers to appoint a commander, 
or better still, a dictator, whose decision 
shall be absolute. Says the author of a lit- 
tle book upon this subject : " Were there a 
common and acknowledged authority to 
which printer, publisher, proof-reader and 
author could appeal, the eye, the pen, and 
the press would be relieved of much useless 
labor." '■ Common Sense," in the 2Vi6u»c, 
says ; " My advice to every one who gets a 
paper or magazine with all the most com- 
mon words lopped and docked into unfa- 
miliar and unsightly shapes, is to write the 
publisher—' Please stop my paper till you 
have learned to spell.'" 

It is related upon the authority of Mr. 
Solomon Hart, of the Royal Academy, that 
Sir Edwin Landseer Qould draw with both 
hands simultaneously, using each with 
equal facility, and delineating objects en- 
tirely dissimilar. At a large party assem- 
bled one evening at the house of a gentle- 
man of high rank in L#ondon were many 
la<lies and gentlemen of diatinction, who 
prevailed upon Sir Edward to favor them. 
With a pencil in either baud he drew with 
one the profile of a stag's head, with all its 
antlers complete, and with the other the 
perfect profile of a horse's head. Both were 
spirited drawings. 

A kind of writing paper is now manu- 
factured having a smooth surface, over 
which the pen glides easily, and the manu- 
script produced by writing with any writ- 
ing lluid immediately becomes intensely 

Qambetta pronounces 330 to 240 words 
a minute. Macaulay used to pronounce 
U30 words in a minute. 

James A. Uarfield wa& a member of the 
Delta Upsilon Fraternity at Williams; 
Chester A. Arthur a Psi Upsilon at Union 
College. — Amherst Student. 

There are over 7,000 Americans study- 
ing in theUerman schools and universities. 
The American consul at Wurtemburg esti- 
mates that ^-1,500.000 are thus annually 
expended by Americans in Germany. 

Salaries of teachers in the Province of 
(Quebec are miserably small. According to 
statistics furnished on the subject, there 
are 11^ male and 1,72:2 female teachers re- 
ceiving less than f 100 a year each ; 374 
mole and .2,544 female receiving from f^M) 
to iMOO each, and 210 male and 50 female 
receiving over $400 per annum. 

A very curious number is 142,857, which 
multiplied by 1,2.3,4,5 or Ogives the 
Mime ligurea in the same order, beginning 

t a dillerent point, but if multiplied by 7 

W3,857x2— 385,714 
143,857x»— 43«.571 
143,867x0— 857,142 
143,857x7- 99y,»99 

Multiply 143.857 by 8 and you have 1,- 
143,850. Then add the first figure to the 
last and you have 142,857, the original num- 

ber, with figures exactly the s 

sat the 

The accommodating nature and ca- 
pacity of the orthography that the savants 
of England and America are seeking to 
reform, are astonishingly illu*>trate(l in the 
number of different ways in which it is 
possible to spell thename of the artist who 
makes our clothes, the knight of the goo*e 
and shears : Tailor, taylor. talor, teignlor, 
thalor,thailor, tbaylor, phthalor. phthailor, 
phtbaylor, phtheighlor.tatleur, tayleur, ta- 
leur, thaleur, thaileur, thayleur, teighleur, 
phthaleur, phthaileur, phthayleur. phth- 
eighleur, talour, tailour, taylour. tbalour, 
thailour, thaylour, teighlour. phthailour, 

Kbtbaylour, phtheighlour, tailar, taller, tai- 
ir, tailyr, taylar, tayler, taylir. taylur. 
taylyr, teiehlar. teighler, teighlir, teignlur, 
teignlyr. tnalar. thaler, thalir. thalur, tha- 
lyr. phthalar, phthailar, phthaylar. phtha- 
ler, pbthalir,|pnthalur, phthalyr, phtnailir, 
phthailur, phthailyr. pbthaylir. phthaylur, 
phthaylyr. phtheighlar, phtheignler, phth- 
eighlir, phtneigblur. phtneighlyr, tbaylor, 
thayler, thaylir, thaylur, thaylyr. thailar. 
thader, thailir. thailur, thailyr, tailir, 
theighlar, theighler, theighlir, theigblor, 
theighlur. theigblyr, theighlour, theigh- 
leur. Ninety-six di£ferent ways, as worked 
out by Rev. Dr. Wentworth.— Troj/ ISmes. 

At Harvard the freshman class numbers 
220 ; at Yale 200 ; at Cornell 130 ; at Prince- 
ton 117 : at Amherst 90 ; at Dartmouth !)0 ; 
at Williams 75 ; at Hamilton 70 ; at Union 
63 ; at the University of California 43. 

The population of our globe, e.stimated 
at about thirteen hundred millions, is ruled 
by 12 emperors, 25 kings, 47 princes, 17 
sultans, 13 Khans, 6 grand dukes, 6 dukes, 1 
vice-king, 1 hisam.l rajah, 1 imam, 1 bey, 
and 38 presidents, besides a large number 
of Chiefs of wild tribes. 

Germany has 00,000 schools, attended 
by 6,000.000 pupils; her population num- 
bers 43.000.000. The school expenditure in 
that country averages a little less than 75 
cents per head of the population. England 
with a population of 34.000,000. has 58.000 
schools, attended by 3,000,000 pupils, and 
costing an average of 45 cents per head of 
the population. Austria- Hungary, with 
37,000.000 people, instructs 3,000,000 pupils 
in 30,000 schools, at an expense of about 40 
cenls per head of the population. France, 
with 37,000.000, has 71.000 schools and 4,- 
700,000 pupils, teaching them at an ex- 
pense of 38 cents. Spain, has 17.000.000 in- 
habitants, 20.000 schools, and 1.000,000 
pupUs, the expenditure averaging 32 cents 
per head of the population. Italy, with 
28.000,000 people, 47,000 schools and 1,900,- 
000 pupils, expends about 20 cents per head 
of the population. Russia, with 74,000.000 
of people, instructs 1,1000,000 pupils in 32- 
000 schools, at an average expenditure per 
head of the population of about 7 cents. — 
N. Y. Tribune. 

One of the most characteristic incidents 
of election-day, was the "keeping in" of 
one of the small boys of President-elect 
Garfield after the dismissal of the village 
scliool at Mentor, Ohio, for playing truant 
by hanging round the voting-stand. The 
schoolmistress and the schoolmaster are (he 
real president to whom the " ' small fry " in 
this country fail to report on peril. — N. E. 
Journal of Education. 

The Rev. Edward Everett Hale and 
others, of Boston, have formed a Sunday- 
school class of young men and ladies, to the 
number of twenty, for instruction in citi- 
zenship. Mr. Theodore Tyndale, a member 
of the Suffolk County Bar, is the teacher, 
and began on Sunday last by the delivery 
of a lecture on the formation of govern- 
ments in general, and democracies in par- 
ticular. Mr. Hale briefly stated his views 
regarding the appropriateness of pursuing 
such study on Sunday, advising the mem- 
bers of the class to provide themselves with 
note-books, and to participate unreservedly 
in the conversations which are to occupy 
the time of the " "' 


Is there a word in the English language 
that contains all the vowels';' There is, un- 

Professor : What are the constituents 
of quartz? Student: Pints. A bland smile 
creeps over the class. 

Professor : "Can you name the largest 
planet?" Student: "Saturn." Professor: 
"Saturn?" "Yes, sir, it carries the belt." 

Socrates sat down on a tack for which he 
liad been looking. — Boston Sun Budget. 

The penman who swings the big twist- 
ed-tailed capitals sometimes despises little 
commas and periods. — N. Y. Herald. 

A latin student not coming to class 
called upon by a friend. " What, 

sick ? 

What a paradoxical creature man is ! 
He takes to blotting-paper to keep from 
blotting paper 1 

Teacher: ."Spell chimney, Charley." 
Charley spells it correctly. Teacher: "Go 
up one." Charley : "I don't want to." 

Professor in Arithmetic (to small kid) : 
"What is the difference between one yard 
and two yards ?" Small boy : "A fence." 
(Dust raises.) 


port that Alice Gates is to be of- 
fered the po&ition of Professor of Hus- 
bandry at Cornell University lacks confirm- 
ation. — Syracuse Herald. 

At a recent examiuHtion in drawing, 
the question, "How do you make a Maltese 
cross? was proposed ; silence, broken by 
the voice of a youth who exclaimed, 

"Tread on her tail." 

A scholar who was kept in after school 
was lamenting to his mother about his 
misfortune. "You did not understan<l what 
the teacher said, I suppose," she said. "On 
the contrary," he replied, "the master 
could not understand what I wrote." 

The Senior Greek professor, in his lec- 
ture to the Juniors the other day, speaking 
of the marriage of Venus and Vulcan, re- 
marked that "the handsomest women gen- 
erally marry the homeliest men," add- 
ing grimly : There's encouragement for a 
great many of you." 

An student having made some pro- 
gress in acquiring a knowledge of Italian 
addi'essed a few words to an organ-grinder 
in his purest accent, but was astonished at 
receivmg the following response : "1 no 
speak Inglese." 

It is related that Webster and Clay 
were once standing on the steps of the Cap- 
itol when a drove of mules passed moving 
southward. "There comes some of your 
constituents, Mr. Webster," jokingly re- 
marked Clay. "Yes," replied Wehiiter, 
"they are going to Kentucky to teach 

"Nephew," asked a farmer, one day, 
"what is your rank in your class'/" "I am 
reality, you may 
se the one who is 
stupid, that he counts for 
nothing." "What I and you have the im- 
pudence to an- wer me thus?" "My dear 
uncle," replied the urchin, "if I were the 
first I should always be afraid of coming 
down ; I am much more tranquil as it is." 

A young woman of Cambridge, Mass., 
jealous of the honor of the students, on 
hearing of the late defeats of the Harvard 
nineat base-ball, remarked, reproachfully : 
"If the young gentlemen had paid t 

beaten.— jV. Y. Evening Post. 

Professor: "You will repeat the lesson 
on the battle of Bunker Hill." Student 
(after a long and painful silence) : "Please, 
sir. I can't." Professor (with a frown) : 
"Why not?" Student (timidly : "Because 
Iliavebeen deceived." Professor (aston- 
ished) : "In what way." Student (humbly : 
"I have always been told that history re- 
peats itself, and so I didn't trouble to 
study the lesson. — Rockland Courier. 

Fine Specimens Of Lettering and 
Rustic Work. 

We have remaining a few copies of the 
Garfield and Hancock campaign memori- 
als, which are elaborate and artistic de- 
signs of lettering, drawing, and ornamen- 
tation, with elegant borders of rustic and 
fern work. As specimens of artistic pen 
work they will be highly prized. A copy 
of either sent for ten cents ; both for fif- 
teen cents. 

The Chinese Letter Forgery. 

In the November number of the Jour- 
nal were given fac-similes of the forged 
Chinese cheap labor letter, at first alleged 
to have betn written by Gen. Garfield, 
and his letter denying its authorship. Ac- 
companying these fac-similes was a scien- 
tific examination and comparison of the 
two writings, plainly showing the Chinese 
letter to have been a forgery. A oopy 
sent for ten cents. 

Binders for the Journal. 
All who desire to preserve their JouR- 
NAi^ in a convenient form for study and 
reference can do m by using " The Com- 
mon-Sense Binder." It will contain at 
leant four volumee of them, in as conven- 
i-nt and perfect form as if bound in a 
book. It is both a tile and binder. Sent, 
post-paid, for $1.75. 

Extra Copies of the Journal 
will be sent free to teachers and othera 
who desire to make an effort to secure a 
club of subscribers. 


il per Tear. 



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gqi Bmadu-ay. New Yo rk. U. S. A- 


Volume IV of the JournaK 
With tlie present issue Volume Four of 
the Journal closes, aud it is with pleas- 
ure, not to say pride, that we are able to 
announce that it does so, with a subscrip- 
tion list nearly doubled since last year, 
and increasing more rapidly than ever be^ 
fore. "While it has not quite attained to 
thv fiftv f/totwandsubscribera which, one 
year since, we aakt-d its friends to aid us 
to secure, it has perhaps approximated as 
nearly as we had a right to expect, and 
Bufflciently so to lead us to hope that it 
may reach that figure before the end of 
the coming volume. That the interest 
taken in the Joitrnal by all classes of its 
subscribers has largely extended and in- 
tcnsiAed during the year past, has been 
strongly manifest ; clubs have largely in- 
creased in size and frequency— indeed, 

their magnitude has sometimes astonished 
us. Several single